The Leningrad–Novgorod strategic offensive was a strategic offensive during World War II. It was launched by the Red Army on January 14, 1944 with an attack on the German Army Group North by the Soviet Volkhov and Leningrad fronts, along with part of the 2nd Baltic Front, with a goal of lifting the Siege of Leningrad. Two weeks the Red Army regained control of the Moscow–Leningrad railway, on January 26, 1944 Joseph Stalin declared that the Siege of Leningrad was lifted, that German forces were expelled from the Leningrad Oblast; the lifting of the 900-day-long blockade was celebrated in Leningrad on that day with a 324-gun salute. The strategic offensive ended a month on 1 March, when Stavka ordered the troops of the Leningrad Front to a follow-on operation across the Narva River, while the 2nd Baltic was to defend the territory it gained in pursuit of the German XVI Army Corps; the Germans had suffered nearly 72,000 casualties, lost 85 artillery pieces ranging in caliber from 15 cm to 40 cm, were pushed back between 60 and 100 kilometers from Leningrad to the Luga River.
After Operation Barbarossa, German troops had encircled Leningrad, the Siege of Leningrad began. Several operations had been designed by the Soviet commanders in the area to liberate the outskirts of Leningrad from the Germans. In the fall of 1943, preparations had begun to design another plan to retake the outskirts of Leningrad from the Germans, after the only successful Operation Iskra in January of that year which had followed the failed Sinyavino Offensive of late 1942; the first staff meeting was held on September 9, 1943, two years and a day after the beginning of the siege. Two plans, Neva I and Neva II, were conceived. Neva I was to be implemented if the Germans, pressured on different fronts, withdrew their forces from Leningrad on their own accord to reinforce the pressured areas. Both Stavka and Leningrad believed. Neva II, would be implemented if the Germans did not withdraw from Leningrad within the coming months; the offensive would be three-pronged, driving from the foothold at Oranienbaum, captured earlier that year, the Pulkovo Heights and from the fortifications around Novgorod.
The offensive was planned to start in the winter, when sufficient numbers of troops and artillery could be moved across the ice without incident. The Baltic Fleet had been assigned the task of transporting the Second Shock Army under the command of Ivan Fedyuninsky over Lake Ladoga to Oranienbaum. From November 5, 1943 onwards, the Fleet transported 30,000 troops, 47 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 1,400 trucks and 10,000 tons of ammunition and supplies from the wharves at the Leningrad factories and the naval base at Lisy Nos to Oranienbaum. After Lake Ladoga froze, another 22,000 men, 800 trucks, 140 tanks and 380 guns were sent overland to the jump-off point; when the shipments were complete, the artillery was positioned along the entire length of the Leningrad, Second Baltic and Volkhov fronts at a concentration of 200 guns per kilometer, including 21,600 standard artillery pieces, 1,500 Katyusha rocket guns, 600 anti-aircraft guns. 1,500 planes were obtained from the Baltic Fleet and from installations around Leningrad.
The total number of Soviet personnel prepared for action was 1,241,000, against the 741,000 German troops. A final meeting took place on January 11 in Smolny. General Govorov, the top Soviet commander on the Leningrad Front, had listed his priorities. In order to open up southeastward and eastward main railroad lines from Leningrad, Soviet troops would have to occupy Gatchina, from which they could retake Mga, the minor city and rail station whose capture in 1941 had closed the last railroad route into Leningrad. Govorov positioned his troops accordingly; the situation of the German Army Group North at the end of 1943 had deteriorated to a critical point. The Blue Division and three German divisions had been withdrawn by October, while the Army Group had acquired sixty miles of additional frontage from Army Group Center during the same period; as replacements, Field Marshal Georg von Küchler received the Spanish Blue Legion and three divisions of SS troops. In such a weakened state, the Army Group staff planned a new position to its rear that would shorten the front lines by twenty-five percent and remove the Soviet threats posed in many salients on the current lines.
