Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
Nicolás Alejandro Massú Fried, nicknamed El Vampiro, is a Chilean former tennis player, a former World No. 9 in singles, a winner of two Olympic gold medals. He is the only male player to have won both the singles and doubles gold medals during the same games in modern Olympic tennis, the only two gold medals Chile has won at the Olympics. Massú reached the final of the 2003 Madrid Masters and won six singles titles. Massú is Jewish, as is Sonia Fried, his father, Manuel Massú, is of Palestinian ancestry. He has four brothers, Jorge and Yuri, he was born in a family of Hungarian-Jewish descent. His grandfather Ladislao Fried Klein was Jewish and was born in Hungary, survived the Nazi occupation of Hungary by hiding, as his parents did not survive, his grandmother Veronika nee Vegvari was a Holocaust survivor, imprisoned in Auschwitz-Birkenau. He was introduced to tennis at age five by Ladislao Fried. From age 12, he was trained at the Valle Dorado tennis academy, near Villa Alemana, by Leonardo Zuleta, with whom he perfected his forehand and double-handed backhand.
He trained at the Nick Bollettieri Academy, in Florida in the United States, alongside Marcelo Ríos, at the High Performance Center in Barcelona, Spain. Massú became a professional tennis player in 1997; that year, he won the prestigious juniors year-end Orange Bowl tournament. He claimed the boys doubles competitions at Wimbledon and the US Open, was junior doubles world champion in 1997. In August 1998, Massú won his first Futures tournament, in Spain; the following month, he claimed his first Challenger event, in Ecuador. He won his second Challenger tournament in Italy. In September 1999, he defended his title in Ecuador. In November 1999, he won the Santiago Challenger event, cracked the top 100 in singles for the first time. In May 2000, Massú reached his first ATP tournament final, at the U. S. Men's Clay Court Championships in Orlando, where he lost to Fernando González. In August, he lost again to another Chilean—Marcelo Ríos—in his US Open debut. In January 2001, Massú reached his second ATP event final, in Australia.
Massú's first ATP title came in February 2002 in Buenos Aires, where he defeated Argentine Agustín Calleri in a three-set final, after being down match point. At the 2003 event, Calleri took revenge and defeated him in the first round, a loss that pushed Massú out of the top 100 in singles and forced him to play Challengers once again. In April 2003, he reached the Bermuda Challenger final. Massú claimed his second ATP title in July 2003 in The Netherlands; the following week, he reached the final of the Kitzbühel, Austria tournament, cracking the top 50 in singles for the first time. In September he made three consecutive tournament finals, including a win at a Challenger event and his third ATP title at Palermo, Italy. In October, he reached the final at the Madrid Tennis Masters Series tournament, losing to Spaniard Juan Carlos Ferrero in the final, he ended the year at World No. 12. In mid-2004, Massú parted ways with Argentine coach Gabriel Markus, whom he replaced with Chilean Patricio Rodríguez.
In July 2004, Massú won his fourth ATP title in Kitzbühel, went on to win two gold medals at the Athens Olympics in August. Thanks to his outstanding performance at the Olympics, he reached his career-high ATP singles ranking of World No. 9. In November, he underwent groin surgery, therefore entered the 2005 season off top form, he ended an unremarkable 2005 with a six-match losing streak, although 2005 saw his best performance at a Grand Slam tournament as he reached the fourth round of the US Open, losing to Guillermo Coria. He was the first player to be beaten by Stan Wawrinka in the main draw of a Grand Slam tournament, at the 2005 French Open. In January 2006, Massú lost his hometown event at Viña del Mar to José Acasuso in the final. In February, he won his sixth ATP event at Costa do Brazil. In April, he reached the final of the Casablanca event in Morocco. In July, he lost to Novak Djokovic in the final of the Amersfoort tournament. In January 2007, Massú repeated his Viña del Mar showing of 2006, losing to Luis Horna in straight sets.
