Minister of Defence (Soviet Union)
The Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union refers to the head of the Ministry of Defence, responsible for defence of the communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 to 1922 and the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991. College of War Ministry of War of the Russian Empire List of heads of the military of Imperial Russia Ministry of Defence Ministry of Defence General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Chief of the General Staff
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic, it was under the de facto control of Japan. The area, collectively known as Manchuria, was the homeland of the Manchus, including the emperors of the Qing dynasty. In 1931, the region was seized by Japan following the Mukden Incident and a pro-Japanese government was installed one year with Puyi, the last Qing emperor, as the nominal regent and emperor. Manchukuo's government was dissolved in 1945 after the surrender of Imperial Japan at the end of World War II; the territories formally claimed by the puppet state were first seized in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945, formally transferred to Chinese administration in the following year. Manchus formed a minority in Manchukuo; the population of Koreans increased during the Manchukuo period, there were Japanese, White Army Russians and other minorities. The Mongol regions of western Manchukuo were ruled under a different system in acknowledgement of the Mongolian traditions there.
The southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula was ruled by Japan as the Kwantung Leased Territory. "Manchuria" is a transcription of the Japanese reading of the Chinese word "滿洲" which means Manchuria, which in Japanese is Manshū, which in turn dates from the 19th century. The name Manzhou was coined and given to the Jurchen people by Hong Taiji in 1635 as a new name for their ethnic group. However, the name "Manchuria" was never used by the Manchus or the Qing dynasty itself to refer to their homeland, the name itself holding imperialistic connotation. According to the Japanese scholar Junko Miyawaki-Okada, the Japanese geographer Takahashi Kageyasu was the first to use the term 满洲 as a place name in 1809 in the Nippon Henkai Ryakuzu, it was from that work where Westerners adopted the name. According to Mark C. Elliott, Katsuragawa Hoshū's 1794 work, the Hokusa bunryaku, was where 满洲 first appeared as a place name, in two maps included in the work: "Ashia zenzu" and "Chikyū hankyū sōzu" which were created by Katsuragawa.
满洲 began to appear as a place names in more maps created by Japanese like Kondi Jūzō, Takahashi Kageyasu, Baba Sadayoshi and Yamada Ren. These maps were brought to Europe by a German in Dutch service. According to Nakami Tatsuo, Siebold was the one who brought the usage of the term Manchuria to Europeans, after borrowing it from the Japanese, who were the first to use it in a geographic manner in the eighteenth century, while neither the Manchu nor Chinese languages had a term in their own language equivalent to "Manchuria" as a geographic place name. According to Bill Sewell, it was Europeans who first started using Manchuria as a name to refer to the location and it is "not a genuine geographic term"; the historian Gavan McCormack agreed with Robert H. G. Lee's statement that "The term Manchuria or Man-chou is a modern creation used by westerners and Japanese", with McCormack writing that the term Manchuria is imperialistic in nature and has no "precise meaning", since the Japanese deliberately promoted the use of "Manchuria" as a geographic name to promote its separation from China while they were setting up their puppet state of Manchukuo.
Of the initial high level officials employed by the Manchukuo regime, few had ethnic Manchu names. In mainland China, Manchukuo is known as "Puppet/False/Pretend Manchukuo", stressing the Japanese influence on the state's existence and the illegitimacy of the state. During its short-lived existence, Manchukuo was divided into between five and 19 provinces, one special ward of Beiman and two Special cities which were Xinjing and Harbin; each province was divided into between 24 prefectures. Beiman lasted less than 3 years and Harbin was incorporated into Binjiang province. Longjiang existed as a province in the 1932 before being divided into Heihe and Sanjiang in 1934. Andong and Jinzhou provinces separated themselves from Fengtian while Binjiang and Jiandao from Jilin separated themselves in the same year. Aside from the national flag, the orchid Puyi's favorite flower, became the royal flower of the country, similar to the chrysanthemum in Japan; the sorghum flower became a national flower by decree in April 1933.
