Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is a French politician serving as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 2017. He was Minister of the Economy and Digital Affairs from 2014 to 2016. Macron was born in Amiens and studied philosophy at Paris Nanterre University, completed a Master's of Public Affairs at Sciences Po and graduated from the École nationale d'administration in 2004, he worked as a senior civil servant at the Inspectorate General of Finances and became an investment banker at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was appointed Deputy Secretary General to the President by François Hollande in May 2012, he was appointed Minister of Economy and Digital Affairs in August 2014 under the Second Valls government, where he pushed through business-friendly reforms. He resigned in August 2016 to launch a bid in the 2017 presidential election. After being a member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009, Macron ran in the election under the banner of a centrist political movement he founded in April 2016, En Marche!.
He won the election on 7 May 2017 with 66.1% of the vote in the second round. At age 39, Macron became the youngest President of France in history and appointed Édouard Philippe to be Prime Minister. In the June 2017 legislative elections, Macron's party, renamed "La République en marche", together with its ally the Democratic Movement, secured a majority in the National Assembly. Born in Amiens, Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is the son of Françoise, a physician, Jean-Michel Macron, professor of neurology at the University of Picardy; the couple were divorced in 2010. Macron has two siblings, born in 1979 and Estelle, born in 1982. Françoise and Jean-Michel's first child was born stillborn. Raised in a non-religious family, he was baptized a Roman Catholic at his own request at age 12, although he is agnostic today; the Macron family legacy is traced back to the village of Authie in Hauts-de-France. One of Macron's paternal great-grandfathers, George William Robertson, was English, was born in Bristol, United Kingdom.
His maternal grandparents and Germaine Noguès, are from the Pyrenean town of Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Gascony. Macron visited Bagnères-de-Bigorre to visit his grandmother Germaine, whom he called "Manette". Macron associates his enjoyment of reading and his left-ward political leanings to Germaine, after coming from a modest upbringing of a stationmaster father and a housekeeping mother, became a teacher a principal, died in 2013. Macron was educated at the Jesuit Lycée la Providence in Amiens before his parents sent him to finish his last year of school at the elite Lycée Henri-IV in Paris, where he completed the high school curriculum and the undergraduate program with a "Bac S, Mention Très bien". At the same time he was nominated for the "Concours Général" in French literature and received his diploma for his piano studies at Amiens Conservatory, his parents sent him off to Paris due to their alarm at the bond he had formed with Brigitte Auzière, a married teacher with three children at Jésuites de la Providence, who became his wife.
In Paris, he failed to gain entry to the École normale supérieure twice. He instead studied Philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense, obtaining a DEA degree. Around 1999 Macron worked as an editorial assistant to Paul Ricoeur, the French Protestant philosopher, writing his last major work, La Mémoire, l'Histoire, l'Oubli. Macron worked on the notes and bibliography. Macron became a member of the editorial board of the literary magazine Esprit. Macron did not perform national service. Born in December 1977, he belonged to the last year. Macron obtained a master's degree in public affairs at the Sciences Po, majoring in "Public Guidance and Economy" before training for a senior civil service career at the selective École nationale d'administration, training at an embassy in Nigeria and in an office in Oise before graduating in 2004. After graduating from ENA in 2004, Macron became an Inspector in the Inspection générale des finances, a branch of the Finance Ministry. Macron was mentored by Jean-Pierre Jouyet, the then-head of the IGF.
During his time as an Inspector of Finances, Macron gave lectures during the summer at the "prep'ENA" at IPESUP, an elite private school specializing in preparation for the entrance examinations of the Grandes écoles, such as HEC or Sciences Po. In 2006, Laurence Parisot offered him the job of managing director for Mouvement des Entreprises de France, the largest employer federation in France, but he declined. In August 2007, Macron was appointed deputy rapporteur for Jacques Attali's "Commission to Unleash French Growth". In 2008, Macron paid €50,000 to buy himself out of his government contract, he became an investment banker in a highly-paid position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. In March 2010, he was appointed to the Attali Commission as a member. In September 2008, Macron left his job as an Inspector of Finances and took a position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was inspired to leave the government due to the election of Nicolas Sarkozy to the presidency, he was offered the job by François Henrot.
