2nd Belorussian Front
The 2nd Belorussian Front was a military formation, of Army group size, of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. Soviet army groups were known as Fronts; the 2nd Belorussian Front was created in February 1944 as the Soviets pushed the Germans back towards Byelorussia. General Colonel Pavel Kurochkin became its first commander. In hiatus in April 1944, its headquarters was reformed from the army headquarters of the disbanding 10th Army. On 2 January 1944 2BF entered the former Polish territories. On 26 June 1944 the Front's forces captured Mogilev in the Mogilev Offensive. On 4 July, 2BF was tasked with mopping up the remains of Army Group Centre's Fourth Army under the command of General von Tippelskirch and the remains of the Ninth Army in a large pocket southeast of Minsk. On 9 July The 2BF attacks northwest from Vitebsk as part of a major Soviet offensive east of Riga towards Rezekne in order to cut off the German Army Group North. On 29 July Soviets reach the coast cutting Army Group North off in Eastern Latvia.
On 13 September 2BF captured Łomża, west of Białystok. In November 1944 Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky was appointed commander of 2BF just in time for its last two great offensives of World War II; as part of a massive attack by four Fronts on 14 January 1945 2BF attacked East Prussia and Pomerania. 27th July 1944 Liberation of Bialystok 10 January 2BF attacked towards Neustett but was halted by German counterattacks. 14 January 2BF attacks East Prussia. 24 January 1st and 2nd Belorussian Fronts attack in Pomerania. German Second Army cut off. 27 February Elements of the 2BF enter. 5 March The fortress city of Graudenz on the Vistula surrenders to troops of the 2BF 10 March 2BF captures Zoppot 13 March 2BF launches an offensive against the Braunsberg pocket south of Königsberg 18 March 1st Polish Army of the 2BF captured the fortress city of Kolberg 23 March 2BF attacked the German II Army in the Danzig area. 30 March Soviet troops capture Danzig, 20 April 2BF offensive across the lower Oder towards Neubrandenburg and Rostock.
25 April 2BF, seized a large bridgehead on the Oder River south of Stettin forcing the centre of the III Panzer Army back to Prenzlau. 26 April 2BF takes Stettin. 27 April 2BF captures Prenzlau and Angermünde 70 km northwest of Berlin 5 May elements of the 2BF entered Peenemunde. On 9 April 1945 Königsberg in East Prussia fell to the Red Army; this freed up 2BF to move west to the east bank of the Oder river. During the first two weeks of April the Soviets performed their fastest Front redeployment of the war. General Georgy Zhukov concentrated his 1st Belorussian Front, deployed along the Oder river from Frankfurt in the south to the Baltic, into an area in front of the Seelow Heights; the 2BF moved into the positions being vacated by the 1BF north of the Seelow Heights. While this redeployment was in progress gaps were left in the lines and the remnants of the German II Army, bottled up in a pocket near Danzig managed to escape across the Oder. In the early hours on 16 April the final offensive of the war to capture Berlin and link up with Western Allied forces on the Elbe started with attacks by 1BF and To the south General Konev's 1st Ukrainian Front.
On 20 April the 2BF join in the attack. By 25 April 2BF broke out of its bridge head south of Stettin and had by the end of the war captured all of Germany north of Berlin as far west as the front lines of the British 21 Army Group which had advanced over the river Elbe in some places. In Demmin on and around 1 May 1945 members of the 65th Army of 2nd Belorussian Front first broke into a distillery and rampaged through the town, committing mass rapes, arbitrarily executing civilians, setting fire to buildings; the Headquarters of the 2nd Byelorussian Front become the Headquarters of the Northern Group of Forces, the Soviet occupation force in Poland, effective on 10 June 1945. Most of the NGF's forces were drawn from 2nd Belorussian Front, along with some elements of the 1st Byelorussian and 1st Ukrainian Fronts; the Armies that were part of the 2nd Belorussian Front included: 2nd Shock Army 19th Army 49th Army 50th Army 65th Army 70th Army 5th Guards Tank Army 4th Air Army Antill, P. Battle for Berlin: April – May 1945, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_berlin.html
Brest Brest-Litowsk, is a city in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet. It is the capital city of the Brest Region; the city of Brest is a historic site of many cultures. It was the location of important historical events such as the Union of Brest and Treaty of Brest-Litovsk; the Brest Fortress was recognized by the Soviet Union as the Hero Fortress in honor of the defense of Brest Fortress in June 1941. During medieval times, the city was part of the Kingdom of Poland from 1020 until 1319 when it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. As a result of the Partitions of Poland, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1795. After World War I, the city returned to Second Polish Republic. During the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 the city was first captured by the Wehrmacht and soon passed on to the USSR in accordance with German–Soviet Frontier Treaty.