"Five Races Under One Union" was used as a national motto. The Japanese had their own motive for deliberately spreading the usage of the term Manchuria; the historian Norman Smith wrote that "The term "Manchuria" is controversial". Professor Mariko Asano Tamanoi said that she "should use the term in quotation marks", when referring to Manchuria. Herbert Giles wrote that "Manchuria" was unknown to the Manchus themselves as a geographical expression. In his doctoral thesis of 2012, Professor Chad D. Garcia noted that usage of the term "Manchuria" was out of favor in "current scholarly practice" and preferred the term "the northeast"; the Qing dynasty, which replaced the Shun and Ming dynasties in China, was founded by Manchus from Manchuria. The Manchu emperors separated their homeland in Jilin and Heilongjiang from the Han Liaoning province with the Willow Palisade; this ethnic division continued until the Qing dynasty encouraged massive immigration of Han in the 19th century during Chuang Guandong to p
Markian Mikhaylovich Popov was a Soviet military commander, Army General, Hero of the Soviet Union. During the German–Soviet War at various times he commanded a number of Armies and a number of Fronts, his career was uneven. In June 1941 he was Commander of the Leningrad Military District Northern Front; the Germans advanced with a terrific speed, but they were halted just before Leningrad. The army group was on 26 August renamed as Leningrad Front, he participated in Zhukov's counteroffensive before Moscow. Zhukov, who co-ordinated several fronts in this Moscow sector, tried to collect able commanders in the area. So for example the 16th Army was headed by General Rokossovsky, the 4th Shock Army’s commander was General Yeryomenko, the 5th Army was under General Govorov. On December 18 Popov was appointed Commander of the 61st Army and fought well during the counteroffensive, he maintained this position until 28 June 1942. He was shifted to the Stalingrad area, he was Assistant Commander of the Stalingrad Front Commander of the 5th Shock Army.
On December 26 this army was switched to Vatutin's Southwestern Front. In 1943 firstly he commanded a larger mechanized group, he was appointed Commander of the Bryansk Front, with which he participated in the Battle of Kursk. During the battle, the Bryansk Front was successful in crushing German opposition, was able to capture Oryol and Bryansk in August, he was promoted to Army General. After the Battle of Kursk he was sent to command the 2nd Baltic Front, he was demoted to Colonel General because of the unsuccessful actions in the Baltic area, commissar at the front. Until the end of the war he was Chief of Staff of the Leningrad Front. After the war he was promoted again to Army General. In 1956–62 he was Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Ground Forces, he died 22 April 1969 in an accidental fire. He was never given the rank Marshal of the Soviet Union, although Marshal of Aviation Golovanov and Marshal Vasilevsky considered him talented. Page from warheroes.ru in Russian Army Gen. M. M. Popov at Generals.dk
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove
Belogorsk, Amur Oblast
Belogorsk is a town in Amur Oblast, located on the Tom River, a tributary of the Zeya. Population: 68,249 ; the town was included in a list of towns at risk of social problems, including poverty and corruption. It was known as Alexandrovskoye, Krasnopartizansk, Kuybyshevka Vostochnaya; the selo of Alexandrovskoye was founded in 1860 by the settlers from the European part of Russia. In 1893, the selo of Bochkaryovka appeared nearby; the two localities grew with the construction of a station on the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1913, by 1923 Alexandrovskoye and Bochkarevka merged and were transformed into Alexandrovsk. Town status was granted to Alexandrovsk in 1926. In 1931, it was renamed Krasnopartizansk in 1935, Kuybyshevka-Vostochnaya, to commemorate the Soviet statesman Valerian Kuybyshev. In 1957 to reduce the number of localities named after Kuybyshev, the town was given its present name. While the literal meaning of the name is white mountains, the reasons for renaming are unclear, as the town stands on a plain with no "white mountains" anywhere in the vicinity.
