Battle of Springfield (1780)
The Battle of Springfield was fought during the American Revolutionary War on June 23, 1780. After the Battle of Connecticut Farms, on June 7, 1780, had foiled Lieutenant General Wilhelm, Baron von Knyphausen’s expedition to attack General George Washington’s army at Morristown, New Jersey and Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton, British commander-in-chief in North America, decided upon a second attempt. Although the British were able to advance, they were forced to withdraw in the face of newly arriving rebel forces, resulting in a Continental victory; the battle ended British ambitions in New Jersey. A two-pronged assault was planned. Starting from Elizabethtown Point, one column would advance along the Galloping Hill Road, straight through Connecticut Farms and Springfield, while another column would take the Vauxhall Road north of Springfield along the southern edge of Short Hills. Both were heading for the same objective as on June 7: Hobart Gap, the path through the Watchung Mountains that would allow an advance across eleven miles of flat ground to Washington's main encampment at Morristown.
Clinton hoped that Washington would respond to Knyphausen's attack by bringing his main army round the northern tip of the Watchung Mountains west of Newark to hit Knyphausen's right flank. In anticipation of this response, Major General Alexander Leslie was dispatched up the Hudson with 6,000 men in order to prevent Washington from retiring behind the Watchung Mountains. Meanwhile, Major General James Robertson was to remain in reserve in Elizabethtown with five regiments to protect Knyphausen's rear against attack from militia and to reinforce Leslie if necessary. Knyphausen's corps comprised some 6,000 men. At Springfield and Elizabethtown, barring Knyphausen's path to Hobart Gap, Major General Nathanael Greene had 1,500 Continental troops and 500 New Jersey Militia. Greene's Continentals comprised Brigadier General William Maxwell’s New Jersey Brigade. At 5 a.m. on June 23, Knyphausen's force advanced for Elizabethtown Point, with the Queen's Rangers and the New Jersey Volunteers in the vanguard.
They overwhelmed the American outposts at Elizabethtown, capturing several men and three small cannons. Warned by retreating men, General Maxwell sent Colonel Elias Dayton’s 3rd New Jersey Regiment to guard the Galloping Hill Road and Henry Lee's 2nd Partisan Corps to the Vauxhall Road. Soon afterwards, the advancing Loyalist troops engaged Maxwell, who fell back toward Connecticut Farms with the rest of his brigade. Meanwhile, General Greene ordered the planking to be destroyed on the Vauxhall and Galloping Hill bridges over the Rahway River. Greene organized his left wing, into four successive lines of defense. Connecticut Farms was to be held by Colonel Dayton's 3rd New Jersey and some militia under Brigadier General Nathaniel Heard. Behind Dayton, Colonel Israel Angell with his 2nd Rhode Island Regiment, reduced by illness and expiring enlistments to only 160 men, was to defend the Galloping Hill Bridge. Behind Angell, at a bridge over the west branch of the Rahway, Greene positioned Colonel Israel Shreve and his 2nd New Jersey Regiment and, behind Shreve, Brigadier General Philemon Dickinson commanded a detachment of New Jersey Militia.
On the American right wing, Greene reinforced Major Lee and his 2nd Partisan Corps at the Vauxhall Bridge with Colonel Matthias Ogden and his 1st New Jersey Regiment. In reserve, at Bryan's Tavern up on the high ground of the Short Hills, Greene retained the rest of Maxwell's and Stark's brigades; the New Jersey Volunteers under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Barton, now approached Connecticut Farms and engaged Dayton's force, who were well positioned in an orchard and behind a thicket. Outnumbered more than two-to-one by the defenders, Barton's men made little progress. However, Lieutenant Colonel John Graves Simcoe with his Queen's Rangers outflanked the Americans on the left and attacked them from the rear. Dayton and Heard's men were swept away and Connecticut Farms was in British hands. Heard and some of his militiamen retired northward and reinforced the defenders of the Vauxhall Bridge. Knyphausen now diverted the Queen's Rangers, the New Jersey Volunteers, the Guards Battalion and most of his other British troops from the Galloping Hill Road northward to the Vauxhall Road, in the hope of outflanking the defenders of the Galloping Hill Bridge.