In July, he began an eight-match losing streak, ended in October in Saint Petersburg. Massú had an early exit at the Viña del Mar tournament in January 2008, losing to Sergio Roitman in the first round; because he was defending points from a final showing in 2007, the following week he fell to no. 97 in the world. In July, his singles ranking plummeted to no. 138, his worst since November 1999. In the year, he won the Florianópolis II Challenger event and was finalist in two other tournaments at that level. Massú began 2009 by not winning a match during his first five tournaments and losing his opening Davis Cup singles match against Croatia in March, he broke his losing streak at the Indian Wells Masters, beating Argentine Eduardo Schwank in three sets in the first round. Massú has represented Chile in three Summer Olympics: 2000 Sydney, Athens 2004, 2008 Beijing. At the 2000 event's opening ceremony, he was his country's standard bearer, after Marcelo Ríos failed to show up. In his first-round match, he lost to Juan Carlos Ferrero in the next round.
The story was different in Athens, where Massú doubles titles. On August 21, he and partner Fernando González, defeated Nicolas Kiefer and Rainer Schüttler of Germany to win the doubles competition, making history by giving Chile its first-ever Olympic gold medal. Mass
2000 Summer Olympics opening ceremony
The opening ceremony of the 2000 Summer Olympic games took place on Friday 15 September in Stadium Australia. As mandated by the Olympic Charter, the proceedings combined the formal and ceremonial opening of this international sporting event, including welcoming speeches, hoisting of the flags and the parade of athletes, with an artistic spectacle to showcase the host nation's culture and history. For Sydney 2000, the Games were formally opened by Governor-General Sir William Deane; the ceremony was described by IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch as the most beautiful ceremony the world has seen. It represented several highlights of Australian culture and history, from sea creatures and flora/fauna to lawn mowers and other Australian cultural icons; the Opening Ceremony had a cast of 12,687 people. Consistent with normal major production management, the music was pre-recorded under studio conditions to ensure its quality. Hosted by Channel Seven's Sports Commentator David Fordham and Channel Seven's newsreader Chris Bath, while seven months pregnant with her first child, live on stage in the stadium.
Featured various performances, including "Waltzing Matilda" with John Williamson. The Opening Ceremony began with a tribute to the heritage of the Australian Stock Horse, with the arrival of a lone rider, Steve Jefferys, whose Australian Stock Horse, reared. Steve Jefferys cracked his stockwhip and a further 120 riders and their Stock Horses entered the Stadium and performed intricate steps, including forming the five Olympic Rings, to the music of Bruce Rowland who composed a special Olympics version of the main theme which he had composed for the 1982 film The Man from Snowy River. A giant banner, painted by Sydney artist Ken Done, said "G'Day" to the world. Segment Director: Ignatius Jones Costume Designer: Kristian Fredrikson Graphic Designer: Ken Done Bridge The Australian National Anthem, Advance Australia Fair, was sung by both Human Nature and Julie Anthony, accompanied by the Sydney Symphony Orchestra under the baton of George Ellis; this took place after the arrival of the Governor-General Sir William Deane, The Prime Minister John Howard and the President of the IOC Juan Antonio Samaranch.
Segment Director: Ignatius Jones Costume Designer: Kristian Fredrikson – Fanfare This segment celebrates Australia's affinity with the sea with the stadium floor being turned into a beach setting. Nikki Webster arrives in bask in the light, she drifts off into a dream. The performers represented the sea and the various aquatic fauna appear and move around the arena floor; this was a tribute to the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia. Nikki Webster was hoisted up in the air by over head wires and swam with the sea creatures. Other swimmers were present, being coached by Australian swimming coach Laurie Lawrence. Elena Kats-Chernin composed the music for this section, performed by the Sydney Symphony Orchestra and Sydney Children's Choir, conducted by Simone Young. Segment Director & Choreographer: Meryl Tankard Assistant Director & Choreographer: Steven McTaggart Designer: Dan Potra Costume Designers: Dan Potra and Meryl Tankard The awakening segment celebrated Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, which date back thousands of years.