The plan Operation Blue called for a January withdrawal of over 150 miles to the natural defensive barrier formed by the Narva and Velikaya Rivers and Lakes Peipus and Pskov. This position, the so-called "Panther Line", was buttressed by fortifications, constructed since September; the retreat would be carried out in stages, using intermediate defensive positions, the most important of, the Rollbahn Line formed on the October Railway running through Tosno and Chudovo. There the two most exposed Army Corps, the XXVI and XXVIII, would regroup and catch their breath before proceeding farther back to their positions in the Panther Line; the fate of Army Group North turned for the worse in the new year, for Hitler rejected all proposals for an early withdrawal into the "Panther" position, insisting that the Soviet forces be kept as far as possible from Germany and that they be forced to pay dearly for each meter of ground. Hitler transferred three more first-rate infantry divisions out of Army Group North to reinforce Erich von Manstein's Army Group South as it reeled back from the Dnieper River under continuous Soviet assault.
Field Marshal von Küchler now held an precarious position, could only await events on the Leningrad and Volkhov Fronts with great pessimism. In the late hours of January 13, 1944, long-range bombers from the Baltic Fleet attacked the main German command points
The Tartu Offensive Operation known as the Battle of Tartu and the Battle of Emajõgi was a campaign fought over southeastern Estonia in 1944. It took place on the Eastern Front during World War II between the Soviet 3rd Baltic Front and parts of the German Army Group North; the Soviet tactical aim was to capture the city of Tartu. The strategic goal was a quick occupation of Estonia; the Soviet command planned to reach the coast of the Gulf of Riga and trap the Army Detachment "Narwa". The German side involved Estonian conscripts, which fought to defend their country against the looming Soviet annexation; the 3rd Baltic Front captured Tartu. The conquest caused the destruction of the Estonian National Museum and 40 million rubles worth of damage to the University of Tartu. Kampfgruppe "Wagner" stabilised the front at the Emajõgi River; the XXVIII Army Corps supported by Omakaitse militia stalled the front at the Väike Emajõgi and Gauja Rivers, preventing the 3rd Baltic Front from cutting off the "Narwa".
Attacks of the Leningrad Front had pushed the Army Group North to the west of Lake Peipus resulting in a series of operations around Narva. The German Command considered it important to maintain control over the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, which eased the situation in Finland and kept the Soviet Baltic Fleet in its eastern bay. From a military economy viewpoint, the preservation of the oil shale reserves and oil shale industry in Ida-Viru was important. In the south, Soviet forces advanced towards the Baltic seacoast at the end of their Operation Bagration of June–August 1944 against the German Army Group Centre. At the beginning of the Soviet Tartu Operation, the ratio of Soviet to German strength was 4.3:1 for troops, 14.8:1 for artillery and 4.1:1 for armour. The German forces were battle groups from various formations and smaller units from different branches. A significant proportion of the German side was constituted of Omakaitse militia battalions with poor weaponry and little fighting ability.
The main thrust of the Soviet operation was first aimed at the southern Petseri County. On 10 August, the Soviet 67th Army broke through the defence of the XXVIII Army Corps and captured the town of Võru on 13 August; the XXVIII Army Corps were forced to the banks of the Väike Emajõgi and Gauja Rivers in the west where they were supported by the Viljandi County Omakaitse militia battalion. While the defence prevented the 3rd Baltic Front from cutting off the retreat of the Army Detachment "Narwa" from Estonia, there was open ground towards the city of Tartu, the capital of Southeast Estonia. Army Group North created a Kampfgruppe, led by SS-Brigadeführer Jürgen Wagner and manned by the army detachment, for the defence of the new line; the Soviet tank units forced a wedge between the XXVIIIth Army Corps. On 16 August, Lieutenant General Alexey Grechkin's group launched an amphibious assault over Lake Peipus behind the German left flank, beating the Omakaitse defence and forming a bridgehead in the village of Mehikoorma.