Meanwhile, Knyphausen himself advanced on the bridge with 3,000 men, comprising the British 37th and 38th regiments and most of the German troops. At the Galloping Hill Bridge, Knyphausen bombarded Colonel Angell's defenders with six cannons, which the Americans answered with their only available gun; as the American artillery ran low on wadding, James Caldwell, the Continental Army chaplain who had lost his wife during the Battle of Connecticut Farms, brought up a load of hymn books published by English clergyman Isaac Watts to use instead. “Give ‘em Watts, boys!”, he advised. After heavy exchanges of fire and two unsuccessful attempts to charge the bridge, the British 37th and 38th regiments and the H
New York and New Jersey campaign
The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of battles in 1776 and the winter months of 1777 for control of New York City and the state of New Jersey during the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir William Howe and the Continental Army under General George Washington. Howe was successful in driving Washington out of New York City, but overextended his reach into New Jersey, ended the active campaign season in January 1777 with only a few outposts near the city; the British held New York harbor for the rest of the war, using it as a base for expeditions against other targets. First landing unopposed on Staten Island on July 3, 1776, Howe assembled an army composed of elements, withdrawn from Boston in March following their failure to hold that city, combined with additional British troops, as well as Hessian troops hired from several German principalities. Washington had New England soldiers as well as regiments from states as far south as Virginia. Landing on Long Island in August, Howe defeated Washington in the largest battle of the war, but the Continental Army was able to make an orderly retreat to Manhattan under cover of darkness and fog.
Washington suffered a series of further defeats in Manhattan, with the exception of the skirmish at Harlem Heights, withdrew to White Plains, New York. At that point Howe returned to Manhattan to capture forces Washington had left in the north of the island. Washington and much of his army crossed the Hudson River into New Jersey, retreated all the way across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania, shrinking due to ending enlistment periods and poor morale. Howe ordered his troops into winter quarters in December, establishing a chain of outposts from New York to Burlington, New Jersey. Washington, in a tremendous boost to American morale, launched a successful strike against the Trenton garrison after crossing the icy Delaware River, prompting Howe to withdraw his chain of outposts back to New Brunswick and the coast near New York, while Washington established his winter camp at Morristown. During the remaining winter months, both sides skirmished as the British sought forage and provisions.
Britain maintained control of New York City and some of the surrounding territory until the war ended in 1783, using it as a base for operations elsewhere in North America. In 1777, General Howe launched a campaign to capture Philadelphia, leaving General Sir Henry Clinton in command of the New York area, while General John Burgoyne led an attempt to gain control of the Hudson River valley, moving south from Quebec and failed at Saratoga. Northern New Jersey was the scene of skirmishing between the opposing forces for the rest of the war; when the American Revolutionary War broke out in April 1775, British troops were under siege in Boston. They defeated Patriot forces in the Battle of Bunker Hill, suffering high casualties; when news of this expensive British victory reached London, General William Howe and Lord George Germain, the British official responsible, determined that a "decisive action" should be taken against New York City using forces recruited from throughout the British Empire as well as troops hired from small German states.
General George Washington named by the Second Continental Congress as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, echoed the sentiments of others that New York was "a post of infinite importance", began the task of organizing military companies in the New York area when he stopped there on his way to take command of the siege of Boston. In January 1776, Washington ordered Charles Lee to raise troops and take command of New York's defenses. Lee had made some progress on the city's defenses when word arrived in late March 1776 that the British army had left Boston after Washington threatened them from heights south of the city. Concerned that General Howe was sailing directly to New York, Washington hurried regiments from Boston, including General Israel Putnam, who commanded the troops until Washington himself arrived in mid-April. At the end of April, Washington dispatched General John Sullivan with six regiments to the north to bolster the faltering Quebec campaign. General Howe, rather than moving against New York, withdrew his army to Halifax, Nova Scotia, regrouped while transports full of British troops, shipped from bases around Europe and intended for New York, began gathering at Halifax.
In June, he set sail for New York with the 9,000 men assembled there, before all of the transports arrived. German troops from Hesse-Kassel, as well as British troops from Henry Clinton's unsuccessful expedition to the Carolinas, were to meet with Howe's fleet when it reached New York. General Howe's brother, Admiral Lord Howe, arrived at Halifax with further transports after the general sailed, followed; when General Howe arrived in the outer harbor of New York, the ships began sailing up the undefended Narrows between Staten Island and Long Island on July 2, started landing troops on the undefended shores of Staten Island that day. Washington learned from prisoners taken that Howe had landed 10,000 men, but was awaiting the arrival of another 15,000. General Washington, with a smaller army of about 19,000 effective troops, lacked significant intelligence on the British force and plans, was uncertain where in the New York area the Howes intended to strike, he split the Continental Army between fortified positions on Long Island and mainland locations, established a "Flying Camp" in northern New Jersey.