In 1941 it was taken again by the Nazis during Operation Barbarossa. After the war, once the new boundaries between the USSR and Poland were ratified, the city became part of the Belarusian SSR and as such was part of the Soviet Union until the breakup of the USSR in 1991. Brest is now a part of an independent Belarus. Several theories attempt to explain the origin of the city's name, it may have come from the Slavic root beresta meaning "birch", or "bark". The name could originate from the Slavic root berest meaning "elm". Or it could have come from the Lithuanian word brasta meaning "ford". Once a center of Jewish scholarship, the city has the Yiddish name בריסק, hence the term "Brisker" used to describe followers of the influential Soloveitchik family of rabbis. Traditionally, Belarusian-speakers called the city Берасце. Brest became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1319. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth formed in 1569 the town became known in Polish as Brześć Brześć Litewski. Brześć became part of the Russian Empire under the name Brest-Litovsk or Brest-Litovskii in the course of the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795.
After World War I, the rebirth of Poland in 1918, the government of the Second Polish Republic renamed the city as Brześć nad Bugiem on March 20, 1923. After World War II the city became part of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic with the name simplified as Brest. Brest's coat of arms, adopted on January 26, 1991, features an arrow pointed upwards and a bow on a sky-blue shield. An alternative coat of arms has a red shield. Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, first granted Brest a coat of arms in 1554; the city was founded by the Slavs. As a town, Brest – Berestye in Kievan Rus – was first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle in 1019 when the Kievan Rus took the stronghold from the Poles, it is one of the oldest cities in Belarus. It was hotly contested between the Polish rulers and Kievan Rus princes, laid waste by the Mongols in 1241, was not rebuilt until 1275, it was part of the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1390 Brest became the first city in the lands that now comprise Belarus to receive Magdeburg rights.
Its suburbs were burned by the Teutonic Knights in 1379. In 1409 it was a meeting place of King Władysław II Jagiełło, duke Vytautas and Tatar khan under the archbishop Mikołaj Trąba initiative, to prepare for war with the Teutonic Knights. In 1410 the town mustered a cavalry company that participated in the Polish-Lithuanian victory at the battle of Grunwald. In 1419 it become a seat of the starost in the newly created Trakai Voivodeship. In 1500 it was burned again by Crimean Tatars. In 1566, following king Sigismund II Augustus decree, a new voivodeship was created - Brest Litovsk Voivodeship. After it became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569, it was renamed Brest-Litovsk. During the period of the union of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden under king Sigismund III Vasa, diets were held there. In 1594 and 1596 it was the meeting-place of two remarkable councils of regional bishops of the Roman-Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church; the 1596 council established the Uniate Church.
In 1657, again in 1706, the town and castle were captured by the Swedes during their invasions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In an attack from the other direction, on January 13, 1660 the invading Muscovite Russian army under Ivan Andreyevich Khovansky took the Brest Castle in a surprise early morning attack, the town having been captured earlier, massacred the 1,700 defenders and their families. On July 23, 1792 a battle was fought between the regiments of the Duchy of Lithuania defending the town and the invading Russian Imperial Army. On September 19, 1794 the area between Brest and Terespol was the scene of a victorious battle won by the invading Russian Imperial army under Suvorov over the Kościuszko Uprising army division under general Karol Sierakowski (known in Russian sourc
5th Guards Tank Division
The 5th Guards Tank Division was an armored division of the Soviet Ground Forces and Russian Ground Forces, active from 1945 to 2009, in two different formations. The 5th Guards Stalingrad-Kiev Red Banner Tank Division was formed in September 1945 at Sherlovaya Gora, Chita Oblast, from the 5th Guards Tank Corps. In mid 1957 it became the 122nd Guards Motor Rifle Division; the second formation drew its heritage from an illustrious Soviet World War II cavalry formation, the 5th Guards Cavalry Corps. After the end of World War II, the corps relocated from Ploiești in Romania, where it was part of the Southern Group of Forces, to Novocherkassk in Rostov Oblast, by the fall of 1945; the corps was reorganised as the 5th Guards Cavalry Division on 6 May 1946, part of the North Caucasus Military District. Its two cavalry divisions, the 11th Guards and 12th Guards, became regiments with the same numbers in the new division. A third regiment, the 7th Guards Cavalry Regiment, was renumbered from the 37th Guards Cavalry Regiment.