His first responsibility at Rothschild & Cie Banque was assisting with the acquisition of Cofidis by Crédit Mutuel Nord Europe. Macron formed a relationship with a businessman on the supervisory board of Le Monde. In 2010, Macron
Vicenç Mateu Zamora
Viçenc Mateu Zamora is an Andorran diplomat and politician. He is the General Syndic of Andorra's unicameral legislative body, he has a doctoral degree in Philosophy, Master in Business Administration and studied law. He worked as a professor of philosophy and literature at San Ermengol School and UNED, he was the Andorra ambassador to Spain and France, delegate to UNESCO. He was Secretary General of the Ministry of Technical Education and Youth, founding member of the National Democratic Initiative, the national leader of IDN, general counsel for two terms and founding member of New Centre. Official biography, Principality of Andorra
2019 Andorran parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Andorra on 7 April 2019, electing all 28 seats of the General Council. Although they remained the largest party, the Democrats for Andorra lost their parliamentary majority after losing four seats; the Social Democratic Party gained four seats. Democrats for Andorra secured an absolute majority in the 2015 election and Antoni Martí was re-elected Prime Minister of Andorra. In December 2017, Josep Pintat, together with the two members of the Lauredian Union and two members of Commited Citizens, left the Liberal group. Antoni Martí is unable for reelection, as the Constitution limits the office to two complete consecutive terms. Twenty-eight general councillors are elected, based on closed party lists: Fourteen general councillors representing the seven parishes are elected from the list with most votes in each parish. Fourteen general councillors are elected from national lists using the largest remainder method of proportional representation; the parish lists and the national list are independent of one another: the same person cannot appear on both the national list and on a parish list, voters cast two separate ballots.
There is no requirement to vote for the same party for both lists. The following parties or coalitions are running in the election: The following table displays the parties or coalitions running at each parish: Official website
The Andorran passport is issued to Andorran citizens for international travel. Although citizens of Andorra are not EU citizens, they can nonetheless use the lanes for EU and EFTA citizens when crossing the external borders of the Schengen Area instead of using the desks for third-country nationals. Visa requirements for Andorran citizens are administrative entry restrictions imposed by the authorities of other states; as of 1 January 2017, Andorran citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 155 countries and territories, ranking the Andorran passport 19th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley visa restrictions index. Visa requirements for Andorran citizens Application form for an Andorran passport Gallery of Andorran passports
Politics of Andorra
The politics of Andorra take place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional diarchy, a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government, with the Head of Government of Andorra as chief executive. Legislative power is vested in both the parliament; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. Before 1993, Andorra's political system had no clear division of powers into executive and judicial branches. A constitution ratified and approved in 1993 establishes Andorra as a sovereign parliamentary democracy that retains the President of France and Bishop of Urgell as co-princes and heads of state. However, the head of government retains executive power; the two co-princes serve coequally with limited powers that do not include an individual veto over government acts. They are each represented in Andorra by a personal representative; the fundamental impetus for this political transformation was a recommendation by the Council of Europe in 1990 that, if Andorra wished to attain full integration in the European Union, it should adopt a modern constitution that guarantees the rights of those living and working there.
A Tripartite Commission – made up of representatives of the co-princes, the General Council, the Executive Council – was formed in 1990 and finalized the draft constitution in April 1991, making the new constitution a fact. One remaining, though symbolic, legacy of Andorra's special relationship with France and Spain, is that the Principality has no postal service of its own – French and Spanish postal services operate side by side, although each of them issues separate stamps for Andorra, instead of using their own. Under the 1993 constitution, the co-princes continue as heads of state, but the head of government retains executive power; the two co-princes serve coequally with limited powers that do not include veto over government acts. Both are represented in Andorra by a delegate, although since 1993, both France and Spain have their own embassies; as co-princes of Andorra, the President of France and the Bishop of Urgell maintain supreme authority in approval of all international treaties with France and Spain, as well as all those that deal with internal security, Andorran territory, diplomatic representation, judicial or penal cooperation.