This was intended as a reserve force that could support operations anywhere along the New Jersey side of the Hudson. The Howe brothers had been granted authority as peace commissioners by Parliament, with limite
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Lancaster County locally, sometimes nicknamed the Garden Spot of America or Pennsylvania Dutch Country, is a county located in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 519,445, its county seat is Lancaster. Lancaster County comprises the Lancaster, Metropolitan Statistical Area and is a part of Philadelphia's Designated Media Market; the County of Lancaster is a popular tourist destination, with its Amish community a major attraction. The "Dutch" of Pennsylvania Dutch is the English form of Düütsch, the Low German cognate of Standard German Deutsch and Pennsylvania Dutch Deitsch; the ancestors of the Amish began to immigrate to colonial Pennsylvania in the early 18th century to take advantage of the religious freedom offered by William Penn. They were attracted by the area's rich soil and mild climate. Attracted to promises of religious freedom, French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution settled this area in 1710. There were significant numbers of English and Ulster Scots.
The area that became Lancaster County was part of William Penn's 1681 charter. John Kennerly received the first recorded deed from Penn in 1691. Although Matthias Kreider was said to have been in the area as early as 1691, there is no evidence that any Europeans settled in Lancaster County before 1710. Lancaster County was part of Chester County, Pennsylvania until May 10, 1729, when it was organized as colony's fourth county, it was named after the city of Lancaster in the county of Lancashire in England, the native home of John Wright, an early settler. As settlement increased, six other counties were subsequently formed from territory directly taken, in all or in part, from Lancaster County: Berks, Dauphin, Lebanon and York. Many other counties were in turn formed from these six. Indigenous peoples had occupied the areas along the waterways for thousands of years, established varying cultures. Historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter included the Shawnee, Gawanese and Nanticoke peoples, who were from different language families and had distinct cultures.
Among the earliest recorded inhabitants of the Susquehanna River valley were the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock, whose name was derived from the Lenape term for "Oyster River People". The English called them the Conestoga, after the name of their principal village, Gan'ochs'a'go'jat'ga, anglicized as "Conestoga." Other places occupied by the Susquehannock were Ka'ot'sch'ie'ra, where present-day Chickisalunga developed, Gasch'guch'sa, now called Conewago Falls, Lancaster County. Other Native tribes, as well as early European settlers, considered the Susquehannock a mighty nation, experts in war and trade, they were beaten only by the combined power of the Five Nation Iroquois Confederacy, after colonial Maryland withdrew its support. After 1675, the Susquehannock were absorbed by the Iroquois. A handful were settled at "New Conestoga," located along the south bank of the Conestoga River in Conestoga Township of the county, they helped staff an Iroquois consulate to the English in Virginia. By the 1720s, the colonists considered the Conestoga Indians as a "civilized" or "friendly tribe," having been converted in large part to Christianity, speaking English as a second language, making brooms and baskets for sale, naming children after their favorite neighbors.
The outbreak of Pontiac's War in the summer of 1763, coupled with the ineffective policies of the provincial government, aroused widespread settler suspicion and hatred against all Indians in the frontier counties, without distinguishing among hostile and friendly peoples. On December 14, 1763, the Paxton Boys, led by Matthew Smith and Capt. Lazarus Stewart, attacked Conestoga, killing the six Indians present, burning all the houses. Officials sheltered the tribe's fourteen survivors in protective custody in the county jail, but the Paxton Boys returned on December 27, broke into the jail, massacred the remaining natives; the lack of effective government control and widespread sympathy in the frontier counties for the murderers meant they were never discovered or brought to justice. Pennsylvania had a longstanding dispute with Maryland about the southern border of the province and Lancaster County. Nine years of armed clashes accompanied the Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute, which began soon after the 1730 establishment of Wright's Ferry across the Susquehanna River.
Lord Baltimore believed. This was the town of Willow Street, Pennsylvania; this line of demarcation would have resulted in Philadelphia's being included in Maryland. New settlers began to cross the Susquehanna. In 1730, the Wright's Ferry services were licensed and begun. Starting in mid-1730, Thomas Cresap, acting as an agent of Lord Baltimore, began confiscating the newly settled farms near present-day Peach Bottom and Columbia, Pennsylvania. Believing he controlled this land under his grant, Lord Baltimore wanted the income from the lands, he believed he had a defensible claim established on the west bank of the Susquehanna since 1721, that his demesne and grant
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry and tank forces. Known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress; the first military forces in history were infantry. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to firearms. By the time of Napoleonic warfare, infantry and artillery formed a basic triad of ground forces, though infantry remained the most numerous. With armoured warfare, armoured fighting vehicles have replaced the horses of cavalry, airpower has added a new dimension to ground combat, but infantry remains pivotal to all modern combined arms operations.
Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield. Infantry can more recognise and respond to local conditions and changing enemy weapons or tactics, they can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, can operate with a lower logistical burden. Infantry are the most delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport, they can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In English, use of the term infantry began about the 1570s, describing soldiers who march and fight on foot; the word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian infanteria, from Latin īnfāns, from which English gets infant. The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantrymen. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments.
Infantry equipped with special weapons were named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. These names can persist long after the weapon speciality. More in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, snipers and militia. Dragoons were created. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties. Conversely, starting about the mid-19th century, regular cavalry have been forced to spend more of their time dismounted in combat due to the ever-increasing effectiveness of enemy infantry firearms, thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, King's Royal Hussars. Motorised infantry have trucks and other unarmed vehicles for non-combat movement, but are still infantry since they leave their vehicles for any combat.
Most modern infantry have vehicle transport, to the point where infantry being motorised is assumed, the few exceptions might be identified as modern light infantry, or "leg infantry" colloquially. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers, providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles, which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks; some well-equipped mechanised infantry can be designated as armoured infantry. Given that infantry forces also have some tanks, given that most armoured forces have more mechanised infantry units than tank units in their organisation, the distinction between mechanised infantry and armour forces has blurred; the terms "infantry", "armour", "cavalry" used in the official names for military units like divisions, brigades, or regiments might be better understood as a description of their expected balance of defensive and mobility roles, rather than just use of vehicles.
Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry though they never had horses, to e
Berks County, Pennsylvania
Berks County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 411,442; the county seat is Reading. Berks County comprises the Reading, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area.. Reading developed during the 1740s when the inhabitants of northern Lancaster County sent several petitions requesting that a separate county be established. With the help of German immigrant Conrad Weiser, the county was formed on March 11, 1752, from parts of Chester County, Lancaster County, Philadelphia County, it was named after the English county in which William Penn's family home lay - Berkshire, abbreviated to Berks. Berks County began much larger; the northwestern parts of the county went to the founding of Northumberland County in 1772 and Schuylkill County in 1811, when it reached its current size. In 2005, Berks County was added to the Delaware Valley Planning Area due to a fast-growing population and close proximity to the other communities.
In 2016, former Strausstown borough merged with Upper Tulpehocken township. Strausstown is now a village within Upper Tulpehocken Township. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 866 square miles, of which 857 square miles is land and 9.2 square miles is water. Most of the county is drained by the Schuylkill River, but an area in the northeast is drained by the Lehigh River via the Little Lehigh Creek and areas are drained by the Susquehanna River via the Swatara Creek in the northwest and the Conestoga River in the extreme south, it has a humid continental climate and the hardiness zone is 6b with 6a in some higher areas and 7a along the Schuylkill in the SE part of the county. Schuylkill County Lehigh County Montgomery County Chester County Lancaster County Lebanon County Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site French Creek State Park As of the 2010 census, the county was 76.9% White non-Hispanic, 4.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 2.5% were two or more races.
16.4 % of the population was of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2010, there were 411,442 people, 154,356 households, 106,532 families residing in the county; the population density was 479 people per square mile. There were 164,827 housing units at an average density of 191.9 per square mile. was 76.9% White non-Hispanic, 4.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 2.5% were two or more races. 16.4 % of the population was of Latino ancestry. There was a large Pennsylvania Dutch population, it is known as part of Pennsylvania Dutch Country. According to Muninetguide, the median household income for Berks County, as of 2010, is $54,105. According to patchworknation.org Berks County is classified as a Monied'Burb. There were 154,356 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.1 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males. Berks County is home to an Old Order Mennonite community consisting of 136 families, located in the East Penn Valley near Kutztown and Fleetwood; the Old Order Mennonites first bought land in the area in 1949. In 2012, Old Order Mennonites bought two large farms in the Oley Valley; the Old Order Mennonites in the area belong to the Groffdale Conference Mennonite Church and use the horse and buggy as transportation. There are several farms in the area belonging to the Old Order Mennonite community and meetinghouses are located near Kutztown and Fleetwood; the United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Berks County as the Reading, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.
