1963 Argentine general election
The Argentine general election of 1963 was held on 7 July. Voters chose both their legislators; the spectre of military intervention so much in evidence after the election of Arturo Frondizi in 1958 became reality following his coerced resignation on March 29, 1962. His UCRI candidates had done well. An array of political leaders had been lobbying the military against Frondizi, as well: centrist UCRP leader Ricardo Balbín and conservative economist Álvaro Alsogaray both celebrated the president's unceremonious exit; the matter of Frondizi's successor, became a subject of contention within the armed forces. The two opposing camps defined themselves as either "Blues" or "Reds"; the stalemate lasted a day because most of the Army High Command were "Blues," whose preference of a "legal" solution to the vacuum was supported by most of the press and the Argentine public enjoying Latin America's widest access to the media. Relying on constitutional guidelines, they named the reluctant Senate President José María Guido Head of State.
Guido, a moderate senator from then-remote Río Negro Province, had been elected on Frondizi's's UCRI ticket. His prompt resignation from the UCRI and annulment of the March 18 mid-term elections did not dispel the threat of a coup attempt and mutinies in April and August resulted in the appointment of Army General Juan Carlos Onganía as Head of the Military Joint Chiefs; the more stable military panorama was overshadowed by economic worries. Following a brief period of robust growth led by industrial production, President Guido's economic team, led by Alsogaray, imposed a fresh devaluation and austerity measures such as strict credit controls and the payment of state salaries with nearly-worthless bonds. GDP fell by 4% in 1962-63 and unemployment rose to nearly 9%; the Radical Civic Union was again divided between the Intransigent and more conservative Popular factions as they convened in March 1963. The UCRP nominated former Córdoba Province Vice-Governor Arturo Illia, a country doctor fondly remembered for his work in the Public Health Committee in Congress.
The UCRI, as they had done in 1958 hoped to secure the exiled Juan Perón's endorsement who, from Madrid, still directly controlled a fifth of the Argentine electorate. Permitted to field local and Lower House candidates Peronist voters, like in 1962, rallied behind the UP and six other parties, their intention to run in the less-than-free elections was itself in defiance of Perón, who refused to endorse "neo-Peronist" candidates and instead called for blank ballots. Alejandro Leloir, who had fallen out with fellow neo-Peronists as well as Perón, ran for President independently on the Three Flags ticket. Against opposition from former Buenos Aires Governor Oscar Alende and Perón agreed on a "National Popular Front," fielding a respected, moderately conservative publisher as the nominee, Vicente Solano Lima. Tricked by a similar move in 1958, the military objected, leading to the brutal 1963 Argentine Navy Revolt on April 2, which cost 24 lives and scuttled the Perón-Frondizi front; these incidents led former President Pedro Aramburu run on his UDELPA ticket, thus hoping to provide those most to support a military coup a suitable, center-right choice instead.
He was endorsed by the more moderate Democratic Progressive Party, whose leader, Horacio Thedy, ran as Aramburu's running mate. Other anti-Peronist conservatives supported former Córdoba Mayor Emilio Olmos and the FNPC. Hamstrung by Frondizi's open enmity against Alende for the latter's rejection of the aborted Front, as well as Perón's call for blank ballots, Alende's UCRI was defeated in an upset by Dr. Arturo Illia and the UCRP; the renewed ban on the participation of Peronist candidates resulted in the highest percentage of blank votes in Argentine electoral history. Radical Civic Union: Former Deputy Arturo Umberto Illia of Córdoba Intransigent Radical Civic Union: Former Governor Oscar Alende of Buenos Aires UDELPA: Former de facto President Pedro Eugenio Aramburu of Córdoba National Federation of Centrist Parties: Former Córdoba Mayor Emilio Olmos Christian Democratic Party: Former Deputy Horacio Sueldo of Buenos Aires Socialist Party: Former Senator Alfredo Palacios of Buenos Aires aAbstentions.