Although the institution of the co-princes is viewed by some as an anachronism, the majority sees them as both a link with Andorra's traditions and a way to balance the power of Andorra's two much larger neighbors. The way the two princes are chosen makes Andorra one of the most politically distinct nations on earth. One co-prince is the current sitting President of France Emmanuel Macron; the other is the current Roman Catholic bishop of the Catalan city of La Seu d'Urgell Joan Enric Vives i Sicilia. As neither prince lives in Andorra, their role is entirely ceremonial. In 1981, the Executive Council, consisting of the Cap de Govern and seven ministers, was established; every four years, after the general elections, the General Council elects the head of government, who, in turn, chooses the other members of the Executive Council. Andorra's main legislative body is the 28-member General Council; the sindic, the subsindic and the members of the Council are elected in the general elections to be held every four years.
The Council meets throughout the year on certain dates as required. At least one representative from each parish must be present for the General Council to meet. Within the General Council, four deputies apiece from each of the seven individual parishes have provided representation; this system allowed parishes with as few as 350 voters the same number of representatives as larger parishes with up to 2,600 voters. To correct this imbalance, a provision in the new constitution modifies the structure and format for electing Council members. Under the new format, half of the representatives are chosen by the traditional system, the other half selected from nationwide lists. A sindic and a subsindic are chosen by the General Council to implement its decisions, they may be reappointed once. They receive an annual salary. Sindics have no discretionary powers, all policy decisions must be approved by the Council as a whole; the judicial system is independent. Courts apply the customary law of Andorra, supplemented with customary Catalan law.
Civil cases are first heard by the Court of Batlles – a group of four judges, two chosen by each co-prince. Appeals are heard in the Court of Appeals; the highest body is the five-member Superior Court of Justice. More info: Andorran parliamentary election, 2011 Andorra is formed by seven parishes; the Government of Andorra maintains a small ceremonial Army, a well-equipped modernized Police Corps, a Fire Brigade, a Mountain Rescue Service, the GIPA, a para-military unit trained in hostage and counter-terrorism roles. Andorra's young democracy is in the process of redefining its political party system. Three out of the five parties that dominated the political scene in past years have dissolved; the Liberal Union tried to reshape itself and change its name to that of the Liberal Party of Andorra to offer a political umbrella to small parties and groups that have not yet found their place. Another party, the Social Democratic Party of Andorra, has been formed, it was designed to attract parties previously
Patrick Strzoda is a French high-ranking civil servant. He is a former Prefect, he is President Emmanuel Macron's chief of staff. Patrick Strzoda was born on 5 January 1952 in Haut-Rhin, France, he graduated from the University of Franche-Comté, where he earned a degree in English, from the University of Strasbourg, where he earned a law degree. He graduated from the École nationale d'administration in 1983. Strzoda was the chief of staff to the Prefect of Dordogne from 1985 to 1987, he was the sub-prefect of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne from 1987 to 1989, the secretary general of the committee for the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville from 1989 to 1992. He was the secretary general of the prefecture of Drôme in Valence from 1992 to 1994, the sub-prefect of Arles from 1995 to 1996, he was the director of information and community for the city of Paris from 1996 to 1997, the secretary general for regional affairs for the prefecture of Rhône-Alpes from 1997 to 2002. Strzoda was the Prefect of Hautes-Alpes from 2002 to 2004, the Prefect of Deux-Sèvres in 2005, a prefect at the regional council of Savoie from 2006 to 2007.
He was the Prefect of Hauts-de-Seine from 2009 to 2011, the Prefect of Corse-du-Sud from 2011 to 2013, the Prefect of Brittany from June 2013 to May 2016. Strzoda was Prime Minister Bernard Cazeneuve's chief of staff from 4 May 2016 to 27 April 2017, he was the Prefect of Île-de-France in April–May 2017. On 14 May 2017, he was appointed by President Emmanuel Macron as his chief of staff. Strzoda is an officer of the Legion of Honour and the Order of Agricultural Merit, a knight of the Ordre des Palmes Académiques, a commander of the National Order of Merit
Andorra the Principality of Andorra called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra, is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordering France to the north and Spain to the south. Believed to have been created by Charlemagne, Andorra was ruled by the Count of Urgell until 988, when it was transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, the present principality was formed by a charter in 1278, it is known as a principality as it is a diarchy headed by two Princes: the Catholic Bishop of Urgell in Catalonia and the President of France. Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having an area of 468 square kilometres and a population of 77,281; the Andorran people are a Romance ethnic group of Catalan descent. Andorra is the 16th-smallest country in the 11th-smallest by population, its capital, Andorra la Vella, is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres above sea level. The official language is Catalan. Tourism in Andorra sees an estimated 10.2 million visitors annually.
It is not a member of the European Union. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. In 2013, Andorra had the highest life expectancy in the world at 81 years, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study; the origin of the word Andorra is unknown. The oldest derivation of the word Andorra is from the Greek historian Polybius who describes the Andosins, an Iberian Pre-Roman tribe, as located in the valleys of Andorra and facing the Carthaginian army in its passage through the Pyrenees during the Punic Wars; the word Andosini or Andosins may derive from the Basque handia whose meaning is "big" or "giant". The Andorran toponymy shows evidence of Basque language in the area. Another theory suggests that the word Andorra may derive from the old word Anorra that contains the Basque word ur. Another theory suggests that Andorra may derive from Arabic al-durra, meaning "The forest"; when the Moors colonized the Iberian Peninsula, the valleys of the Pyrenees were covered by large tracts of forest, other regions and towns administered by Muslims, received this designation.
Other theories suggest that the term derives from the Navarro-Aragonese andurrial, which means "land covered with bushes" or "scrubland". The folk etymology holds that Charlemagne had named the region as a reference to the Biblical Canaanite valley of Endor or Andor, a name bestowed by his heir and son Louis le Debonnaire after defeating the Moors in the "wild valleys of Hell". La Balma de la Margineda, found by archaeologists at Sant Julia de Loria, was first settled in 9,500 BC as a passing place between the two sides of the Pyrenees; the seasonal camp was located for hunting and fishing by the groups of hunter-gatherers from Ariege and Segre. During the Neolithic Age, a group of people moved to the Valley of Madriu as a permanent camp in 6640 BC; the population of the valley grew cereals, raised domestic livestock, developed a commercial trade with people from the Segre and Occitania. Other archaeological deposits include the Tombs of Segudet and Feixa del Moro both dated in 4900–4300 BC as an example of the Urn culture in Andorra.
The model of small settlements began to evolve to a complex urbanism during the Bronze Age. Metallurgical items of iron, ancient coins, relicaries can be found in the ancient sanctuaries scattered around the country; the sanctuary of Roc de les Bruixes is the most important archeological complex of this age in Andorra, located in the parish of Canillo, about the rituals of funerals, ancient scripture and engraved stone murals. The inhabitants of the valleys were traditionally associated with the Iberians and located in Andorra as the Iberian tribe Andosins or Andosini during the 7th and 2nd centuries BC. Influenced by Aquitanias and Iberian languages, the locals developed some current toponyms. Early writings and documents relating to this group of people goes back to the second century BC by the Greek writer Polybius in his Histories during the Punic Wars; some of the most significant remains of this era are the Castle of the Roc d'Enclar, l'Anxiu in Les Escaldes and Roc de L'Oral in Encamp.
The presence of Roman influence is recorded from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD. The places found with more Roman presence are in Camp Vermell in Sant Julia de Loria, in some places in Encamp, as well as in the Roc d'Enclar. People continued trading with wine and cereals, with the Roman cities of Urgellet and all across Segre through the Via Romana Strata Ceretana. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Andorra came under the influence of the Visigoths, not remotely from the Kingdom of Toledo, but locally from the Diocese of Urgell; the Visigoths remained in the valleys for 200 years. When the Muslim Empire and its conquest of most of the Iberian Peninsula replaced the ruling Visigoths, Andorra was sheltered from these invaders by the Franks. Tradition holds that Charles the Great granted a charter to the Andorran people for a contingent of five thousand soldiers under the command of Marc Almugaver, in