7th Division (Australia)
The 7th Division was an infantry division of the Australian Army. It was formed in February 1940 to serve in World War II, as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force; the division was raised on the British establishment of nine infantry battalions per division and consisted of two new brigades and three of the original 12 battalions of the 6th Division forming the third brigade. The division is sometimes known by the nickname "The Silent Seventh", due to a perception that its achievements were unrecognised, in comparison to the other Australian divisions; the origin of this belief appears to be censorship of the part played by the 7th Division in the fierce fighting in the 1941 Syria-Lebanon campaign. The 7th Division along with the 6th and 9th Australian Divisions were the only divisions to serve in both the Middle East and the South West Pacific Area, it was disbanded following the end of the war. The 7th Division was the second division raised as part of the 2nd AIF following the outbreak of World War II.
Approval for the formation of the new division was granted on 28 February 1940 and on 4 April its first commanding officer, Major General John Lavarack, was appointed. Upon formation the division consisted of three infantry brigades: the 20th and 21st. Of these, the 19th was formed in Palestine and the other two were formed in Australia. In June 1940, the 19th Brigade was replaced in the division by the 18th Brigade, based in the United Kingdom where they were undertaking garrison duties to defend against a possible invasion of that country by the Germans following the Fall of France as part of the 6th Division; this was short lived, for the following month the division lost the 18th Brigade and gained the 26th Brigade, still forming in Australia. This enabled the division to undertake training together prior to embarking for the Middle East in October 1940. In February 1941 further changes in the division's composition occurred; the 20th and 26th Brigades were transferred to the 9th Division and in exchange the division received the 18th and 25th Brigades.
On arrival in the Middle East the division undertook training in Palestine and Egypt before the 18th Brigade was sent to capture an Italian position at Giarabub. The main assault was undertaken by the 2/9th Battalion on 21 March, although a company from the 2/10th and machine-gunners from the 2/12th provided support. For the loss of 15 killed and 71 wounded, the Australians captured the fortress along with 36 artillery pieces. In April, the 18th Brigade moved from Alexandria to Tobruk, where they played a successful defensive role in the Siege of Tobruk, from May to August 1941. In the actions around Tobruk, the division suffered 507 wounded and 29 captured. Meanwhile, the rest of the 7th Division formed the backbone of the Allied invasion of Lebanon and Syria. Starting on 8 June, the division advanced along two main axes: the 21st Brigade moving along the coast road from Tyre, crossing the Litani and moving towards Sidon, while the 25th Brigade advanced 31 miles to the east from Metula towards Merdajayoun and Jezzine.
Both brigades advanced in two columns. The initial phase of the attack came to an end on 15 June when the Vichy French launched a counterattack, striking at Merdjayoun and recapturing it and Fort Khiam. On 21 June, the 2/25th Battalion entered Damascus and Fort Khiam and its adjacent village, were re-occupied by the Australians. By 30 June the Australians had recaptured the initiative and the 7th Division handed over the central sector to the British. Following this, the division concentrated around Jezzine before advancing towards Damour. Once this was captured, the division continued on towards Beirut. In mid-July an armistice came into effect and the division was employed on garrison duties along the coastal zone, headquartered in Tripoli; the 18th Brigade rejoined the division in September, taking up defensive positions around Aleppo, to defend against a possible invasion by German forces through Turkey. During the campaign, two 7th Division personnel earned the Victoria Cross. Lieutenant Arthur Roden Cutler, of the 2/5th Field Regiment, received the decoration for his exploits in June at Merdjayoun and in early July in the Damour area where he was wounded.
Corporal Jim Gordon, of the 2/31st Battalion, was the second recipient of the campaign. The division's casualties in Syria and Lebanon included 796 wounded and 90 captured. In December 1941, as Japanese forces advanced in South East Asia, it was decided that the 6th and 7th Divisions were needed to defend Australia. In early January 1942, the division moved from Syria, where they had been undertaking garrison duties, to Palestine. On 30 January elements of the division embarked upon transport ships, including the USS Mount Vernon at Suez to begin the journey back to Australia as part of Operation Stepsister. Spread across five convoys, the division's return was staggered. At this time, the British government requested that the division be sent to Burma to help stem the tide of the Japanese advance on Rangoon, but the Australian government declined the request. Elements of the division, consisting of men from the 2/6th Field Company, on the transport Orcades were diverted to Java, fought alongside Dutch forces there, but were soon overwhelmed.
Of these men, four were killed. The bulk of the division went straight to Australia, arriving in Adelaide in mid-March 1942; the following month, the division was moved to New South Wales where personnel were given a brief period of leave before moving on to Queenslan
RMS Queen Mary
The RMS Queen Mary is a retired British ocean liner that sailed on the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for the Cunard Line – known as Cunard-White Star Line when the vessel entered service. She was the flagship of the Cunard and White Star Lines, built by John Brown & Company in Clydebank, Queen Mary, along with RMS Queen Elizabeth, were built as part of Cunard's planned two-ship weekly express service between Southampton and New York; the two ships were a British response to the express superliners built by German and French companies in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Queen Mary was the flagship of the Cunard Line from May 1936 until October 1946 when she was replaced in that role by Queen Elizabeth. Queen Mary won the Blue Riband that August. With the outbreak of the Second World War, she was converted into a troopship and ferried Allied soldiers during the war. Following the war, Queen Mary was refitted for passenger service and along with Queen Elizabeth commenced the two-ship transatlantic passenger service for which the two ships were built.
The two ships dominated the transatlantic passenger transportation market until the dawn of the jet age in the late 1950s. By the mid-1960s, Queen Mary was ageing and, though still among the most popular transatlantic liners, was operating at a loss. After several years of decreased profits for Cunard Line, Queen Mary was retired from service in 1967, she left Southampton for the last time on 31 October 1967 and sailed to the port of Long Beach, United States, where she remains permanently moored. Much of the machinery, including one of the two engine rooms, three of the four propellers, all of the boilers, were removed; the ship serves as a tourist attraction featuring a museum and a hotel. The ship is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the National Trust for Historic Preservation has accepted the Queen Mary as part of the Historic Hotels of America. With Germany launching Bremen and Europa into service, Britain did not want to be left behind in the shipbuilding race. White Star Line began construction on their 80,000-ton Oceanic in 1928, while Cunard planned a 75,000-ton unnamed ship of their own.
Construction on the ship known only as "Hull Number 534", began in December 1930 on the River Clyde by the John Brown & Company shipyard at Clydebank in Scotland. Work was halted in December 1931 due to the Great Depression and Cunard applied to the British Government for a loan to complete 534; the loan was granted, with enough money to complete the unfinished ship, to build a running mate, with the intention to provide the weekly service to New York with just two ships. One condition of the loan was that Cunard would merge with the White Star Line, Cunard's chief British rival at the time and, forced by the depression to cancel construction of its Oceanic. Both lines agreed and the merger was completed on 10 May 1934. Work on Queen Mary resumed and she was launched on 26 September 1934. Completion took 3 1⁄2 years and cost 3.5 million pounds sterling. Much of the ship's interior was constructed by the Bromsgrove Guild. Prior to the ship's launch, the River Clyde had to be deepened to cope with her size, this being undertaken by the engineer D. Alan Stevenson.
The ship was named after Mary of Teck, consort of King George V. Until her launch, the name was kept a guarded secret. Legend has it that Cunard intended to name the ship Victoria, in keeping with company tradition of giving its ships names ending in "ia", but when company representatives asked the king's permission to name the ocean liner after Britain's "greatest queen", he said his wife, Mary of Teck, would be delighted, and so, the legend goes, the delegation had of course no other choice but to report that No. 534 would be called Queen Mary. This story was denied by company officials, traditionally the names of sovereigns have only been used for capital ships of the Royal Navy; some support for the story was provided by Washington Post editor Felix Morley, who sailed as a guest of the Cunard Line on Queen Mary's 1936 maiden voyage. In his 1979 autobiography, For the Record, Morley wrote that he was placed at table with Sir Percy Bates, chairman of the Cunard Line. Bates told him the story of the naming of the ship "on condition you won't print it during my lifetime."
The name Queen Mary could have been decided upon as a compromise between Cunard and the White Star Line, as both lines had traditions of using names either ending in "ic" with White Star and "ia" with Cunard. The name had been given to the Clyde turbine steamer TS Queen Mary, so Cunard made an arrangement with its owners and this older ship was renamed Queen Mary II. Queen Mary was fitted with 24 Yarrow boilers in four boiler rooms and four Parsons turbines in two engine rooms; the boilers delivered 400 pounds per square inch steam at 700 °F which provided a maximum of 212,000 shp to four propellers, each turning at 200 RPM. Queen Mary achieved 32.84 knots on her acceptance trials in early 1936. In 1934 the new liner was launched by Queen Mary as RMS Queen Mary. On her way down the slipway, Queen Mary was slowed by eighteen drag chains, which checked the liner's progress into the River Clyde, a portion of, widened to accommodate the launch; when she sailed on her maiden voyage from Southampton on 27 May 1936, she was commanded by Sir Edgar T. Britten, the master designate for Cunard White Star whilst the ship was under construction at the John Brown shipyar
Markham and Ramu Valley – Finisterre Range campaign
The Markham and Ramu Valley – Finisterre Range campaign, was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. The campaign began with an Allied offensive in the Ramu Valley, from 19 September 1943, concluded when Allied troops entered Madang on 24 April 1944. During the campaign, Australian forces – supported by Australian and US aircraft – advanced through the Markham and Ramu Valleys during which there were minor clashes with Japanese forces, which withdrew towards their main defensive line in the Finisterre Range; the central geographical and strategic feature of the campaign was the imposing Shaggy Ridge, running north-south in the Finisterres. Following the fighting around Shaggy Ridge, the Japanese withdrew towards the northern coast of New Guinea, where they were pursued by Australian and US forces advancing through the Finisterres and along the coast from Saidor. Following the capture of Madang, the Japanese withdrew to Wewak where further fighting took place in 1944 and 1945.
During September 1943, Australian forces from Major General George Vasey's 7th Division, advancing from Nadzab, had captured Lae, as part of a pincer undertaken in conjunction with Major General George Wootten's 9th Division, which had advanced along the coast from the east of Lae. Heavy rain had held up the Australian advance and much of the garrison had managed to withdraw inland, prior to the capture of the town. To follow these forces up, the 9th Division's focus shifted to the Huon Peninsula, while the 7th Division – following the capture of Kaiapit – advanced from there to Dumpu and Marawasa, to prepare for the Australian advance through the Ramu Valley and into the Finisterre Range, towards Bogadjim near Madang on the northern coast; the Japanese formation in the campaign was the Nakai Detachment, a brigade-sized formation detached from the Japanese 20th Division under Major General Masutaro Nakai. The area was defended by several battalions of the 78th Infantry Regiment, supported by the 26th Artillery Regiment and the 27th Independent Engineer Regiment.
The II/78th and two companies of the III/78th were deployed forward around Kankiryo and Shaggy Ridge, with the I/78th spread out around Saipa and Yokopi and the remaining two companies of the III/78th at Yaula, the 239th Infantry Regiment held the rear around Madang and Bogadjim, along with 2,000 unassigned reinforcements. It faced the Australian 7th Division, consisting of 17,000 men, under Vasey, made up of the 18th, 21st and 25th Brigades, along with the 2/6th Commando Squadron; the campaign began in September 1943 following the 7th Division's drive on Lae, as part of the wider New Guinea campaign, which saw the 9th Division carrying out operations along the Huon Peninsula on the coast to the east, while the 7th moved towards the west. Carrying out a number of smaller-scale operations, the units of the 21st and 25th Brigades advanced up the Markham and Ramu Valleys. Apart from a significant engagement around Kaiapit, where the 2/6th Commando Squadron captured the village and killed over 200 Japanese, the Australians were resisted as they advanced and they arrived in Dumpu in early October.
During the entire advance, the Australian and American forces in the Ramu Valley were supplied by air. The capture of the Ramu Valley allowed a forward airbase to be developed at Gusap. Following this, the 7th Division provided security for a number of airfields that were constructed in the territory they had captured in the valleys. To assist with this, the 6th Machine Gun Battalion was brought up from Port Moresby to defend Gusap. However, the Japanese remained in strong possession of the Finisterre Range, their positions at Kankiryo Saddle north of the Ramu river and the 1,500 m high razorback ridge named Shaggy Ridge, continued to threaten the airfields; this threat manifested itself in the road that the Japanese were attempting to build from Madang on the coast inland to Nadzab, via Bogadjim, along which they were hoping to advance through to Dumpu. Thus, the Kankiryo Saddle and Shaggy Ridge were of vital strategic importance for both the Japanese and the Australians. For the Japanese, it provided a strong obstacle to the Australian advance north towards the coast, while offering them the ground along which they could launch their own offensive in order to recapture the territory they had lost earlier in the campaign.
For the Australians, the Japanese positions on the high ground signalled threat and their commander, came to the decision that he would have to launch an offensive in order to capture this ground. This led to a number of battles in the steep mountains of the Finnisterres. In October, battles took place at Palliser's Hill, later at Johns' Knoll where the Australians first managed to capture the knoll and held it against a determined Japanese counterattack. In November, the 25th Brigade relieved the 21st as the offensive was maintained, in December and into January heavy fighting took place around Shaggy Ridge, a 6.5-kilometre long spur dotted by several rocky outcrops. The Japanese had established numerous strong posts and positions along the ridge, blocking the Australian advance towards the coast, where they were aiming to secure Bogadjim and Madang; the initial attacks on Shaggy Ridge began on 27 December with a heavy artillery and air preparation of the Japanese positions around The Pimple, a steep rocky outcrop, which commanded the southern half of the position and had prevented the Australians advancing over the previous two months.
These preparatory fires were followed by an assault up the steep slopes of The Pimple by the 2/16th Infantry Ba
61st Battalion (Australia)
The 61st Battalion was an infantry battalion of the Australian Army. It was raised in 1917 during the First World War but was disbanded the same year without seeing active service, it was re-raised as a part of the Militia in 1938 in Brisbane, Queensland. Upon the outbreak of the Second World War they undertook garrison duties in Australia, however, in 1942 they were deployed to New Guinea where they took part in the Battle of Milne Bay, during which the Japanese were defeated for the first time in a major land battle. In late 1943, the 61st Battalion was withdrawn back to Australia for a period of re-organisation and training before being deployed overseas again in late 1944; this time they were deployed to Bougainville, where the Australian 3rd Division had taken over from the American garrison and the battalion joined the drive towards the Japanese stronghold at Buin in the south of the island. Following the end of the war, the 61st Battalion was disbanded as part of the demobilisation process on 8 January 1946.
The 61st Battalion was raised in the United Kingdom in February 1917 as part of the Australian Imperial Force during the First World War in an effort to raise the 6th Division. However, following manpower shortages that occurred as a result of heavy losses amongst the AIF on the Western Front in 1917 and the failure of attempts to introduce conscription in Australia, it was decided to disband the division and its subordinate units in September 1917 and use their personnel to reinforce other units; as a result, the 61st Battalion was disbanded without seeing active service. In 1938, the 61st Battalion was re-raised as part of the Militia in response to growing tensions in Europe. At this time, the battalion was formed in the Brisbane–Ipswich area with a small detachment based in Toowoomba; the main driving force behind convincing the government to establish the battalion was Sir Donald Cameron, from the outset it was intended that the unit should be a Scottish battalion and approval was gained for its personnel to be equipped with Scottish-style uniforms including kilts and Glengarry caps.
The funds for this equipment, were not provided for by the government and was a cost that the battalion had to meet itself, which it did so through an appeal for donations from the public. At this time many of the battalion's initial personnel were men of Scottish birth or ancestry, although intakes of personnel included men of diverse heritage. In 1939, the battalion was bestowed with the title of the "Queensland Cameron Highlanders", when an alliance with the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders was approved by King George VI. Training was undertaken on a voluntary and unpaid basis with weekly parades being undertaken at Kelvin Grove, while field training took place at Fraser's Paddock in Enoggera and Redbank. By July 1939, the battalion's strength was other ranks. At the outset of the Second World War, due to the provisions of the Defence Act which prohibited sending the Militia to fight outside of Australian territory, the decision was made to raise an all volunteer force, the Second Australian Imperial Force, to serve overseas—initial operations were conceived to be in the Middle East and possibly England—while it was decided that the Militia would be used to defend the Australian mainland from possible attack and to improve Australia's overall level of readiness through the reinstitution of compulsory military service and extended periods of continuous periods of training.
Although the number of men that joined the units of the 2nd AIF from the Militia was in fact lower than anticipated, a large number of such personnel left to seek an opportunity to serve overseas. In this time the 61st Battalion lost many of its experienced senior officers and non-commissioned officers to the 2/25th and 2/33rd Battalions that were raised in Queensland, as well as to the Royal Australian Air Force. Of note was the loss of the battalion's pipe and drum band, which joined the 2/25th en masse. A 61st Battalion officer, Major Charles Withy went across with them serving as the second in command and later as the 2/25th's commanding officer. Despite this loss of personnel the battalion undertook a number of periods of continuous training throughout 1940–42 as the Militia were called up progressively for various periods of extended training consisting of between 70 and 90 days. During this time they joined the rest of the 7th Brigade, to which they were assigned, at Chermside, Queensland.
While there, the battalion replaced its Scottish equipment with regular service gear. In September 1941, as the strategic situation in the Pacific worsened, the battalion was "called up" to provide full-time service for the duration of the war; as a result of this, the battalion was brought up to its full strength of 910 personnel of all ranks. In December, after the Japanese attacks on Pearl Harbor and Malaya, they undertook defensive duties around Caloundra before moving to Townsville in May 1942 to defend against a possible invasion. In early 1942, the situation in the Pacific grew worse as the garrison at Singapore fell and the Japanese began to advance south towards Australia. In March, they landed Lae and Salamaua on the north coast of New Guinea, later in July they landed at Buna and Gona in Papua. By this time the Australian government decided to bring the units of the 2nd AIF back from the Middle East to defend against a possible Japanese invasion of Australia and although this process had begun, the only troops available to respond to the Japanese landings were units from the Militia.
Troops from the 30th Brigade had been deployed around Port Moresby, over the course of a month in July and August the 61st Battalion
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
The Salamaua–Lae campaign was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. Australian and United States forces sought to capture two major Japanese bases, one in the town of Lae, another one at Salamaua; the campaign to take the Salamaua and Lae area began after the successful defence of Wau in late January, followed up by an Australian advance towards Mubo as the Japanese troops that had attacked Wau withdrew to positions around Mubo. A series of actions followed over the course of several months as the Australian 3rd Division advanced north-east towards Salamaua. After an amphibious landing at Nassau Bay, the Australians were reinforced by a US regimental combat team, which subsequently advanced north up the coast; as the Allies kept up the pressure on the Japanese around Salamaua, in early September they launched an airborne assault on Nadzab, a seaborne landing near Lae, subsequently taking the town with simultaneous drives from the east and north-west. As the situation around Lae grew more desperate, the Salamaua garrison withdrew, it was captured on 11 September 1943, while Lae fell shortly afterwards on 16 September, bringing the campaign to an end.
