2-Aminoisobutyric acid

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2-Aminoisobutyric acid
2-aminoisobutyric acid.svg
2-methylalanine molecule
Names
IUPAC name
2-Amino-2-methylpropanoic acid
Other names
α-Aminoisobutyric acid
2-Methylalanine
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.495
EC Number 200-544-0
KEGG
Properties
C4H9NO2
Molar mass 103.12 g/mol
Appearance white crystalline powder
Density 1.09 g/mL
Boiling point 204.4 °C (399.9 °F; 477.5 K)
soluble
Acidity (pKa) 2.36 (carboxyl), 10.21 (amino)[1]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

2-Aminoisobutyric acid, or α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) or α-methylalanine or 2-methylalanine, is an amino acid with the structural formula is H2N-C(CH3)2-COOH. It is contained in some antibiotics of fungal origin, e.g. alamethicin and some lantibiotics. It is not one of the proteinogenic amino acids and is rather rare in nature (cf. non-proteinogenic amino acids).

Synthesis[edit]

In the laboratory, 2-aminoisobutyric acid may be prepared from acetone cyanohydrin, by reaction with ammonia followed by hydrolysis.[2] Industrial scale synthesis can be achieved by the selective hydroamination of methacrylic acid.

Biological activity[edit]

2-Aminoisobutyric acid is not one of the proteinogenic amino acids and is rather rare in nature (cf. non-proteinogenic amino acids). It is a strong helix inducer in peptides. Oligomers of AIB form 310 helices. BAIBA, or 3-Aminoisobutyric acid, is found as a normal metabolite of skeletal muscle in 2014. The plasma concentrations are increased in human by exercise. The production is likely a result of enhanced mitochondrial activity as the increase is also observed in the muscle of PGC-1a overexpression mice. BAIBA is proposed as protective factor against metabolic disorder since it can induce brown fat function.[3]

Ribosomal incorporation into peptides[edit]

Several reports have confirmed the compatibility of 2-Aminoisobutyric acid with ribosomal elongation of peptide synthesis. Katoh et al. used flexizymes[4] and an engineered a tRNA body to enhance the affinity of aminoacylated AIB-tRNA species to elongation factor-P[5]. The result was an increased incorporation of AIB into peptides in a cell free translation system. Iqbal et al. used an alternative approach of creating an editing deficient valine tRNA-ligase to synthesize aminoacylated AIB-tRNAVal. The aminoacylated tRNA was subsequently used in a cell-free translation system to yield AIB-containing peptides.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dawson, R.M.C., et al., Data for Biochemical Research, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1959.
  2. ^ Clarke, H. T.; Bean, H. J. (1931). "α-Aminoisobutyric acid". Organic Syntheses. 11: 4. ; Collective Volume, 2, p. 29 .
  3. ^ Roberts, LD; Boström, P; O'Sullivan, JF; Schinzel, RT; Lewis, GD; Dejam, A; Lee, YK; Palma, MJ; Calhoun, S; Georgiadi, A; Chen, MH; Ramachandran, VS; Larson, MG; Bouchard, C; Rankinen, T; Souza, AL; Clish, CB; Wang, TJ; Estall, JL; Soukas, AA; Cowan, CA; Spiegelman, BM; Gerszten, RE (7 January 2014). "β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors". Cell metabolism. 19 (1): 96–108. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.12.003. PMC 4017355Freely accessible. PMID 24411942. 
  4. ^ Ohuchi, Masaki; Murakami, Hiroshi; Suga, Hiroaki (2007). "The flexizyme system: a highly flexible tRNA aminoacylation tool for the translation apparatus". Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 11 (5): 537–542. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2007.08.011. 
  5. ^ Katoh, Takayuki; Iwane, Yoshihiko; Suga, Hiroaki (2017-12-15). "Logical engineering of D-arm and T-stem of tRNA that enhances d-amino acid incorporation". Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (22): 12601–12610. doi:10.1093/nar/gkx1129. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC 5728406Freely accessible. PMID 29155943. 
  6. ^ Iqbal, Emil S.; Dods, Kara K.; Hartman, Matthew C. T. (2018). "Ribosomal incorporation of backbone modified amino acids via an editing-deficient aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase". Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 16 (7): 1073. doi:10.1039/c7ob02931d. ISSN 1477-0539.