A special welcome was made to countries competing at the Games. A Yolngu elder and songman, Djakapurra Munyarryun, guided Nikki Webster through the segment. Narration for the segment was by Wajarri TV personality Ernie Dingo. Segment Directors: Stephen Page and Rhoda Roberts Designer: Peter England Costume Designer: Jennifer Irwin Choreographers: Stephen Page, Matthew Doyle, Elma Kris and Peggy Misi The Nature segment showcased the Australian outback and flora, it began with various fire performers moving across the stadium floor, symbolising the advance of a bushfire. In the aftermath, performers representing the flora stir as the land is replenished with water and life; the stadium floor is filled with performers dressed in costumes representing various flowers including Australia's distinctive wild flowers such as the Golden Wattle, the Waratah, the Sturt's Desert Pea, Water Lilies and Eucalypt flowers. The fauna, which were represented by 7 large paintings by Jeffrey Sammuels, were revealed, depicting the indigenous animal life in Australia.
The dream like music heard during this sequence was composed and conducted by Australian composer, Chong Lim. The flowers once more were illuminated before moving out of the stadium. Segment Director: Peter Wilson Designer: Eamon D'Arcy Choreographer: Doug Jack Charting Choreographer: Jason Olthoff Artwork Graphic Design: Jeffrey SamuelsFire credits: Segment Director: David Atkins Choreographer: Jason Coleman Costume Designers: Paula Ryan, Michael Wilkinson In the Tin Symphony segment, cases of the European settlement in Australia were shown, the development of Australia into a rural and civic country; this segment began with the arrival of Captain James Cook and crew, with bicycles to represent his ship, HM Bark Endeavour, during Captain Cook's exploration of the Australian east coast. The performer acting as Captain Cook lit a firework to start the segment. A caged fake rabbit was shown aboard the ship. Tin Symphony Part 1—–This rollicking reel, co-written and co-produced by Ian Cooper and John Frohlich ©, includes an Irish jig montaged with drums, bush sounds and voice.
A multitude of performers dress as the iconic Australian bushranger Ned Kelly appear onto the stadium floor, with other symbolic items of the outback such as corrugated iron and storm water tanks pre
The Olympic symbols are icons and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee to elevate the Olympic Games. Some—such as the flame and theme—are more used during Olympic competition, but others, such as the flags, can be seen throughout the years; the Olympic flag was created under the guidance of Baron Coubertin in 1913 and was released in 1914. But it was first hoisted in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium at the 1920 Summer Olympics in the main stadium. Five rings equal the Five continents of the world; the Olympic motto is the hendiatris Citius, Fortius, Latin for "Faster, Stronger". It was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin upon the creation of the International Olympic Committee in 1894. Coubertin borrowed it from his friend Henri Didon, a Dominican priest, an athletics enthusiast. Coubertin said "These three words represent a programme of moral beauty; the aesthetics of sport are intangible." The motto was introduced in 1924 at the Olympic Games in Paris. A more informal but well-known motto introduced by Coubertin, is "The most important thing is not to win but to take part!"
Coubertin got this motto from a sermon by the Bishop of Pennsylvania during the 1908 London Games. The rings are five interlocking rings, coloured blue, black and red on a white field, known as the "Olympic rings"; the symbol was designed in 1912 by de Coubertin. He appears to have intended the rings to represent the five continents: Europe, Africa and America. According to Coubertin, the colours of the rings together with the white of the background included the colours composing every competing nation's flag at the time. Upon its initial introduction, Coubertin stated the following in the August 1912 edition of Olympique:... the six colours combined in this way reproduce the colours of every country without exception. The blue and yellow of Sweden, the blue and white of Greece, the tricolour flags of France, the United States, Belgium and Hungary, the yellow and red of Spain are included, as are the innovative flags of Brazil and Australia, those of ancient Japan and modern China; this is an international emblem.
In his article published in the Olympic Revue the official magazine of the International Olympic Committee in November 1992, the American historian Robert Barney explains that the idea of the interlaced rings came to Pierre de Coubertin when he was in charge of the USFSA, an association founded by the union of two French sports associations and until 1925, responsible for representing the International Olympic Committee in France: The emblem of the union was two interlaced rings and the idea of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung: for him, the ring symbolized continuity and the human being. The 1914 Congress was suspended due to the outbreak of World War I, but the symbol and flag were adopted, they debuted at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. The symbol's popularity and widespread use began during the lead-up to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Carl Diem, president of the Organizing Committee of the 1936 Summer Olympics, wanted to hold a torchbearers' ceremony in the stadium at Delphi, site of the famous oracle, where the Pythian Games were held.