As of the 2010 U. S. Census the metropolitan area ranked 10th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 128th most populous in the United States with a population of 413,491. Berks County is a part of the larger Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area, which combines the populations of Berks County as well as several counties around Philadelphia and in the states of Delaware and New Jersey; the Combined Statistical Area is the largest in the State of Pennsylvania and 8th most populous in the United States with a population of 7,067,807. Christian Leinbach, Chair Republican Kevin Barnhardt, Vice Chair Democrat Mark C. Scott, Esq. Republican Clerk of Courts, James P. Troutman, Republican Controller, Sandy Graffius, Republican Coroner, Dennis J. Hess, Democrat District Attorney, John T. Adams, Democrat Prothonotary, Jonathan K. Del Collo, Republican Recorder of Deeds, Frederick Sheeler, Democrat Register of Wills, Larry J. Medaglia Jr. Republican Sheriff, Eric Weaknecht, Republican Treasurer, Dennis Adams, Republican Judy Schwank, Pennsylvania Senate, District 11 Bob Mensch, Pennsylvania Senate, District 24 Dave Argall, Pennsylvania Senate, District 29 Katie Muth, Dem
Battle of Princeton
The Battle of Princeton was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, fought near Princeton, New Jersey on January 3, 1777 and ending in a small victory for the Colonials. General Lord Cornwallis had left 1,400 British troops under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood in Princeton. Following a surprise attack at Trenton early in the morning of December 26, 1776, General George Washington of the Continental Army decided to attack the British in New Jersey before entering the winter quarters. On December 30, he crossed the Delaware River back into New Jersey, his troops followed on January 3, 1777. Washington advanced to Princeton by a back road, where he pushed back a smaller British force but had to retreat before Cornwallis arrived with reinforcements; the battles of Trenton and Princeton were a boost to the morale of the patriot cause, leading many recruits to join the Continental Army in the spring. After defeating the Hessians at the Battle of Trenton on the morning of December 26, 1776, Washington withdrew back to Pennsylvania.
He subsequently decided to attack the British forces before going into winter quarters. On December 29, he led his army back into Trenton. On the night of January 2, 1777, Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek; that night, he evacuated his position, circled around General Lord Cornwallis' army, went to attack the British garrison at Princeton. On January 3, Brigadier General Hugh Mercer of the Continental Army clashed with two regiments under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood of the British Army. Mercer and his troops were overrun, Mercer was mortally wounded. Washington sent a brigade of militia under Brigadier General John Cadwalader to help them; the militia, on seeing the flight of Mercer's men began to flee. Washington rallied the fleeing militia, he led the attack on Mawhood's troops, driving them back. Mawhood gave the order to retreat and most of the troops tried to flee to Cornwallis in Trenton. In Princeton itself, Brigadier General John Sullivan encouraged some British troops who had taken refuge in Nassau Hall to surrender, ending the battle.
After the battle, Washington moved his army to Morristown, with their third defeat in 10 days, the British evacuated southern New Jersey. With the victory at Princeton, morale rose in the American ranks and more men began to enlist in the army; the battle was the last major action of Washington's winter New Jersey campaign. On the night of December 25–26, 1776, General George Washington, Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, led 2,400 men across the Delaware River. After a nine-mile march, they seized the town of Trenton on the morning of the 26th, killing or wounding over 100 Hessians and capturing 900 more. Soon after capturing the town, Washington led the army back across the Delaware into Pennsylvania. On the 29th, Washington once again led the army across the river, established a defensive position at Trenton. On the 31st, Washington appealed to his men, whose enlistments expired at the end of the year, "Stay for just six more weeks for an extra bounty of ten dollars." His appeal worked, most of the men agreed to stay.
That day, Washington learned that Congress had voted to give him wide-ranging powers for six months that are described as dictatorial. In response to the loss at Trenton, General Lord Cornwallis left New York City and reassembled a British force of more than 9,000 at Princeton to oppose Washington. Leaving 1,200 men under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood at Princeton, Cornwallis left Princeton on January 2 in command of 8,000 men to attack Washington's army of 6,000 troops. Washington sent troops to skirmish with the approaching British to delay their advance, it was nightfall by the time the British reached Trenton. After three failed attempts to cross the bridge over the Assunpink Creek, beyond which were the primary American defenses, Cornwallis called off the attack until the next day. During the night, Washington called a council of war and asked his officers whether they should stand and fight, attempt to cross the river somewhere, or take the back roads to attack Princeton.