In March 1942, the Japanese secured Salamaua and Lae and subsequently established major bases on the north coast of New Guinea, in the large town of Lae, in Salamaua, a small administrative town and port 35 kilometres to the south. Salamaua was a staging post for attacks on Port Moresby, such as the Kokoda Track campaign, a forward operating base for Japanese aviation; when the attacks failed, the Japanese turned the port into a major supply base. Logistical limitations meant that the Salamaua–Lae area could garrison only 10,000 Japanese personnel: 2,500 seamen and 7,500 soldiers; the defences were centred on the Okabe Detachment, a brigade-sized force from the 51st Division under Major General Toru Okabe. In January 1943, the Okabe Detachment was defeated in an attack on the Australian base of Wau, about 40 kilometres away. Allied commanders turned their attention to Salamaua, which could be attacked by troops flown into Wau; this diverted attention from Lae, a major objective of Operation Cartwheel, the Allied grand strategy for the South Pacific.
It was decided that the Japanese would be pursued towards Salamaua by the Australian 3rd Division, formed at Wau, under the command of Major General Stanley Savige, who were to link up with elements of the US 41st Infantry Division. Following the conclusion of the fighting around Wau in late January, the Okabe Detachment had withdrawn towards Mubo, where they began to regroup, numbering about 800 strong. Between 22 April and 29 May 1943, the Australian 2/7th Infantry Battalion, at the end of a long and tenuous supply line, attacked the southern extremity of Japanese lines in the Mubo area, at features known to the Allies as "The Pimple" and "Green Hill". While the 2/7th made little progress, they provided a diversion for the 2/3rd Independent Company, which advanced in an arc and raided Japanese positions at Bobdubi Ridge, inflicting severe losses. In May, the 2/7th repelled a number of strong Japanese counterattacks. At the same time as the first battle at Mubo, the Australian 24th Infantry Battalion, defending the Wampit Valley in an effort to prevent Japanese movement into the area from Bulolo, detached several platoons to reinforce the 2/3rd Independent Company.
During the month of May, they were engaged in patrolling the 3rd Division's northern flank, around the Markham River, the area around Missim, one patrol succeeded in reaching the mouth of the Bituang River, to the north of Salamaua. In response to the Allied moves, the Japanese Eighteenth Army commander, Lieutenant General Hatazō Adachi, sent the 66th Infantry Regiment from Finschhafen to reinforce the Okabe Detachment and launch an offensive; the 1,500-strong 66th attacked on 20 -- 23 June. The battle has been described as one of the Australian Army's "classic engagements" of World War II; the ridge's only defenders were "D" Company of the 2/6th Battalion. The Australians relied on well-established and linked defensive positions, featuring extensive, cleared free-fire zones; these assets and the determination of "D" Company defeated the Japanese envelopment tactics. Between 30 June and 19 August, the Australian 15th Infantry Brigade cleared Bobdubi Ridge; the operation was opened with an assault by the inexperienced 58th/59th Infantry Battalion, included hand-to-hand combat.
At the same time as the second Australian assault on Bobdubi, on 30 June – 4 July, the US 162nd Regimental Combat Team, supported by engineers from the 2nd Engineer Special Brigade, made an unopposed amphibious landing at Nassau Bay and established a beachhead there, to launch a drive along the coast, as well as bringing ashore heavy guns with which to reduce the Japanese positions. A week after the Bobdubi attack and Nassau Bay landing, the Australian 17th Brigade launched another assault on Japanese positions at Mubo. With the Allies making ground closer to Salamaua, the Japanese withdrew to avoid encirclement; the Japanese divisional commander, Hidemitsu Nakano, subsequently determined to concentrate his forces in the Komiatum area, an area of high ground to the south of Salamaua. Meanwhile, the main body of the 162nd RCT followed a flanking route along the coast, before encountering fierce resistance at Roosevelt Ridge—named after its commander, Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Roosevelt—between 21 July and 14 August.
Between 16 July and 19 August, the 42nd and 2/5th Infantry Battalions gained a foothold on Mount Tambu. They held on despite fierce Japanese counter-attacks; the battle turned when they were assisted by the 162nd RCT. Throughout July, the Japanese sought to reinforce the Salamaua area