In fierce battles, a local border guard regiment stopped their advance. The 3rd Baltic Front launched an artillery barrage at the positions of the 2nd Battalion, 45 Waffen SS Grenadier Regiment covering the German right flank in the village of Nõo southeast of Tartu on 23 August; the Soviet 282nd Rifle Division backed by the 16th Single Tank Brigade and two self-propelled artillery regiments bypassed the defence on the west side and captured the Kärevere Bridge across the Emajõgi River west of Tartu. Being one of only four bridges across the 100 kilometres long marshy floodplains of the river, it was of high strategic importance. After sappers failed to destroy the bridge, Sturmbannführer Leon Degrelle improvised a defence line of the 5th SS Volunteer Sturmbrigade Wallonien, avoiding a Soviet breakthrough to Tartu; as a result, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. A heavy German tank assault had been planned to attack behind the western flank of the Soviet lines in Elva on 24 August.
On the night before the attack, the designated commander of the operation Generalmajor Hyazinth von Strachwitz had a serious car accident. The Soviet tank squadrons repulsed the German attack on the following day. Four Soviet rifle divisions launched an attack at Tartu with the support of artillery. After fierce street battles, the Soviet forces conquered the city and established a bridgehead on the north bank of the Emajõgi on 25 August. Due to "Wagner"'s inability to hold back the Soviet offensive, the headquarters of the Army Group North turned over command of the Emajõgi Front to the II Army Corps, commanded by Infantry General Wilhelm Hasse. At the end of August, the III. Battalion, 1st Estonian Regiment was formed from the 1st Battalion of the Finnish Infantry Regiment 200 returned to Estonia; as their largest operation, supported by Estonian Police Battalions No. 37, 38 and Mauritz Freiherr von Strachwitz's tank squadron, they destroyed the bridgehead of two Soviet divisions and recaptured Kärevere Bridge by 30 August.
The operation shifted the entire front back to the southern bank of the Emajõgi and encouraged the II Army Corps to launch an operation attempting to recapture Tartu. The attack of 4–6 September reached the northern outskirts of the city but was repulsed by units of four Soviet rifle divisions. Relative calm settled on the front for the subsequent thirteen days; the property of the University of Tartu suffered heavy losses in the campaign, accounting for 40 million rubles of damage (equalling to the purchasing power of 90 mil
Russian 201st Military Base
The 201st Gatchina Twice Red Banner Motor Rifle Division was raised twice in World War II as part of the Soviet Union's Red Army and is now part of the Russian Ground Forces. The division was formed as Red Army national unit on 3 August 1941 in Gorokhovets, Vladimir Oblast, Moscow Military District from remains of the 24th Territorial Rifle Corps, it was designated as the 201st Latvian Rifle Division, the first of three national divisions with predominantly Baltic-speaking personnel. The basis of the division was the 76th Independent Latvian Rifle Regiment, in turn formed from the two Latvian volunteer battalions that participated in the retreats of the Red Army, including the defence of Tallinn, it had been established in August 1941 at Gorki Gorokhovetz Army Camp. In addition to the much depleted 76th regiment, were added 2500 Latvian speaking members of the state militia and NKVD, as well as the predominantly Latvian speaking 582nd Construction Battalion, members of the 24th Corps, the territorial reserve formation in Latvia which failed to form due to rapid German advance.
At this time the composition of the division included the 92nd, 122nd and 191st Rifle Regiments, 220th Artillery Regiment, 10th Independent AAA Battery, 170th Independent Signals Battalion, other support units. By December 1941 the division had 10,348 personnel, of whom 51% were ethnic Latvians, 26% ethnic Russians, 17% Jews and 6% others; this caused some problems since most Jews spoke Yiddish only, the Latvians published the divisional paper Latvijas strēlnieks in Latvian. At least 70 Jewish members of the division were members of the Zionist Beitar organisation, training members for travel to the Palestine to defend Jewish settlements there before Latvia was annexed by Soviet Union; the first combat the division experienced was during the counter-offensive at Moscow in the areas of Naro-Fominsk and Borovsk where it suffered 55% casualties. By June 1942 only 36% of the division were Latvian-speaking, a year this figure was reduced to 32%. However, in part this was due to the formation of a second Latvian division, the 308th Latvian Rifle Division.