Although the idea had occurred to Washington, he learned from Arthur St. Clair and John Cadwalader that his plan to attack Princeton was indeed possible. Two intelligence collection efforts, both of which came to fruition at the end of December 1776, supported such a surprise attack. After consulting with his officers, they agreed. Washington ordered that the excess baggage be taken to Burlington where it could be sent to Pennsylvania; the ground had frozen. By midnight, the plan was complete, with the baggage on its way to Burlington and the guns wrapped in heavy cloth to stifle noise and prevent the British from learning of the evacuation. Washington left 500 men behind with two cannon to patrol, keep the fires burning, to work with picks and shovels to make the British think that they were digging in. Before dawn, these men were to join up with the main army. By 2:00 AM the entire army was in motion along Quaker Bridge Road through what is now Hamilton Township; the men were ordered to march with absolute silence.
Along the way, a rumor was spread that they were surrounded and some frightened militiamen fled for Philadelphia. The march was difficult, as some of the route ran through thick woods and it was icy, causing horses to slip, men to break through ice on ponds; as dawn came, the army approached. The road the army took followed Stony Brook for a mile farther until it intersected the Post Road from Trenton to Princeton
Edward Hand was an Irish-born soldier and politician who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, rising to the rank of general, was a member of several Pennsylvania governmental bodies. Hand was born in Clyduff, King's County, Ireland, on 31 December 1744, was baptised in Shinrone, his father was John Hand. Among his immediate neighbours were the Kearney family, ancestors of U. S. President Barack Obama, he was a descendant of either the families of Mag Fhlaithimh or Ó Flaithimhín who, through mistranslation, became Lavin or Hand. Hand earned a medical certificate from Dublin. In 1767, Hand enlisted as a Surgeon's Mate in the 18th Regiment of Foot. On 20 May 1767, he sailed with the regiment from Cobh, Ireland, arriving at Philadelphia on 11 July 1767. In 1772, he was commissioned an ensign, he marched with the regiment to Fort Pitt, on the forks of the Ohio River, returning to Philadelphia in 1774, where he resigned his commission. In 1774, Hand moved to Lancaster, where he practiced medicine.
On 13 March 1775, he married Catherine Ewing. Lancaster was the region of some of Scots-Irish settlements in Pennsylvania. Hand was active in forming a colonial militia. Hand was a 32nd degree Freemason, belonging to the Montgomery Military Lodge number 14, he entered the Continental Army as a lieutenant colonel in the Pennsylvania Line. He crossed the Delaware River with George Washington, he was commanded the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment. He was promoted to brigadier general in 1777 and served as the commander of Fort Pitt, fighting British loyalist and their Indian allies, he was recalled, after over two years at Fort Pitt, to serve as a brigade commander in Major General La Fayette's division. In 1778, Hand attacked the neutral Lenape, killing Captain Pipe's mother, a few of his children during a military campaign. Failing to distinguish among the Native American groups, Hand had attacked the neutral Lenape while trying to reduce the Indian threat to settlers in the Ohio Country, because other tribes, such as the Shawnee, had allied with the British.
After a few months, he was appointed Adjutant General of the Continental Army and served during the siege of Yorktown in that capacity. In recognition of his long and distinguished service, he was, in September 1783, promoted by brevet to major general, he resigned from the Army in November 1783. Hand resumed the practice of medicine. A Federalist, Hand was active in civil affairs, holding posts that included: Chief Burgess of Lancaster Presidential elector Delegate to the convention for the 1790 Pennsylvania Constitution Member of the Congress of the Confederation, 1784–1785 Member of the Pennsylvania Assembly, 1785–1786Beginning in 1785, he owned and operated Rock Ford plantation, a 177-acre farm on the banks of the Conestoga River, one mile south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania; the Georgian brick mansion remains today. Hand is suspected to have died from typhoid, dysentery or pneumonia at Rock Ford in 1802. Medical records are unclear. There is no evidence Lancaster County suffered from a cholera epidemic in 1802.
Hand is buried in St. James's Episcopal Cemetery in Lancaster, the same church where he had served as a deacon. Hand’s congressional biography "Edward Hand". Find a Grave. Retrieved 17 May 2009. Rock Ford Plantation The Edward Hand papers, which cover Hand's military career during the 1770s and 1780s, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania