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1st millennium

The first millennium of the anno Domini or Common Era was a millennium spanning the years 1 to 1000. World population rose more than during the preceding millennium, from about 200 million in the year 1 to about 300 million in the year 1000. In Western Eurasia, the first millennium was a time of great transition from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages; the 1st century saw the peak of the Roman Empire, followed by its gradual decline during the period of Late Antiquity, the rise of Christianity and the Great Migrations. The second half of the millennium is characterized as the Early Middle Ages in Europe, marked by the Viking expansion in the west, the rise of the Byzantine Empire in the east. Islam expanded from Arabia to western Asia, North Africa and the Iberian peninsula, culminating in the Islamic Golden Age. In East Asia, the first millennium was a time of great cultural advances, notably the spread of Buddhism to East Asia. In China, the Han dynasty is replaced by the Jin dynasty and the Tang dynasty until the 10th century sees renewed fragmentation in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

In Japan, a sharp increase in population followed when farmers' use of iron tools increased their productivity and crop yields. The Yamato court was established. In South Asia, the Indian subcontinent was divided among numerous kingdoms throughout the first millennium, until the formation of the Gupta Empire. In Mesoamerica, the first millennium was a period of enormous growth known as the Classic Era. Teotihuacan grew into a metropolis and its empire dominated Mesoamerica. In South America, pre-Incan, coastal cultures flourished, producing impressive metalwork and some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world. In North America, the Mississippian culture rose at the end of the millennium in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys. Numerous cities were built; the construction of Monks Mound at Cahokia was begun in 900–950. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the Bantu expansion reaches Southern Africa by about the 5th century; the Arab slave trade spans the Swahili coast by the 9th century. The events in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme The people in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Terrell James

Terrell James is an American artist who makes abstract paintings and sculptures. She is best known for large scale work with paint on stretched fabric, for parallel small scale explorations such as the Field Studies series, ongoing since 1997, she works in Houston, Texas. A seventh generation Texan, Terrell James was born in Houston, Texas in 1955, she graduated from Houston's Lamar High School in 1973. In 1973, James studied printmaking at the Instituto Allende in San Miguel de Allende. During 1973–77 she attended The University of the South in Sewanee Tennessee, where she continued her studies in painting and printmaking. James' painting suggest ambiguous visions of nature, urban geometries and technical artifacts, they resist easy determination. Instead of obvious images and visual stability, the viewer finds a pictorial landscape composed of alternate potential readings. James has said: "I am interested in the viewer's participation in my work. There is the work there is something that happens between the viewer and the painting: a sort of second painting."

Writing for the Museum of Fine Arts Houston, Daniel Stern stated that "To gaze at a painting of Terrell James' is to enter into an experience in the making: painting in which the act of painting continues on as the eye wanders the finished surface. Each individual painting is completed by each individual encounter." Since 1997, James' numbered series of Field Studies are small works devoted to ongoing, open-ended visualization. Curator Alison de Lima Greene has written: "Sometimes a drawn line darts across the field or serves as a scaffold, sometimes pale afterimages challenge the viewer's eye, the occasional collaged element is welcomed as well." James herself has said, "These works are alive. In some ways, they feel automatic or undirected..." Field Studies are made in parallel with much larger synchronous works, tracking their internal color relationships in a secondary form. From 1980 to 1985, Terrell James worked as a field collector and material archivist for the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

While in this position, she was involved in the rediscovery and exhibition of works by artist Forrest Bess. This assignment included her research involving Bess' family and contacts in Bay City, her cataloging of correspondence related to the artist's exhibition with New York gallerist Betty Parsons, her organization of the 1986 exhibition of Forrest Bess' paintings in collaboration with Hiram Butler Gallery; this show led to the involvement such as New York's Hirschl & Adler Modern. Her research on Bess' life and work was seminal to the posthumous emergence of his worldwide following among collectors and institutions. In addition to archival work, James was integrally involved in the production of films and books about Bess. James played the archetypal feminine figure of Forrest Bess in Jim Kanan's 1987 film of Bess and was a primary source for Chuck Smith's book Key to the Riddle. From 1991 to 2004, James held a teaching position in the Painting Department at Glassell School of Art, Museum of Fine Arts Houston, where she served as Department Chair of Painting 1998–2004, was concurrently Professor of Art at the University of St. Thomas from 1995 to 1997.

James has exhibited her work at a number of museums and public spaces, including the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, the Museum of Fine Arts Houston, The Cameron Museum of Art, the Centro Cultural Arte Contemporaneo, the Art League Houston, the Shanghai Museum, People's Republic of China, in March 2015. Whitney Museum of American Art Menil Collection, Houston Watermill Collection Casa Lamm/Televisa Cultural Foundation and Museum Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Museum of Fine Arts Houston Dallas Museum of Art University of St. Thomas, Houston Albee Foundation, New York The Cameron Museum of Art, Free International University World Art Collection, the Netherlands Centro Cultural Arte Contemporaneo Mexico D. F. Portland Art Museum, Oregon the Rice University Collection, Houston United States Department of Stat, Museum of the University of the South, Tennessee San Antonio Museum of Art Texas Tech University Terrell James has been recognized for her art and community involvement, including selection as Texas Artist of the Year, as archival focus by the Joan Mitchell Foundation's CALL Project, induction into 2014's Texas Art Hall of Fame, recipient of the 2008 Texan-French Alliance for the Arts' TFAA Recognition Award, recipient of the Decorative Center Houston's 2013 Design Star Award, a Visual Arts Fellowship by the Edward Albee Foundation in 2010, among others, stretching back to the Creative Artist Program Award from the Cultural Arts Council of Houston in 1986.

Bovee, Virgil Grotfeldt and Terrell James at Froelick Gallery, Art Lies, Issue No.58, p 104, 2008. Buhmann, Stephanie and Transition in the Work of Terrell James, HOVER: Art League 2016 Texas Artist of the Year, Houston TX, pp. 3–7. Buhmann, Terrell James: Witnessing Places, ArtSlant, London UK, November 2007. Della Monica, Lauren P. Painted Landscapes: Contemporary Views, Schiffer Publishing, 2013. ISBN 0764343580 Gray, About Time: Terrell James's art hangs near a crossroads where her past and present intersect, Houston Press, Houston TX, pp. 12–13, April 26, 2001. Greene, Alison de Lima, Terrell James: Field Studies, Houston TX, March 2011, pp. 3–5. Hodges, Walter Hopps: Standing Sideways (Terrell James and Virgil Grotfe

Mössbauer effect

The Mössbauer effect, or recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence, is a physical phenomenon discovered by Rudolf Mössbauer in 1958. It involves the resonant and recoil-free emission and absorption of gamma radiation by atomic nuclei bound in a solid, its main application is in Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the Mössbauer effect, a narrow resonance for nuclear gamma emission and absorption results from the momentum of recoil being delivered to a surrounding crystal lattice rather than to the emitting or absorbing nucleus alone; when this occurs, no gamma energy is lost to the kinetic energy of recoiling nuclei at either the emitting or absorbing end of a gamma transition: emission and absorption occur at the same energy, resulting in strong, resonant absorption. The emission and absorption of X-rays by gases had been observed and it was expected that a similar phenomenon would be found for gamma rays, which are created by nuclear transitions. However, attempts to observe nuclear resonance produced by gamma-rays in gases failed due to energy being lost to recoil, preventing resonance.

Mössbauer was able to observe resonance in nuclei of solid iridium, which raised the question of why gamma-ray resonance was possible in solids, but not in gases. Mössbauer proposed that, for the case of atoms bound into a solid, under certain circumstances a fraction of the nuclear events could occur without recoil, he attributed the observed resonance to this recoil-free fraction of nuclear events. The Mössbauer effect was one of the last major discoveries in physics to be reported in the German language; the first report in English was a letter describing a repetition of the experiment. The discovery was rewarded with the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1961 together with Robert Hofstadter's research of electron scattering in atomic nuclei; the Mössbauer Effect is a process in which a nucleus emits or absorbs gamma rays without loss of energy to a nuclear recoil. It was discovered by the German physicist Rudolf L. Mössbauer in 1958 and has proved to be remarkably useful for basic research in physics and chemistry.

It has been used, for instance, in measuring small energy changes in nuclei and crystals induced by electrical, magnetic, or gravitational fields. In a transition of a nucleus from a higher to a lower energy state with accompanying emission of gamma rays, the emission causes the nucleus to recoil, this takes energy from the emitted gamma rays, thus the gamma rays do not have sufficient energy to excite a target nucleus to be examined. However, Mössbauer discovered that it is possible to have transitions in which the recoil is absorbed by a whole crystal in which the emitting nucleus is bound. Under these circumstances, the energy that goes into the recoil is a negligible portion of the energy of the transition. Therefore, the emitted gamma rays carry all of the energy liberated by the nuclear transition; the gamma rays thus are able to induce a reverse transition, under similar conditions of negligible recoil, in a target nucleus of the same material as the emitter but in a lower energy state.

In general, gamma rays are produced by nuclear transitions from an unstable high-energy state to a stable low-energy state. The energy of the emitted gamma ray corresponds to the energy of the nuclear transition, minus an amount of energy, lost as recoil to the emitting atom. If the lost recoil energy is small compared with the energy linewidth of the nuclear transition the gamma ray energy still corresponds to the energy of the nuclear transition, the gamma ray can be absorbed by a second atom of the same type as the first; this emission and subsequent absorption is called resonant fluorescence. Additional recoil energy is lost during absorption, so in order for resonance to occur the recoil energy must be less than half the linewidth for the corresponding nuclear transition; the amount of energy in the recoiling body can be found from momentum conservation: | P R | = | P γ | where PR is the momentum of the recoiling matter, Pγ the momentum of the gamma ray. Substituting energy into the equation gives: E R = E γ 2 2 M c 2 where ER is the energy lost as recoil, Eγ is the energy of the gamma ray, M is the mass of the emitting or absorbing body, c is the speed of light.

In the case of a gas the emitting and absorbing bodies are atoms, so the mass is small, resulting in a large recoil energy, which prevents resonance. In a solid, the nuclei do not recoil in the same way as in a gas; the lattice as a whole recoils but the recoil energy is negligible because the M in the above equation is the mass of the whole lattice. However, the energy in a decay can be supplied by lattice vibrations; the energy of these vibrations is quantised in units known as phonons. The Mössbauer effect occurs because there is a finite probability of a decay occurring involving no phonons, thus in a fraction of the nuclear events (the recoil-free fraction, given by the Lamb–Mössbauer f

Audio editing software

Audio editing software is software which allows editing and generating of audio data. Audio editing software can be implemented or as a library, as a computer application, as a web application, or as a loadable kernel module. Wave Editors are digital audio editors and there are many sources of software available to perform this function. Most can apply effects and filters, adjust stereo channels, etc.. A digital audio workstation consists of software to a great degree, is composed of many distinct software suite components, giving access to them through a unified graphical user interface using GTK, Qt, or other library for the GUI widgets. Editors designed for use with music allow the user to do the following: The ability to import and export various audio file formats for editing Record audio from one or more inputs and store recordings in the computer's memory as digital audio Edit the start time, stop time, duration of any sound on the audio timeline Fade into or out of a clip, or between clips Mix multiple sound sources/tracks, combine them at various volume levels and pan from channel to channel to one or more output tracks Apply simple or advanced effects or filters, including compression, flanging, audio noise reduction, equalization to change the audio Playback sound that can be sent to one or more outputs, such as speakers, additional processors, or a recording medium Conversion between different audio file formats, or between different sound quality levelsTypically these tasks can be performed in a manner, non-linear.

Audio editors may process the audio data non-destructively in real-time, or destructively as an "off-line" process, or a hybrid with some real-time effects and some off-line effects. Destructive editing modifies the data of the original audio file, as opposed to just editing its playback parameters. Destructive editors are known as "sample editors". Destructive editing applies edits and processing directly to the audio data, changing the data immediately. If, for example, part of a track is deleted, the "deleted" audio data is removed from that part of the track. Real-time editing does not apply changes but applies edits and processing on the fly during playback. If, for example, part of a track is deleted, the "deleted" audio data is not removed from the track, but is hidden and will be skipped on playback. In graphical editors, every change to the audio is visible as the visible waveform is updated to match the audio data; the number of effects that may be applied is unlimited. Editing is precise down to exact sample intervals.

Effects may be applied to a specified selected region. Mixing down or exporting the edited audio is relatively quick as little additional processing is required. Once an effect has been applied, it cannot be changed; this is mitigated by the ability to "undo" the last performed action. A destructive audio editor will maintain many levels of "undo history" so that multiple actions may be undone in the reverse order that they were applied. Edits can only be undone in the reverse order. Effects can be adjusted during playback, or at any other time. Edits may be adjusted at any time in any order. Multiple effects and edits may be ` stacked'. A stack of effects may be changed so that effects are applied in a different order, or effects inserted or removed from the chain; some real-time editors support effect automation so that changes to effect parameters may be programmed to occur at specified times during audio playback. The waveform does not show the effect of processing until the audio has been mixed-down or "bounced" to another track.

The number of effects that may be applied is limited by the available processing power of the computer or editing hardware. In some editors this may be mitigated by "freezing" the track, it is not possible to have an effect only on part of a track. To apply a real-time effect to part of a track required that the effect is set to turn on at one point and turn off at another. In multi-track editors, if audio is copied or moved from one track to another, the audio in the new track may sound different from how it sounded in the original track as there may be different real-time effects in each track. In some applications, mixing down or exporting the edited audio may be slow as all effects and processing needs to be applied. Editors designed for use in speech research add the ability to make measurements and perform acoustic analyses such as extracting and displaying a fundamental frequency contour or spectrogram, they lacks most or all of the effects that interest musicians. Audio signal processing Comparison of digital audio editors Comparison of free software for audio Digital audio workstation List of music software Music sequencer Software effect processor Software synthesizer

Selaginella bigelovii

Selaginella bigelovii is a species of spikemoss known by the common names bushy spikemoss and Bigelow's spikemoss. It is native to California and Baja California, where it grows in rocky places in many different habitat types, from the coastline to the mountains to the deserts; this lycophyte forms clumps of spreading upright to erect stems up to 20 centimeters long with a few short lateral branches. The linear or lance-shaped green leaves are up to 4 millimeters long, including the tiny rigid bristles at their tips, they stick out just a little. The strobili borne at the leaf bases are yellow-orange in color. Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Flora of North America Photo gallery

Goniobranchus kuniei

Goniobranchus kuniei is a species of colourful sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Chromodorididae. This species was described from New Caledonia, it is known from the western Pacific Ocean and eastern Indian Ocean from Fiji, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia and the Taiwan. Goniobranchus kuniei has a pattern of blue spots with pale blue haloes on a creamy mantle. There is a double border to the mantle of blue; the length of the body reaches 40 mm. The species Goniobranchus; this species likes waters that are between 21 and 26 degrees Celsius and is found between 5 and 40 meters. Goniobranchus kuniei, video at Bali, Indonesia Photos of Goniobranchus kuniei on Sealife Collection