On 6 September 1951, the division was awarded the honorific "named for E. A. Shchadenko", in honor of Soviet cavalry commander Yefim Shchadenko. On 18 November 1954 18th Guards Heavy Tank Division was formed from 5th Guards Cavalry Division. With the beginning of the Nikita Khrushchev era, the Strategic Rocket Forces were emphasised at the expense of the Ground Forces, the Ground Forces were reduced and reorganized. On 5 March 1962, the division dropped the designation "Heavy" and became the 18th Guards Tank Division. Between 1 and 2 June 1962, the division was involved in the Novocherkassk massacre, the suppression of a strike caused by food shortages. On 11 January 1965, the division was renumbered the 5th Guards Tank Division to reflect its World War II title. In April 1966, the division was transferred to Kyakhta, on the Mongolian–Russian border, to reinforce the Transbaikal Military District in the light of deteriorating relations with the People's Republic of China. On 22 February 1968, the division was awarded the Order of the Red Star.
By May 1970, the division was part of the 29th Army. The division was expanded into the 48th Separate Guards Army Corps, as an experiment in rapid reaction units along with the Belorussian Military District's 120th Guards Motor Rifle Division, from 1982 to 1989; the three tank regiments and single motor rifle regiment of the division were expanded into two tank brigades and two motor rifle brigades, the 1319th Air Assault Regiment and 373rd Separate Helicopter Regiment, both newly formed, were added to the corps. The 57th Army Corps was upgraded in status to Army level in 2003; the 29th Army was subsequently disbanded. Adam Geibel wrote that 5th "Don" Guards Tank Division, stationed in Buryatia, had received ‘a few’ of the initial group of 150 T-90s produced. On 1 June 2009, the division became the 37th Separate Guards Motor Rifle Brigade, as part of the 2008 Russian military reform; the brigade included more than 200 tracked vehicles and more than 100 wheeled vehicles in 2013. Elements of the brigade fought in the War in Donbass and were located in the Northern operational area in February 2015.
The 37th's troops fought in the Battle of Debaltseve during this time, where their heavy equipment and weaponry was crucial to the defeat of Ukrainian forces in the battle. In September 2016, a conscript from the brigade was run over by a Kamaz truck while sleeping during an exercise; the division's second formation included the following units: 108th Tank Regiment 140th Guards Tank Regiment 160th Guards Tank Regiment 311th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment 861st Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment 940th Anti-aircraft Rocket Regiment Alyohin, Roman. Воздушно-десантные войска: история российского десанта. Moscow: Eksmo. ISBN 9785699332137. Baron, Samuel H.. Bloody Saturday in the Soviet Union: Novocherkassk, 1962. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804740937. Feskov, V. I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk: Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing. ISBN 9785895035306
East Prussian Offensive
The East Prussian Offensive was a strategic offensive by the Soviet Red Army against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. It lasted from 13 January to 25 April 1945; the Battle of Königsberg was a major part of the offensive. The East Prussian Offensive is known to German historians as the Second East Prussian Offensive; the First East Prussian Offensive, took place from 16–27 October 1944, was carried out by the 3rd Belorussian Front under General I. D. Chernyakhovsky as part of the Memel Offensive of the 1st Baltic Front; the Soviet forces took heavy casualties while penetrating 30–60 km into east-northern part of Poland, the offensive was postponed until greater reserves could be gathered. The main thrust of the offensive was to be conducted by the 3rd Belorussian Front under Ivan Chernyakhovsky, his forces were tasked with driving westwards towards Königsberg, against the defensive positions of the 3rd Panzer Army and 4th Army, the northern armies of General Georg-Hans Reinhardt's Army Group Centre.