It is possible, that the name was due to the whitish color of the quartz sands of the bluffs on the Tom River, or that it was allegorical, with the meaning of a white town. Belogorsk saw a record high temperature for Asian Russia at 42.3 °C on 25 June 2010. This record was beaten two days in Ust-Karsk. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Belogorsk serves as the administrative center of Belogorsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is, together with one rural locality, incorporated separately as Belogorsk Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status. Belogorsk is a center for food production, as well as construction products; the town is home to important military elements of the Eastern Military District the headquarters of the 35th Army and the 21st Guards Motor Rifle Division. Nearby is the Ukrainka air base, home to elements of Long Range Aviation.
Sergei Chukhray, Soviet sprint canoer Svetlana Klyuka, Russian middle distance runner Victor Nechayev, professional ice hockey player Valeriy Priyomykhov and Russian actor, film director and author Andrey Shary, Russian journalist and author Амурский областной Совет народных депутатов. Закон №127-ОЗ от 23 декабря 2005 г. «О порядке решения вопросов административно-территориального устройства Амурской области», в ред. Закона №272-ОЗ от 11 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Амурской области "О порядке решения вопросов административно-территориального устройства Амурской области"». Вступил в силу со дня первого официального опубликования, за исключением подпункта "б" пункта 2 статьи 7, вступающего в силу с 1 января 2006 г. Опубликован: "Амурская правда", №11, 24 января 2006 г.. Амурский областной Совет народных депутатов. Закон №423-ОЗ от 21 января 2005 г. «О наделении муниципального образования города Белогорск статусом городского округа и об установлении его границ». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня первого официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Амурская правда", №17–18, 25 января 2005 г.. Амурский областной Совет народных депутатов. Закон №419-ОЗ от 19 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Белогорского района и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Закона №356-ОЗ от 6 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении Томичевского и Успеновского сельсоветов в Белогорском районе и о внесении изменений в Закон Амурской области "Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Белогорского района и муниципальных образований в его составе"». Вступил в силу со дня первого официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Амурская правда", №15–16, 22 января 2005 г.. Е. М. Поспелов. "Имена городов: вчера и сегодня. Топонимический словарь." (City Names: Yesterday and Today. Toponymic Dictionary." Москва, "Русские словари", 1993
Pacific Fleet (Russia)
The Pacific Fleet is the Russian Navy fleet in the Pacific Ocean. Established in 1731 as part of the Imperial Russian Navy, the fleet was known as the Okhotsk Military Flotilla and Siberian Military Flotilla, formed to defend Russian interests in the Russian Far East region along the Pacific coast. In 1918 the fleet was inherited by the Russian SFSR the Soviet Union in 1922 as part of the Soviet Navy, being reformed several times before being disbanded in 1926. In 1932 it was re-established as the Pacific Fleet, was known as the Red Banner Pacific Fleet after World War II as it had earned the Order of the Red Banner. In the Soviet years, the fleet was responsible for the Soviet Navy's operations in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Red Banner Pacific Fleet was inherited by the Russian Federation as part of the Russian Navy and its current name was adopted; the Pacific Fleet's headquarters is located in Vladivostok, with numerous facilities within the Peter the Great Gulf in Primorsky Krai, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vilyuchinsk in Avacha Bay on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Kamchatka Krai.
Following the APEC Russia 2012 summit, it was announced that the main naval base of the Pacific Fleet in the Russian Far East will be moved to the town of Fokino, Primorsky Krai. The current commander is Admiral Sergei Avakyants, who has held the position since May 2012. In 1731, the Imperial Russian Navy created the Okhotsk Military Flotilla under its first commander, Grigoriy Skornyakov-Pisarev, to patrol and transport government goods to and from Kamchatka. In 1799, 3 frigates and 3 smaller ships were sent to Okhotsk under the command of Rear-Admiral I. Fomin to form a functioning military flotilla. In 1849, Petropavlovsk-na-Kamchatke became the Flotilla's principal base, which a year would be transferred to Nikolayevsk-on-Amur and to Vladivostok in 1871. In 1854, the men of the Flotilla distinguished themselves in the defense of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy during the Crimean War. In 1856, the Okhotsk Military Flotilla changed its name to the "Siberian Military Flotilla". In 1860, the provisions of the Convention of Peking ceded parts of Outer Manchuria in northeastern China, including the modern day Primorsky Krai to the Russian Empire.