The division was reflagged as the 43rd Guards Rifle Division in October 1942. The division joined in combat for Moscow, for Staraya Russa, Demjansk bridgehead. From 26 June 1944 until 11 July the division was included with the 130th Latvian Riflemen Corps until crossing the Latvian border. From 18 July 1944 Šķaune region and joined combat on Latvian soil on 7 November 1944; the division included other Latvian citizens who were behind the Soviet front line and a large number of Russia's Latvians. Beginning strength was about 2,100 men. In September 1941 the division had about 10,000 men; the division contained 122nd and 191st Rifle Regiments and 220th Artillery Regiment. On 5 October 1942 it became the 43rd Latvian Guard Riflemen Division. Regiments assigned to this Division were the 121st, 123rd, 125th Guard Rifle Regiments and the 94th Guard Artillery Regiment, the 270th Artillery Battalion, renamed to the 55th Guard Artillery Battalion, the 48th Guard Antitank Artillery Battalion, the 100th Antiaircraft Battery, renamed to the 44th Guard Antiaircraft Battery, the 53rd Sapper Battalion, renamed to the 47th Guard Sapper Battalion.
The division was commanded by Guard Major General Jānis Veikins, Regiment Commander L. Paegle, Regiment Commander A. Frolovs, Guard Major General Detlavs Brantkalns and Alfrēds Kalniņš. A new division was raised for the second time from the 27th Rifle Brigade at Shlisselburg, near Leningrad, in November 1943 within the 23rd Army, it served in the Baltic coast areas. Aside from the usual components of the rifle division in 1943, the division had a separate battalion equipped with snow skis, each regiment had a snow ski equipped company to serve as advance detachments. In September the division was transferred to the 3rd Army; the initial composition of the division included: 92nd Rifle Regiment 122nd Rifle Regiment 191st Rifle Regiment 220th Artillery Regiment 256th Separate Communications Battalion 119th Separate Reconnaissance Company 122nd Separate Reconnaissance Company 198th Separate Anti-Tank Division 51st Separate Sapper Battalion 53rd Separate Sapper Battalion 49th Separate Medical-Sanitary Battalion 20th Separate Auto-Delivery Company 136th Separate Chemical CompanyThe division's first commander was Colonel Vyacheslav Petrovich Yakutovich.
In January 1944 the division was assigned to the 122nd Rifle Corps. The division received the title Gatchina for its role in breaking the siege of Leningrad and received its first Order of the Red Banner during the war. Following the relief of the siege the division incorporated several partisan detachments and groups which were used to strengthen the reconnaissance and ski equipped units. In February the division was transferred to the 117th Rifle Corps, soon after was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for the liberation of Luga. In June 1944 the division was serving with the 8th Army before moving to participate in the assault on Narva, for which the 191st regiment was awarded the honorific Narvsky. On 5 August 1944 the division
4th Army (Soviet Union)
The 4th Army was a Soviet field army of World War II that served on the Eastern front of World War II and in the Caucasus during the Cold War. It was disbanded after the fall of the Soviet Union, with its divisions being withdrawn to Russia and disbanded; the Fourth Army was created in August 1939 in the Belorussian Special Military District from the Bobruisk Army Group as an independent army. In September 1939, the Fourth Army took part in the Soviet invasion of Poland commanded by the future Marshal of Soviet Union V. I. Chuykov, the defender of Stalingrad, its order of battle in that operation is listed here. Elements of the army 4th Battalion, 29th Light Tank Brigade, took part in the German–Soviet military parade in Brest-Litovsk on September 22, 1939; when the German invasion of the Soviet Union commenced on 22 June 1941, the Army was part of the Western Front and had the 28th Rifle Corps, 14th Mechanised Corps, 49th and 75th Rifle Divisions, as well as the 62nd Fortified Region. General Colonel Pavlov, Commander of the Western Front, had decided to redeploy some of 4th Army’s troops early in 1941, John Erickson wrote that 12th Rifle Division was accordingly moved into Brest, HQ 14th Mechanised Corps to Kobrin, which in Erickson’s words, ‘deprived 4th Army of its reserve and its second echelon.’It should be understood that John Erickson was writing in the pre-1990 period when formation designations could be unclear, sometimes to the point of deliberate deception.