From the north, on Chernyakhovsky's right flank, General Hovhannes Bagramyan's 1st Baltic Front would attack the positions of the 3rd Panzer Army on the Neman, as well as crushing its small bridgehead at Memel. Chernyakhovsky's left flank would be supported by the 2nd Belorussian Front of Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky, ordered to push north-west to the Vistula, through the lines of the 2nd Army, thereby sealing off the whole of East Prussia; the Soviet offensive began on 13 January with a heavy preparatory bombardment. At first, the Red Army made disappointing progress. Over the next five days, the Soviets managed to advance only a further 20 km, at the cost of high casualties. After two weeks of severe fighting, the Red Army began making steady progress, although again, this came at the price of high losses. Over the next few days, the 3rd Panzer Army of General Erhard Raus was destroyed or withdrew into Königsberg, while General Friedrich Hossbach′s 4th Army began to find itself outflanked.
Against fierce resistance, Rokossovsky attacked across the Narew on 14 January. This sudden change of direction caught Hossbach by surprise. On 24 January, Rokossovsky's leading tank units had reached the shore of the Vistula Lagoon, severing land communications with the rest of German armed forces for the entire 4th Army along with several divisions of the 2nd Army which were now trapped in a pocket centered on East Prussia. On the same day, Hossbach began to pull his units back from the fortified town of Lötzen—a center of the East Prussian defence system—and through a series of forced marches attempted to break out westward. In the meantime, Chernyakhovsky had succeeded in rolling up the defences from the East, pushing the remnants of the 3rd Panzer Army into Königsberg and Samland. On 28 January, Bagramyan's forces captured Memel. With the remnants of Army Group Centre contained, Soviet forces could concentrate on reducing the German forces in Pomerania and eliminating any possible threat to the northern flank of their eventual advance on Berlin.
Reinhardt and Hossbach—who had attempted to break out of East Prussia and save their troops—were relieved of command, the Army Group was placed under the command of General Lothar Rendulic. Reinhardt gave up his command with the words "There is nothing more to say". Raus and the staff of the destroyed 3rd Panzer Army were assigned to a new formation; the defending forces, in the meantime, were besieged in three pockets by Chernyakhovsky's armies: Some 15 divisions of the 4th Army had become encircled on the shore of the Vistula Lagoon in what became known as the Heiligenbeil Pocket. After bitter fighting, these units were overcome on 29 March; the remnants of 3rd Panzer Army—placed under 4th Army's command—became isolated in the Siege of Königsberg. The city was taken by the Soviets—after massive casualties on both sides—on 9 April. After this point the remaining German forces around the Bight of Danzig were reorganised into Armee Ostpreußen under the overall command of Dietrich von Saucken; the third group of German forces—the XXVIII Army Corps or Armeeabteilung Samland under General Hans Gollnick—occupied the Samland Peninsula, where the port of Pillau was retained as the last effective evacuation point for the area.
The last elements were cleared from Pillau on 25 April in the Samland Offensive. After this time, German forces continued to resist on the Vistula Spit, the long sandbar enclosing the Vistula Lagoon, until the end of the war. Evacuation of East Prussia Battle of Königsberg Prussian Nights Vistula–Oder Offensive Operation Hannibal, the evacuation effort by the Kriegsmarine East Pomeranian Offensive, the parallel Soviet offensives in Pomerania Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II Beevor, Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin Books, ISBN 0-670-88695-5 Duffy, Red Storm on the Reich: The Soviet March on Germany, 1945, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-22829-8 Glantz, David M..