Electoral system: Proportional representation by districts according to the D'Hondt method. Seats are divided among those lists of candidates f
1946 Argentine general election
The Argentine general election of 1946, the last for which only men were enfranchised, was held on 24 February. Voters chose both the President and their legislators and with a turnout of 83.4%, it produced the following results: aAbstentions. Conservative rule, maintained through electoral fraud despite a moderate record, was brought to an end in a June 1943 coup d'état. Barking "orders of the day" every morning on the radio, the new regime enjoyed little approval; the devastating 1944 San Juan earthquake presented an opportunity to regain lost goodwill and the regime moved involving the private sector through nationwide fund-raising, entrusted to the Labor Minister, Juan Perón. Perón enlisted celebrities for the effort, among, a radio matinee star of middling talent, Eva Duarte, who introduced herself to the Labor Minister by remarking that "nothing's missing, except a touch of Atkinson's"; the effort's success and the rise of his ally, Edelmiro Farrell, within the junta, led to Perón's appointment as vice-president, which he leveraged in support of Argentina's struggling labor unions the CGT.
Perón's sudden clout led to growing rivalry among his junta colleagues, who had him arrested on October 9, a surprise move outdone by CGT leaders like retail workers' leader Ángel Borlenghi, the slaughterhouses' Cipriano Reyes and Eva Duarte, herself. Organizing a mass demonstration for his release on the Plaza de Mayo, their October 17, 1945, mobilization marked a turning point in Argentine history: the creation of the Peronist movement. Capitulating to the political winds, the junta bestowed presidential powers on Perón, who initiated his program of mass nationalizations of institutions such as the universities and Central Bank. Calling elections for February 1946, Perón's opposition hastily arranged an alliance, the Democratic Union. Many in the centrist Radical Civic Union were steadfastly opposed to this ad hoc union with conservatives and the left, an intrinsic burden compounded by a white paper scathingly critical of Perón released by the U. S. Ambassador, Spruille Braden; the report, accusing Perón of fascist ties, allowed him to marginalize the Democratic Union.
He reframed the argument as one between "Perón or Braden", making this his rallying cry and winning the 1946 elections handily. Labor Party: Former Vice-President Juan Perón from Buenos Aires Province Democratic Union: Former Congressman José Tamborini from the city of Buenos Aires Todo Argentina
September 1973 Argentine general election
The second Argentine general election of 1973 was held on 23 September. Turnout was 85.5%, it produced the following results: The jubilation that followed the May 25, 1973, return to democracy was soon clouded by political friction and unforeseen events. President Héctor Cámpora, who took his Oath of Office in the presence of Cuban leader Osvaldo Dorticós and Chilean leader Salvador Allende—both consular figures in Latin American Marxism—promptly declared a near-blanket amnesty for the several hundred political prisoners held by Alejandro Lanusse's regime. Cámpora made controversial appointments, such as Rodolfo Puiggrós as President of the University of Buenos Aires, Esteban Righi as Minister of the Interior and Julio Troxler as Assistant Police Chief of Buenos Aires - all former defense attorneys linked to the violently left-wing Montoneros. A number of left-wing lawyers were elected to prominent elected posts across the nation, notably Oscar Bidegain, Ricardo Obregon Cano and Alberto Martínez Baca, among others.
This new-found prominence among the Argentine left encouraged an violent reaction among the far right. Among Cámpora's appointees was one insisted on by his patron, Juan Perón: José López Rega, a former policeman with an interest in the occult close to the Perón household since 1965. López Rega, formally Minister of Social Policy parlayed his portfolio control over nearly 30 percent of the national budget into a well-funded paramilitary force, the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance. Threatened by the Montoneros' inroads into student and neighborhood organizations, local governments and the Peronist Youth, they began targeting many of Cámpora's policy makers, some of which began resigning under pressure from Perón, himself. President Cámpora agreed to have Peronist militants in charge of most security arrangements for Perón's much-anticipated June 20, 1973, return from exile; the calculating López Rega seized on this to prevail on Vice President Vicente Solano Lima and Senate President Alejandro Díaz Bialet to resign, as well, leaving a constitutional vacuum referred to as an "acephaly" — the absence of a head of state.