For this reason he ordered construction of a milestone with the Olympic rings carved in the sides, that a torchbearer should carry the flame along with an escort of three others from there to Berlin. The ceremony was celebrated but the stone was never removed. Two American authors and Gray Poole, when visiting Delphi in the late 1950s, saw the stone and reported in their History of the Ancient Games that the Olympic rings design came from ancient Greece; this has become known as "Carl Diem's Stone". This created a myth; the current view of the International Olympic Committee is that the symbol "reinforces the idea" that the Olympic Movement is international and welcomes all countries of the world to join. As can be read in the Olympic Charter, the Olympic symbol represents the union of the "five continents" of the world and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. However, no continent is represented by any specific ring. Prior to 1951, the official handbook stated that each colour corresponded to a particular continent: blue for Europe, yellow for Asia, black for Africa, green for Australia and Oceania, red for the Americas.
The logo of the Association of National Olympic Committees places the logo of each of its five continental associations inside the ring of the corresponding colour. The Olympic flag was created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1913; the Olympic flag has a white background, with five interlaced rings in the centre: blue, black and red. This design is symbolic. There are specific Olympic flags that are displayed by cities that will be hosting the next Olympic games. During each Olympic closing ceremony in what is traditionally known as the Antwerp Ceremony, the flag is passed from the mayor of one host city to the next host, where it will be taken to the new host and displayed at city hall; these flags should not be confused with the larger Olympic flags designed and created for each games, which are flown over the host stadium and retired. Because there is no specific flag for this purp
Australia at the 2000 Summer Olympics
Australia was the host nation for the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. Australian athletes have competed in every Summer Olympic Games. 628 competitors, 341 men and 276 women, took part in 270 events in 34 sports. Australia won its first Olympic gold medal in the sport of archery in Sydney. Simon Fairweather defeated all six archers he faced, including a comfortable seven-point victory in the final. Men Women KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track and road eventsField eventsCombined events – DecathlonWomen Track and road events Field eventsCombined events – Heptathlon MenWomenMixed The Australians' second appearance in the Olympic baseball tournament resulted in the team moving up one place in the rankings, from seventh to sixth.
They defeated Korea and South Africa but lost to the five other teams in competition to finish outside the top four and find themselves eliminated after the preliminaries. Preliminary Round Robin Lost to Netherlands Defeated Korea Lost to Japan Defeated South Africa Lost to Cuba Lost to Italy Lost to United States → did not advance Team Roster Craig Anderson Grant Balfour Tom Becker Shayne Bennett Mathew Buckley Adam Burton Clayton Byrne Mark Ettles Paul Gonzalez Mark Hutton Ronny Johnson Grant McDonald Adrian Meagher Michael Moyle Michael Nakamura David Nilsson Glenn Reeves Brett Roneberg Chris Snelling Brad Thomas Rodney van Buizen David White Gary White Glenn Williams Head Coach: Jon Deeble Preliminary Round Lost to Canada Lost to Yugoslavia Defeated Russia Defeated Angola Defeated Spain Quarterfinals Defeated Italy Semi-finals Lost to France Bronze Medal Match Lost to Lithuania Team Roster Andrew Gaze Chris Anstey Mark Bradtke Martin Cattalini Ricky Grace Shane Heal Luc Longley Sam Mackinnon Brett Maher Paul Rogers Jason Smith Andrew Vlahov Head Coach: Barry Barnes Preliminary Round Defeated Canada Defeated Brazil Defeated Slovakia Defeated Senegal Defeated France Quarterfinals Defeated Poland Semi-finals Defeated Brazil Final Lost to United States → Silver Medal Team Roster Sandy Brondello Michelle Brogan Carla Boyd Jo Hill Kristi Harrower Shelly Sandle Annie la Fleur Trisha Fallon Lauren Jackson Rachael Sporn Michele Timms Jenny Whittle Head Coach: Tom Maher Men MenWomen MenWomen PursuitSprintTime trialPoints raceKeirin Australia entered divers in all of the events, won two bronze medals.