81st Cavalry Division (Soviet Union)
The 81st Cavalry Division was a cavalry division of the Red Army that served in the first years of the Great Patriotic War. It was formed in the autumn of 1941 and served in the region south of Stalingrad while the German Army besieged that city in the autumn of 1942. During the first stages of the Soviet counteroffensive, Operation Uranus, the 81st was given a prominent role in the exploitation to the southwest, but became overextended and vulnerable to the mobile German reinforcements arriving to attempt a breakthrough to their Sixth Army; the division was so badly mauled that it had to be withdrawn to the reserves in December, was disbanded. The 81st Cavalry Division began forming on September 1, 1941 in the Central Asia Military District at Dzhambul; when formed, by the middle of the next month, its basic order of battle was as follows: 216th Cavalry Regiment 227th Cavalry Regiment 232nd Cavalry Regiment 16th Horse Artillery Battalion The division was commanded by Colonel Dmitry Ivanovich Gustishev.
In November 1941, the division was assigned to 4th Cavalry Corps, it would remain in that corps as long as they both existed. The division continued to train. On September 20, 1942, led by the new division commander, Vasily Grigoryevich Baumshtein, the division was sent by train to Krasnovodsk; the division crossed the Caspian Sea by ship to Astrakhan. At Olya the ships were unloaded by barges; the division marched along the Volga and reached the villages of Raygorod and Svetlyy Yar, 15 to 20 kilometers southeast of Beketovki. The corps was assigned to 51st Army in Southwestern Front, south of Stalingrad, in October, 1942. In orders issued by Gen. G. K. Zhukov on October 15 to the front commander, Gen. A. I. Yeryomenko, the latter was to:"Concentrate 61st Cavalry Division in the Solodnikov region and 81st Cavalry Division in the Chernyi Yar region to protect the crossings over the Volga River." This attempt to relieve 62nd Army, along with several others in October and early November, had no success.
In Operation Uranus, the Soviet counteroffensive at Stalingrad, the division and its corps were to advance through the breakthrough made by infantry units on the second day of the offensive. The division was to advance in the sector between Lake Tsatsa and Lake Barmantsak, by the morning of the third day reach the station area and the village of Abganerovo, cutting the Stalingrad-Tikhoretsk Railway. At the start of the decisive Soviet counteroffensive on November 19 the 81st was part of the 51st Army Mobile Group that exploited into the breakthrough of the Romanian Army lines towards the southwest; this mobile group had the 4th Mechanized Corps in the lead, with the 81st and 61st Cavalry Divisions of 4th Cavalry Corps guarding its left flank. On the evening of November 20, the division left its concentration area and by dawn the next day had passed Lake Tsatsa and Semkin. At Height 143.3 to the southwest of Plovdovitye, units of the Romanian 5th Cavalry Division put up resistance. The division was soon near Abganerovskoy.
The division captured Abganerovskoy stanitsa in conjunction with the 61st. The 227th Cavalry Regiment captured Abganerovo Station. On the night of November 22 the division was on the northern outskirts of Abganerovo. On the next night the division advanced towards Aksay. Supported by attached 76mm guns and Guards Mortar units, the division was able to liberate the town of Aksay from the Romanians by noon. In the fighting, 38 soldiers of the division had been killed and 89 wounded. On the evening of November 23, the 51st Army commander, Maj. Gen. N. I. Trufanov, radioed Yeryomenko to report that:"The main mission is accomplished; the army's units are fighting with the enemy along the Karpovka, Aksay and Sadovoe line." The next objective was the town of Kotelnikovo, an important rail junction where German mobile troops were beginning to arrive. The division rested and replenished its supplies on November 24. On the night of November 25 the division moved westwards in the right flank of the 51st Army.
The division was to cover the main forces of the army from the northwest in the attack on Kotelnikovo. Unknown to the Soviet commanders, on this same day the German high command began reorganizing their forces and bringing in armored units for an eventual relief operation towards Stalingrad that would be based from this town. After an advance of 45km on the morning of November 27, with support of 35 tanks from 85th Tank Brigade but no rifle forces whatsoever, the 81st reached the western and northwestern approaches to Kotelnikovo; the division attacked into the heart of the town, trying to capture it off the march, succeeded in routing several Romanian units but ran into lead elements of 6th Panzer Division's 114th Motorized Infantry Regiment, just unloading after a long journey from France. The panzer troops, along with a unit of Cossack volunteers known as Group Pannwitz, defeated the 81st and drove it westward 10 - 12km into marshland along the Semichnaia River valley near Poklebin. On the following night the division was forced to make a breakout towards Soviet lines.