This move created both the need for new elections and the chance to remove a number of Cámpora's leftist advisers. The cautious Lastiri continued Cámpora's populist socio-economic policies; the runners-up in the March elections — Ricardo Balbín and Francisco Manrique — again accepted their respective party's nomination, with Manrique obtaining the endorsement of the PDP and naming its leader as his running mate. Increasing violence led many in Argentina, including much of the armed forces to conclude that only Perón commanded enough respect to persuade extremists away from hostilities. Gathering in Buenos Aires' renowned Teatro Colón, the Justicialist Party struggled to nominate Perón's running mate; the choice of the leader's own wife, intrigued the convention — she was, after all, the only prominent Peronist not publicly associated with any one faction within the fractious movement. Opposed to López Rega's suggestion at first, the aging Perón set aside strong personal doubts as to his wife's readiness for office and agreed.
The two sailed into office in a record landslide on the same FREJULI umbrella ticket on which Cámpora was elected only six months earlier. Justicialist Liberation Front: Former President Juan Perón of Buenos Aires Province Radical Civic Union: Former Deputy Ricardo Balbín of Buenos Aires Province Popular Federalist Alliance: Former Minister of Social Policy Francisco Manrique of Mendoza Province Socialist Workers' Party: Juan Carlos Coral
The Argentine Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Argentina. The National Senate was established by the Argentine Confederation on July 29, 1854, pursuant to Articles 46 to 54 of the 1853 Constitution. There are three for the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires; the number of senators per province was raised from two to three following the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution, the change took effect following the May 14, 1995, general elections. Senators are elected to six-year terms by direct election on a provincial basis, with the party with the most votes being awarded two of the province's senate seats and the second-place party receiving the third seat. Senators were indirectly elected to nine-year terms by each provincial legislature; these provisions were abrogated by a 1994 constitutional amendment, direct elections to the Senate took effect in 2001. One-third of the members are elected every two years. One-third of the provinces hold senatorial elections every two years.
The Vice President of the Republic is ex officio President of the Senate, with a casting vote in the event of a tie. In practice, the Provisional President presides over the chamber most of the time; the Senate must obtain this being an absolute majority. It has the power to approve bills passed by the Chamber of Deputies, call for joint sessions with the Lower House or special sessions with experts and interested parties, submit bills for the president's signature; the Senate must introduce any changes to federal revenue sharing policies, ratify international treaties, approve changes to constitutional or federal criminal laws, as well as confirm or impeach presidential nominees to the cabinet, the judiciary, the armed forces, the diplomatic corps, among other federal posts. There are twenty-four standing committees made up of fifteen members each, namely: Agreements Constitutional Affairs Foreign Affairs and Worship Justice and Criminal Affairs General Legislation Budget and Finance Administrative and Municipal Affairs National Defense Domestic Security and Drug Trafficking National Economy and Investment Industry and Trade Regional Economies, Micro and Medium Enterprises Labor and Social Security Agriculture, Cattle Raising and Fishing Education, Culture and Technology Rights and Guarantees Mining and Fuels Health and Sports Infrastructure and Transport Systems and Freedom of Speech Environment and Human Development Population and Human Development Federal Revenue Sharing Tourism.
According to Section 55 of the Argentine Constitution, candidates for the Argentine Senate must: be at least 30 years old have been a citizen of Argentina for six years be native to the province of his office, or have been a resident of that province for two years. See List of current members of the Argentine SenateAll data from official website; the current members of the Senate were elected in 2013, 2015 and 2017. The titular President of the Senate is the Vice President of Argentina. However, day to day leadership of the Senate is exercised by the Provisional President. Current leadership positions include: List of current Argentine senators Argentine Chamber of Deputies List of former Argentine Senators List of legislatures by country senado.gov.ar – Senate of Argentina
1874 Argentine presidential election
The Argentine presidential election of 1874 was held on 12 April to choose the president of Argentina. Nicolás Avellaneda was elected president. President Sarmiento's pragmatic approach to Buenos Aires demands and his successful control of separatist revolts in the north paved the way to high office for his vice president, Autonomist Party leader Adolfo Alsina. Alsina gained the support of a sizable facion of Mitre's Nationalist Party, resulting in the formation of the paramount political group in Argentina for the next 42 years: The National Autonomist Party. Mitre himself did not support Alsina, whom he viewed as a veiled Buenos Aires separatist; the elder statesman ran for the presidency again, though the seasoned Alsina outmaneuvered him by fielding Nicolás Avellaneda, a moderate lawyer from remote Tucumán Province. The electoral college met on 12 April 1874, awarded Mitre only three provinces, including Buenos Aires; as he had up to 1861, Mitre took up arms again. Hoping to prevent Avellaneda's 12 October inaugural, he mutineered a gunboat.