According to Sharp the 12th Rifle Division was identified by the Germans on the Western Front, but the unit was assigned to the Far East for the entire war. The formation that appears to have been moved into Brest Fortress was 42nd Rifle Division. Facing the 4th Army across the Bug River was deployed the German Fourth Army, with twelve infantry divisions and a cavalry division, as well as Panzer Group 2; some units faced several difficulties. A. Khorobkov, the army commander, saw his officers on 10 June, General Major Stepan Oborin, 14th Mechanised Corps commander, emphasized that more than half his soldiers were untrained recruits, that his artillery had received guns for which there was no ammunition, that he only had enough lorries to make a quarter of the corps mobile – the rest would have to march. On the eve of the attack, 4th Army suffered, as did many Soviet formations, from German communication sabotage. Units lost telephone connections, electrical power, the Brest Fortress lost its water supply.
From about 5 am on 22 June fierce fighting began around the Brest fortress, but the seven battalions around the fortress, from 28th Rifle Corps, were undermanned and slow off the mark to man the defences. Despite these deficiencies the final German reduction of the fortress took some time in the face of determined Soviet resistance. By 1600 hours on 22 June, 4th Army HQ was back at Zapruda, whereupon Front HQ ordered that 14th Mechanised Corps be launched in an attack to clear Brest and reach the frontier line; however the Army staff felt the plan had no chance of success, so it proved. Three days Western Front ordered a general withdrawal to try to keep the frontier armies out of threatened German encirclement. Further instructions came through from Pavlov after a chance meeting the same day; however the Slutsk fortified district, as the district commander reminded Khorobkov, had long ago been instructed to dispatch all its weapons to the Brest fortress. The planned defence was thus non-existent, Slutsk fell on 27 June.
The Army took part in the defenses of the area around Babruysk. At the end of July 1941, the Fourth Army began to dissolve; the Fourth Army's staff members were absorbed into the general staff of the Central Front, the troops were absorbed into other armies. Source:Commander Lieutenant General Alexander A. Korobkov 28th Rifle Corps - Major General V. S. Popov 6th Rifle Division - Col. M. A. Popsiu-Shapko 42nd Rifle Division - Maj. Gen. I. S. Lazarenko 49th Rifle Division - Col. C. F. Vasil’ev 75th Rifle Division - Col. Nedwigin 14th Mechanized Corps - Major General S. I. Oborin 22nd Tank Division - Mj. Gen. V. P. Puganov 30th Tank Division - Col. Semen Bogdanov 205th Motor Rifle Division - Col. F. F. KudjurovOrder of Battle for Operation Barbarossa At the end of September 1941, the Fourth Army was formed for the second time, retaining its Independent status until December while remaining in the Reserve of the Supreme High Command; the field staffs of the 52nd and 54th Armies were used to fill the command contingent of the Army.