In the course of less than three weeks the 81st lost 1,897 men, 14 76mm guns, 4 45mm antitank guns, 4 107mm mortars, 8 37mm antiaircraft guns. Col. Baumshtein was killed in action near Kotelnikovo, along with his chief of staff and chief of the political section. By the middle of December the remnants of the division were withdrawn into reserve, under the command of Col. Skorokhod, on May 22, 1943, the division was disbanded. Belan, P. S.. Казахстанцы в битве на Волге. Alma-Ata: Gylym. ISBN 5628005975. Main Personnel Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Soviet Union. Командование корпус
Nevel is a town and the administrative center of Nevelsky District in Pskov Oblast, located on Lake Nevel 242 kilometers southeast of Pskov, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 16,324 , it was first mentioned in Ivan the Terrible's will among towns, founded during his reign. Between 1580 and 1772, it changed ownership. In 1623, it was granted Magdeburg rights by the Polish King Władysław IV Vasa. While part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth it was located in the Połock Voivodeship, it passed to Russia during the First Partition of Poland in 1772, when it was included into newly established Pskov Governorate and made the seat of Nevesky Uyezd of Pskov Governorate. In 1777, it was transferred to Polotsk Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished and Nevel was transferred to Belarus Governorate. In early 1919 it was part of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia. After 1919, Vitebsk Governorate was a part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. On March 24, 1924, Vitebsk Governorate was abolished, Nevel was transferred to Pskov Governorate.
On August 1, 1927, the uyezds and governorates were abolished and Nevelsky District, with the administrative center in Nevel, was established as a part of Velikiye Luki Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of former Nevelsky Uyezd. On June 3, 1929, Nevelsky District was transferred to Western Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935, Western Oblast was abolished and the district was transferred to Kalinin Oblast, on February 5 of the same year, Nevelsky District became a part of Velikiye Luki Okrug of Kalinin Oblast, one of the okrugs abutting the state boundaries of the Soviet Union. On May 4, 1938, the district was subordinated directly to the oblast. Between July 16, 1941 and October 6, 1943, Nevel was occupied by German troops. On August 22, 1944, the district was transferred to newly established Velikiye Luki Oblast. On October 2, 1957, Velikiye Luki Oblast was abolished and Nevelsky District was transferred to Pskov Oblast.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Nevel serves as the administrative center of Nevelsky District, to which it is directly subordinated. As a municipal division, the town of Nevel is incorporated within Nevelsky Municipal District as Nevel Urban Settlement. Nevel has enterprises of food, textile and timber industries. Nevel is connected at the crossing of two railway lines. One connects Velikiye Luki with Polotsk, whereas another one connects St. Petersburg via Dno and Novosokolniki with Vitebsk. South of Nevel, both railways cross into Belarus. There M20 Highway connecting St. Kiev passes next to Nevel. Other main roads connect Nevel with Velikiye Luki, with Smolensk via Usvyaty and Velizh, with Polotsk, with Verkhnyadzvinsk via Rossony. There are local roads. Nevel contains three objects classified as historical heritage of local significance; the monuments are the Trinity Church, the building of the uyezd school, the military cemetery from World War II. Nevel is home to the Nevel Museum of History, featuring the history of the town.