MenWomen Seven fencers, five men and two women, represented Australia in 2000. MenWomen Coach: Raul Blanco *Over-aged player Preliminary Round Lost to Germany Tied with Sweden Lost to Brazil Quarter Finals Did not qualify Team Roster Dianne Alagich Sharon Black Bryony Duus Alicia Ferguson Alison Forman Heather Garriock Kelly Golebiowski Peita-Claire Hepperlin Sunni Hughes Kate McShea Julie Murray Cheryl Salisbury Bridgette Starr Anissa Tann Leanne Trimboli Sacha Wainwright Tracey Wheeler Amy Wilson Head Coach: Chris Tanzey TeamIndividual events Preliminary Round Lost to Sweden Lost to Spain Lost to Slovenia Lost to Tunisia Lost to France Quarterfinal Did not qualify Classification Match 11th/12th place: Lost to Cuba → 12th and last place Team Roster Peter Bach Christian Bajan Vernon Cheung Russell Garnett David Gonzalez Kristian Groenintwoud Darryl McCormack Rajan Pavlovic Taip Ramadani Brendon Taylor Lee Schofield Dragan Sestic Sasa Sestic Milan Slavujevic Karim Shehab Head Coach: Zoltán Marczinka Preliminary Round Lost to Brazil Lost to Norway Lost to Denmark Lost to Austria Quarterfinal Did not qualify Classification Match 9th/10th place: Lost to Angola → 10th and last place Team Roster Janni Bach Petra Besta Rina Bjarnason Raelene Boulton Kim Briggs Mari Edland Sarah Hammond Fiona Hannan Vera Ignjatovic Jana Jamnicky Lydia Kahmke Marina Kopcalic Jovana Milosevic Shelley Ormes Katrina Shinfield Head Coach: Christoph Mecker Preliminary Round Australia — Poland 4-0 Australia — India 2-2 Australia — Spain 2-2 Australia — Argentina 2-1 Australia — South Korea 2-1 Semi Finals Australia — The Netherlands 0-0 Bronze Medal Game Australia — Pakistan 6-3 Team Roster Michael Brennan Adam Commens Stephen Davies Damon Diletti Lachlan Dreher Jason Duff Troy Elder James Elmer Paul Gaudoin Stephen Holt Brent Livermore Daniel Sproule Jay Stacy Craig Victory Matthew Wells Michael York Head Coach: Terry Walsh Preliminary Round Australia — Great Britain 2-1 Australia — Spain 1-1 Australia — Argentina 3-1 Australia — South Korea 3-0 Medal Round Australia — New Zealand 3-0 Australia — The Netherlands 5-0 Australia — China 5-1 Final Australia — Argentina 3-1 Team Roster Kate Allen Alyson Annan Renita Farrell Juliet Haslam Rechelle Hawkes Nikki Hudson Rachel Imison Clover Maitland Claire Mitchell-Taverner Jenny Morris Alison Peek Katrina Powell Lisa Powell Angie Skirving Kate Starre Julie Towers Head Coach: Rick Charlesworth MenWomen Coaches: Anthony Klarica, John Olsen, John Gilman, Scott Arnold, Russel Johnston MenWomen Australia competed in all of the sailing events at the 2000 Olympics.