A large squadron under Rear Admiral A. A. Popov was sent from the Baltic Fleet to the Pacific Ocean. During the American Civil War ships of the squadron visited San Francisco while the Baltic Fleet visited New York City. Parts of the squadron, including the Finnish corvette Kalevala, returned to the Baltic in 1865. At the turn of the 19th century, the Flotilla was still small in numbers. Owing to a gradual deterioration in Russo-Japanese relations, the Imperial Russian government adopted a special shipbuilding program to meet the needs of the Russian Far East region, but its execution dragged on and in addition there were several clashes and defeats between Russian and Imperial Japanese Navy vessels. In response, the Naval headquarters in St. Petersburg ordered the Baltic Fleet to the Pacific to reinforce Russian naval forces the Pacific Squadron on the east coast of Asia and its naval base at Port Arthur. By the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, Imperial Russian naval forces in the Far East consisted of the 1st Pacific Squadron and a number of ships from the "Siberian Military Flotilla", based in Port Arthur.
Other ships of the "Siberian Military Flotilla" were stationed in Vladivostok. During the Russo-Japanese War, most of the Russian Navy in the Pacific was destroyed; the Russian Baltic Fleet under Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky, renamed the Second Pacific Squadron, was defeated at the Battle of Tsushima. During the Russian Revolution of 1905, the sailors of the Pacific Fleet were engaged in the revolutionary movement, participating in armed revolts in Vladivostok in January 1906 and October 1907. During the October Revolution of 1917, the sailors of the Siberian and Amur military flotillas fought for the establishment of Soviet authority in the Far East and against the White army and interventionists. During the Russian Civil War all of the ships of the Pacific Fleet were seized by the White army and the Japanese. After the departure of the interventionists in 1922, the Soviets created the Naval Forces of the Far East, under commander Ivan Kozhanov, as a part of the Vladivostok unit, the Amur Military Flotilla.
In 1926, these were disbanded: the Vladivostok unit was transferred to the command of the frontier troops in the Far East, the Amur flotilla became a flotilla of its own. Owing to Japanese aggression in Manchuria in 1931, the Central Committee and the Soviet government decided to create the Naval Forces in the Far East on 13 April 1932. In January 1935, they were renamed the Pacific Fleet, under commander M. Viktorov; the creation of the fleet entailed great difficulties. The first units were formed with small ships delivered by railroad. In 1932, the torpedo boat squadron and eight submarines were put into service. In 1934, the Pacific Fleet received 26 small submarines; the creation of the naval aviation and coastal artillery was underway. In 1937, they opened the Pacific Military School. By the beginning of World War II, the Pacific Fleet had two surface ship subdivisions, four submarine subdivisions, one torpedo boat subdivision, a few squadrons of ships and
25th Army (Soviet Union)
The 25th Army was a Red Army field army of World War II that served in the Russian Far East. Formed in June 1941, the 25th Army did not see combat until the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945, when it advanced into northern Korea. After World War II it was responsible for the Soviet Civil Administration in the northern Korean Peninsula, helped establish a Communist state in North Korea under the rule of Kim Il-Sung; the army remained in North Korea until it was withdrawn in 1948, was stationed in Primorsky Krai until its 1957 disbandment. It was formed in the Soviet Far East Front on the basis of the headquarters of the 43rd Rifle Corps on 20 June 1941 in accordance with an order of 8 March. Headquartered at Voroshilov, it was commanded by Lieutenant General Filipp Parusinov; the army comprised 39th Rifle Corps with 32nd Rifle Division, 40th, 92nd Rifle Divisions, as well as the 105th Rifle Division and the 106th, 107th, 108th, 110th, 111th Fortified Areas as Army troops. The army was responsible for defending the border in Primorsky Krai.