Mikhail Bakhtin — Russian philosopher, literary critic and semiotician Valentin Voloshinov — Russian philosopher and linguist Maria Yudina — Soviet pianist Yevgeny Dyakonov — Russian mathematician Filipp Goloshchyokin — Soviet politician and revolutionary Grigori Voitinsky — Soviet politician Manshuk Mametova — Soviet Kazakh machine gunner, first Soviet Asian woman to receive the Hero of the Soviet Union medal Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №833-оз от 5 февраля 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Псковской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №20, 10 февраля 2009 г.. Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №420-оз от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ и статусе вновь образуемых муниципальных образований на территории Псковской области», в ред. Закона №1542-ОЗ от 5 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Псковской области "Об установлении границ и статусе вновь образуемых муниципальных образований на территории Псковской области"».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №41–43, №44–46, №49–51, 4 марта 2005 г. 5 марта 2005 г. 11 марта 2005 г.. Архивный отдел Псковского облисполкома. Государственный архив Псковской области. "Административно-территориальное деление Псковской области. Справочник". Книга I. Лениздат, 1988 The murder of the Jews of Nevel during World War II, at Yad Vashem website
A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags, uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible. In European military tradition, military units may be acknowledged for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign. In Great Britain and those countries of the Commonwealth which share a common military legacy with the British, battle honours are awarded to selected military units as official acknowledgement for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign; these honours take the form of a place and a date. Theatre honours, a type of recognition in the British tradition allied to battle honours, were introduced to honour units which provided sterling service in a campaign but were not part of specific battles for which separate battle honours were awarded. Theatre honours could be listed and displayed on regimental property but not emblazoned on the colours.
Since battle honours are emblazoned on colours, artillery units, which do not have colours in the British military tradition, were awarded honour titles instead. These honour titles were permitted to be used as part of their official nomenclature, for example 13 Field Regiment. Similar honours in the same tenor include unit citations. Battle honours, theatre honours, honour titles and their ilk form a part of the wider variety of distinctions which serve to distinguish military units from each other. For the British Army, the need to adopt a system to recognise military units' battlefield accomplishments was apparent since its formation as a standing army in the part of the 17th century. Although the granting of battle honours had been in place at the time, it was not until 1784 that infantry units were authorised to bear battle honours on their colours. Before a regiment's colours were practical tools for rallying troops in the battlefield and not quite something for displaying the unit's past distinctions.
The first battle honour to be awarded in the British Army was granted to the 15th Hussars for the Battle of Emsdorf in 1760. Thereafter, other regiments received battle honours for some of their previous engagements; the earliest battle honour in the British Army is Tangier 1662–80, granted to the Tangier Horse, the oldest line cavalry regiment of the British army, who in 1969 amalgamated with the Royal Horse Guards to become The Blues and Royals. Awarded the honour was the 2nd Regiment of Foot, or the Tangier Regiment now The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, the senior English regiment in the Union, for their protracted 23-year defence of the Colony of Tangier; the battle honour is still held by the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment. During these early years of the British standing army, a regiment needed only to engage the enemy with musketry before it was eligible for a battle honour. However, older battle honours are carried on the standards of the Yeomen of the Guard and the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, neither of which are part of the army, but are instead the Sovereign's Bodyguard, in the personal service of the sovereign.
The need to develop a centralised system to oversee the selection and granting of battle honours arose in the 19th century following the increase of British military engagements during the expansion of the Empire. Thus in 1882, a committee was formed to adjudicate applications of battle honour claims; this committee called the Battles Nomenclature Committee, still maintains its function in the British Army today. A battle honour may be granted to infantry/cavalry regiments or battalions, as well as ships and squadrons. Battle honours are presented in the form of a name of a country, region, or city where the unit's distinguished act took place together with the year when it occurred. Not every battle fought will automatically result in the granting of a battle honour. Conversely, a regiment or a battalion might obtain more than one battle honour over the course of a larger operation. For example, the 2nd Battalion of the Scots Guards were awarded two battle honours for their role in the Falklands War.
While in Korea, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry earned both "Kapyong" and "Korea 1951–1953". A unit does not have to defeat their adversary to earn a battle honour: the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps received the battle honour "Hong Kong" despite the defeat and capture of most of the force during the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong, while the cruiser HMAS Sydney was awarded the naval engagement honour "Kormoran 1941" after being sunk with all aboard by the German raider Kormoran. Supporting corps/branches such as medical, ordnance, or transport do not receive battle honours; however and uniquely the Royal Logistic Corps has five battle honours inherited from its previous transport elements, such as the Royal Waggon Train. Commonwealth artillery does not maintain battle honours as they carry neither colours nor guidons—though their guns by tradition are afforded many of the same respects and courtesies. However, both the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers were in 1832 granted by King William IV the right to use the Latin "Ubique", meaning everywhere, as a battle honour.
This is worn on the cap badge of both the Corps of Royal Enginee