They won 1 silver and 1 bronze. MenMen's Double Handed Dinghy Tom King and Mark Turnbull Race 1 — 5 Race 2 — 1 Race 3 — 2 Race 4 — Race 5 — 7 Race 6 — 10 Race 7 — 8 Race 8 — 1 Race 9 — 2 Race 10 — Race 11 — 2 Final — 38
"Chinese Taipei" is the name for Taiwan designated in the Nagoya Resolution whereby the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China recognize each other when it comes to the activities of the International Olympic Committee. The ROC participates under this name in various international organizations and events, including the Olympic Games, the Little League World Series, International Tennis Federation sanctioned tournaments, the Australian Open, the French Open, the US Open, Paralympic Games, Asian Games, Asian Para Games, International Powerlifting Federation, FIFA, the World Kendo Championship, the Overwatch world cup and other eSports, Miss Universe, Miss Chinese International Pageant, FIRST Global, the Metre Convention, the World Health Organization; the term is deliberately ambiguous. To the PRC, "Chinese Taipei" is ambiguous about the political status or sovereignty of the ROC/Taiwan. Before the 1600s, the island of Taiwan had numerous independent Taiwanese Aborigines tribes, before suffering colonization by the Dutch and Spanish colonizers in the northern areas.
Small portions of Taiwan were colonized by the Chinese and these few southern areas were governed by the Kingdom of Tungning before being annexed by the Qing dynasty in 1683. The central and mountainous areas were still under Indigenous control. Following the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Taiwan was annexed by Japan. After the Surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, the island of Taiwan was placed under the administration of Nationalist Republic of China in 1945 and became their newest province. Near the end of Chinese Civil War in 1949, before the post-war treaties were to be signed, the Kuomintang were driven out of the mainland by the Communists who would establish the People's Republic of China in October 1949; the ruling-party Kuomintang, retreated to the occupied Taiwan, thus becoming government in exile and remained for a time as the internationally recognized government of the Republic of China. Most democratic countries continued to support the Nationalist government while communist nations recognized the Communist government.
As time went on, the increased official recognition of the PRC in international activities, such as when accorded recognition in 1971 by the United Nations, instead of that accorded to the ROC saw existing diplomatic relations transfer from Taipei to Beijing. The ROC needed to come to a beneficial conclusion to how it would be referred when there was in the same forum participation by the PRC; the International Olympic Committee, had informally been using in international Olympic activities a number of names to differentiate the ROC from the PRC. "Taiwan" was used at the Tokyo Games. In 1979, the PRC agreed to participate in IOC activities if the Republic of China was referred to as "Chinese Taipei"; the Nagoya Resolution sanctioned that the Beijing Olympic Committee would be called the "Chinese Olympic Committee" and another name would need to be found for the ROC Olympic Committee. The majority view of the ROC leadership at the time was that they did not want to change, "Taiwan" might imply without China or Chinese being in the name subordination to the PRC, did not represent all the regions/islands of the ROC and did not give the ROC an opportunity to assert when wanted a claim to territory outside of the ROC.
What people refer to as Taiwan is one of several areas or islands and Taiwan alone did not reflect the "territorial extent" of the ROC. Furthermore, although it is true that most products from the area controlled by the ROC are labeled "made in Taiwan", the trade practices of the ROC are such that the regional area of production is used for labeling; some wines from Kinmen are labeled "made in Kinmen", just as some perfume is labeled "made in Paris" and not "made in France". Taiwan's own government, the ROC government under the Kuomintang, rejected the designation of "Taiwan, China" on the grounds that this would imply subordination to the PRC. However, it refused the names "Taiwan" and "Formosa" as a means of reasserting both its claim as the only legitimate government of all of China, its uncompromising rejection of Taiwan independence. Instead, deriving from the name of its capital city, the ROC government formulated the name “Chinese Taipei,” instead of accepting the offer of “Taiwan,” because “Chinese Taipei” signified an uncertain boundary that could exceed the ROC’s actual territory of control of Taiwan, Penghu and Matsu, whenever the ROC government wished to assert it.
It regarded the term Chinese Taipei as both acceptably neutral and hopeful of assent from other interested parties. Its proposal found agreement. Beijing accepted the compromise position that the ROC Olympic Committee could be named the "Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee". In April 1979, in a plenary session of the IOC, He Zhenliang, a representative of the PRC, stated: According to the Olympic Charter, only one Chinese Olympic Committee should be recognized. In consideration of the athletes in Taiwan having an opportunity to compete in the Olympic Games, the sports constitution in Taiwan could function as a local organization of China and still remain in the Olympic Movement i
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So