On 10 August 1943, the army became part of the Maritime Group of Forces, which on 20 April 1945 became part of the Far Eastern Front, was soon directly subordinated to the Stavka. In June, Colonel General Ivan Chistyakov took command of the army. On 5 August, the army became part of the 1st Far East Front, redesignated from the Maritime Group of Forces in preparation for the Soviet invasion of Manchuria. At the time, the 393rd Rifle Division and the 7th and 113th Fortified Areas were in the army's direct subordination. By the beginning of the invasion on 9 August, the army included the 39th Rifle Corps with the 40th, the 384th, the 386th Rifle Divisions, the 393rd Rifle Division, the 7th, 106th, 107th, 108th, 110th, 111th, the 113th Fortified Areas. During the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, the army fought in the Harbin-Kirin Offensive. By the end of 10 August the army overcame Japanese resistance to capture the Dongning, Dongxin-zhen, the Hunchun fortified areas, cut the Dongning-Tumyntsa-Hunchun road, advanced through Japanese defenses to a depth of 15 kilometres to 20 kilometres.
On 11 August, the 25th Army captured Laoheishan and Hunchun, on the next day captured the ports of Unggi and Rason on the east coast of Korea alongside landing forces of the Pacific Fleet. As a result of its advances, the army received the 5th Army's 17th Rifle Corps and the 88th Rifle Division and 10th Mechanized Corps from front reserve. With the reinforcements, the army received a new task: to advance south and cut the communications between Japanese troops in Korea and those in Manchuria, in cooperation with the Pacific Fleet landing forces, to capture ports on the east coast of Korea. In fulfilling this task, the army defeated parts of the Japanese 3rd and 34th Armies and captured Wangqing on 15 August, Chongjin on 16 August and Yanji on 17 August, among others. Between 18 and 20 August, the army disarmed surrendered Japanese troops, was redeployed to the Pyongyang area at the end of the month; the army's headquarters was established at Pyongyang on 26 August after Chistyakov rejected the option of Hamhung on the previous day after the 25th Army was given the task of occupying what would become North Korea.
The location of the 25th Army's headquarters in Pyongyang determined the location of the future North Korean capital. After the end of the war with Japan it included 39th Rifle Corps and 88th Rifle Corps and 8 fortified regions but they were all reorganised in 1946 into machine-gun artillery divisions. There were the 72nd, 76th, 218th, 259th Tank Brigades. On 1 October, the army became part of the Primorsky Military District; the two corps were disbanded in August 1946 and 65th Rifle Corps was transferred to the 25th Army from the 5th Army. The division of Korea between the United States and the Soviet Union after the defeat of Japan had been agreed to at the Tehran Conference in 1943; the 25th Army served as the occupation force in north of the 38th parallel while the U. S. Army Military Government in Korea was established in the south. Under the Soviet Civil Administration the 25th Army helped place Kim Il-Sung and the Korean Workers' Party into power, they assisted with the purges of former collaborators, businessmen and religious leaders.
These people would either flee to the future South Korea or would be banished or imprisoned in the Hamgyong Province. In late 1948, the army was withdrawn from North Korea and stationed in southern Primorsky Krai on the Korean and Chinese borders, as well as on the Peter the Great Gulf coast, its headquarters was located in Shkotovo. In March 1953 the army included the 9th, 10th, 21st, 24th Machine-Gun Artillery Divisions; the 10th Mechanized Division had become part of the 65th Rifle Corps by this time, the 40th Rifle Division was directly subordinated to the army. In April 1953, the Primorsky Military District was disbanded, the army became part of the Far Eastern Military District; the army's last commander was Lieutenant General Ivan Rubanyuk, who assumed command on 18 May 1953. The 65th Rifle Corps and its divisions were disbanded in the summer of 1956 and the remaining 25th Army rifle divisions became motor rifle divisions in the spring of 1957. On 1 May, the army included the 40th, 84th, 147th, the 148th Motor Rifle Divisions.
In December 1957, the army was disbanded and its remaining divisions transferred to the 5th Army. The 84th, 147th, 148th Divisions were disbanded along with the 25th Ar