Diario de Sesiones de la Cámara de Senadores del Año 1874. Buenos Aires: Compañía Sud-Americana de Billetes de Banco. 1896. Pp. 289–292. Duhalde, Eduardo Luis. Acción Parlamentaria de John William Cooke. Buenos Aires: Colihue. P. 232. ISBN 978-950-563-460-6. Lorenzo, Celso Ramón. Manual de Historia Constitucional Argentina, Volumen 3. Rosario: Editorial Juris. P. 8. ISBN 950-817-111-1. "Historia Electoral Argentina, p. 58". Www.mininterior.gov.ar. Ministry of the Interior. December 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2017
1886 Argentine presidential election
The Argentine presidential election of 1886 was held on 11 April to choose the president of Argentina. Miguel Juárez Celman was elected president. Confident of his authority following six years of peace and prosperity, President Roca was by known for his shrewdness as "the fox." Enjoying the support of the agricultural elites - as well as of the London financial powerhouse, Barings Bank - Roca daringly fielded his son-in-law, Córdoba Province Governor Miguel Juárez Celman, as the PAN candidate for president. A number of distinguished candidates appeared, including Buenos Aires Governor Dardo Rocha and Foreign Minister Bernardo de Irigoyen. Roca tolerated no opposition against his dauphin, selected nearly unanimously on 11 April 1886. Cámara de Senadores - Sesiones de 1886. Buenos Aires: Cámara de Diputados. 1932. Pp. 267–270. Duhalde, Eduardo Luis. Acción Parlamentaria de John William Cooke. Buenos Aires: Colihue. P. 232. ISBN 978-950-563-460-6. Lorenzo, Celso Ramón. Manual de Historia Constitucional Argentina, Volumen 3.
Rosario: Editorial Juris. P. 12. ISBN 950-817-111-1. Rosa, José María. Historia Argentina, Tomo VIII: El Régimen. Buenos Aires: Editorial Oriente S. A. p. 119. "Historia Electoral Argentina, p. 58". Www.mininterior.gov.ar. Ministry of the Interior. December 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2017
1910 Argentine presidential election
The Argentine presidential election of 1910 was held on 13 March to choose the president of Argentina. Roque Sáenz Peña was elected president; the ailing President Quintana's death in 1906 was the beginning of the end of Roca's dominance of national politics and policy. Moderate opposition to the PAN had eroded its majorities in Congress, the day the president died, within months, Bartolomé Mitre and Carlos Pellegrini were dead, as well. President José Figueroa Alcorta defied Roca by signing many of Congressman Palacios' labor law reform bills and by 1909, Figueroa Alcorta was poised to nominate the reformist, turned away in 1892: Roque Sáenz Peña. Other prominent conservatives, such as La Nación publisher Emilio Mitre and Buenos Aires Governor Marcelino Ugarte, presented token candidacies. Sáenz Peña, the Ambassador to Italy and did not campaign, was selected unanimously on April 12, 1910, he promptly began negotiations with UCR leader Hipólito Yrigoyen for the introduction of legislation providing for universal male suffrage and the secret ballot.
The president struggled over the bill with a still-conservative Congress, on 10 February 1912, the Senate narrowly passed Law 8871. Providing for free and fair elections, as well as for the country's first uniform system of voter registration, the Sáenz Peña Law brought the prolonged "vote song" to an end. Diario de sesiones de la Cámara de Senadores - Año 1910 - Tomo I. Buenos Aires: Establecimiento Tipográfico "El Comercio". 1910. Pp. 336–354. Duhalde, Eduardo Luis. Acción Parlamentaria de John William Cooke. Buenos Aires: Colihue. P. 232. ISBN 978-950-563-460-6. "Historia Electoral Argentina, p. 58". Www.mininterior.gov.ar. Ministry of the Interior. December 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2017