The new formation was made up of the 285th, 292nd, 311th Rifle Divisions along with the 27th Cavalry Division, a Tank brigade, the 2nd Reserve aviation group, other artillery and support units. The Fourth Army participated in the defense and attack of Tikhvin from October to December 1941. On December 17, 1941, the Fourth Army was allocated to the Volkhov Front. From January 1942 to November 1943, the Fourth Army fought on the front in Volkhov and Leningrad while doing many rear-area duties. Unlike in other parts of the Eastern Front, the Red Army was not making significant gains in
The Stavka was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. In Imperial Russia Stavka refers to the administrative staff, to the General Headquarters in the late 19th Century Imperial Russian armed forces and subsequently in the Soviet Union. In Western literature it is sometimes written in uppercase, incorrect since it is not an acronym. Stavka may refer to its members, as well as to the headquarter location; the commander-in-chief of the Russian army at the beginning of World War I was Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaievitch, a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I. Appointed at the last minute in August 1914, he played no part in formulating the military plans in use at the beginning of the war. Nikolai Yanushkevich was his chief of staff. In the summer of 1915 the Tsar himself took personal command, with Mikhail Alekseyev as his chief of staff. In the years 1915–1917 Stavka was based in Mogilev and the Tsar, Nicholas II, spent long periods there as Commander-in-Chief; the Stavka was divided into several departments: Department of General-Quartermaster Department of General on Duty Department of military transportations Naval department Diplomatic chancery The Stavka was first established in Baranovichi.
In August 1915, after the German advance, the Stavka re-located to Mogilev. 19 July 1914 – 18 August 1915: Lieutenant-General Nikolai Yanushkevich 18 September 1915—01.04.1917: General of Infantry Mikhail Alekseyev 10 November 1916 – 17 February 1917: General of Cavalry Vasily Gurko 11 March 1917—05.04.1917: General of Infantry Vladislav Klembovsky 5 April 1917 – 31 May 1917: Lieutenant-General Anton Denikin 2 June 1917 – 30 August 1917: Lieutenant-General Alexander Lukomsky 30 August 1917 – 9 September 1917: General of Infantry Mikhail Alekseyev 10 October 1917—03.11.1917: Lieutenant-General Nikolay Dukhonin 3 November 1917—07.11.1917: Major General Mikhail Dieterichs 7 November 1917—02.1918: Major General Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich The Stavka of the Soviet Armed Forces during World War II, or the headquarters of the "Main Command of the Armed Forces of the USSR", was established on 23 June 1941 by a top-secret decree signed by Joseph Stalin in his capacities both as the head of government and as the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
According to this decree Stavka was composed of the defence minister Marshal Semyon Timoshenko, the head of General Staff Georgy Zhukov, Vyacheslav Molotov, Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, Marshal Semyon Budyonny and the People's Commissar of the Navy Admiral Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov. The same decree organized at Stavka "the institution of permanent counsellors of Stavka": Marshal Kulik, Marshal Shaposhnikov, Kirill Meretskov, head of the Air force Zhigarev, Nikolay Vatutin, head of Air Defence Voronov, Kaganovich, Lavrenty Beria, Zhdanov, Mekhlis. Soon afterwards, the deputy defence minister of the army, was arrested following false charges made by Beria and Merkulov. Meretskov was subsequently released from jail on the same day, at the end of the first week of September 1941, called for by Stalin. Stavka's Main Command was reorganized into the Stavka of the Supreme Command on 10 July 1941; this action occurred after Stalin was named Supreme Commander, replaced Timoshenko as head of Stavka.
On 8 August 1941 it was again reorganized into Stavka of the Supreme Main Command. On the same day Strategic Directions commands were instituted. A 17 February 1945 decree set out the membership of Stavka as Stalin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Aleksei Antonov, Nikolai Bulganin and Kuznetsov. General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Creation of the Main Command of the Armed Forces of the Union of USSR
Staraya Russa is a town in Novgorod Oblast, located on the Polist River, 99 kilometers south of Veliky Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. Its population has decreased over the past years, going from 41,538 recorded in the 1989 Census to 35,511 in the 2002 Census to 31,809 in the 2010 Census; the origin of the name of Staraya Russa is unclear. The most involved and widespread hypothesis was presented by philologists and linguists R. A. Akheyeva, V. L. Vasilyev, M. V. Gorbanevsky. According to this hypothesis, Russa comes from Rus'—a people of Slavic, Finno-Ugric and Varangian composition who settled in the vicinity to control trade routes leading from Novgorod to Polotsk and Kiev—which, in turn, is thought to originate from an Old Norse term for "the men who row" as rowing was the main method of navigating the rivers of Eastern Europe, that it could be linked to the Swedish coastal area of Roslagen or Roden, as it was known in earlier times. Staraya is Russian for "Old". Thought to have originated in the mid-10th century, it was first mentioned as Rusa in chronicles for the year 1167 as one of three main towns of the Novgorod Republic, alongside Pskov and Ladoga.
After Pskov became independent, Russa became the second most important town and trade center of the Novgorod Republic after Novgorod itself. By the end of the 15th century, it contained about one thousand homesteads. Brine springs made the saltworks the principal business activity in the town, the biggest center of salt industry in the Novgorod region. Catherine II appointed German mineralogy expert Franz Ludwig von Cancrin as director of the salt-works in 1783; the wooden fortifications of Russa burned to ashes in 1190 and in 1194, after which they were replaced by the stone fortress. In 1478, it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow together with Novgorod; the word Staraya was prefixed to the name in the 15th century, to distinguish it from newer settlements called Russa. The current name established only in the 19th century, when the salt mining settlements around the town became collectively known as Novaya Russa; when Ivan the Terrible ascended the throne in 1533, Staraya Russa was a populous town.
During the Time of Troubles, it was held by Polish brigands and depopulated. Only thirty-eight people lived there in 1613. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Staraya Russa was included into Ingermanland Governorate. In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. In 1776, Staraya Russa became the seat of Starorussky Uyezd of Novgorod Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was transformed into Novgorod Governorate. In the 1820s, military settlements were organized in Staraya Russa and around, in accordance with the project designed by Aleksey Arakcheyev, an influential statesman, it was inconvenient to have both civil and military administration in Staraya Russa, therefore the uyezd was abolished in 1824. The town of Staraya Russa and some adjacent territories were directly subordinated to the Defense Ministry; the military settlements were proven inefficient, in particular, in 1831, the area participated in the Cholera Riots. They were abolished in 1856.
In 1857, Starorussky Uyezd was re-established. The Soviet authority in Staraya Russa was established on November 5, 1917. In August 1927, the uyezds were abolished and, effective October 1, 1927, Starorussky District was established, with the administrative center in Staraya Russa. Novgorod Governorate was abolished as well and the district became a part of Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On September 19, 1939, Staraya Russa was elevated in status to that of a town of oblast significance and thus ceased to be a part of the district; the town was occupied by the Germans between August 9, 1941 and February 18, 1944. Destroyed during the war, it was restored. On July 5, 1944, Staraya Russa was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast and remained there since. On February 16, 1984, Staraya Russa was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Staraya Russa serves as the administrative center of Starorussky District though it is not a part of it.
As an administrative division, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated separately as the Town of oblast significance of Staraya Russa—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Staraya Russa is incorporated within Starorussky Municipal District as Staraya Russa Urban Settlement; the biggest enterprise in Staraya Russa is the aircraft repair. The mechanical engineering plant went bankrupt in 2011 and no longer exists. A railway which connects Bologoye and Pskov passes through Staraya Russa. Staraya Russa is connected by roads with Novgorod and Bezhanitsy via Kholm. There are local roads. There is a wharf on the Polist River in the Lake Ilmen basin; the Polist is navigable downstream from Staraya Russa. The town is served by the Staraya Russa Airport. Staraya Russa is a spa, celebrated for its mineral springs used for baths and inhalations. A summer residence of the Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky, who wrote his novels The Brothers Karamazov and Demons there, is open to visitors as a museum.
Monuments include the Transfiguration Monastery, which includes a cathedral built in sevent