Shortstop, abbreviated SS, is the baseball or softball fielding position between second and third base, considered to be among the most demanding defensive positions. The position was assigned to defensive specialists who were poor at batting and were placed at the bottom of the batting order. Today shortstops are able to hit well and many are placed at the top of the lineup. In the numbering system used by scorers to record defensive plays, the shortstop is assigned the number 6. More hit balls go to the shortstop than to any other position, as there are more right-handed hitters in baseball than left-handed hitters, most hitters have a tendency to pull the ball slightly. Like a second baseman, a shortstop must be agile, for example. Like a third baseman, the shortstop fields balls hit to the left side of the infield, where a strong arm is needed to throw out a batter-runner before they reach the safety of first base. Doc Adams of the Knickerbockers created the concept of the shortstop position, according to baseball historian John Thorn and Baseball Hall of Fame researcher Freddy Berowski.
In the first five years the Knickerbockers played, the team fielded anywhere from eight to eleven players. The only infielders were the players covering each of the bases; the outfielders had difficulty throwing baseballs into the infield, because of the balls' light weight. Adams' shortstop position, which he started playing at some time from 1849 to 1850, was used to field throws from the outfielders and throw to the three infielders. With the advent of higher-quality baseballs, Adams moved to the infield, since the distance the balls could travel increased. Adams had a long playing career with the Knickerbockers: he remained a player with the team until 1860. Unlike the pitcher and catcher, who must start every play in a designated area the shortstop and the other fielders can vary their positioning in response to what they anticipate will be the actions of the batter and runner once the play begins; the shortstop ordinarily is positioned near second base on the third-base side. Because right-handed hitters tend to hit the ball more toward third base, a shortstop will move closer to third base if the batter is batting right-handed, more toward first base if the batter is batting left-handed.
A shortstop has a strong throwing arm, because he has a long throw to first base, has less time in which to make a throw, given that the ground balls he fields have traveled far. A shortstop must be agile, because balls hit to or near the shortstop position are hit harder than to other infield positions. Shortstops are required to cover second base in double play situations when the ball is hit to the second baseman or first baseman, they cover second when a runner is attempting a stolen base, but only when a left-handed hitter is batting. This is because the infield will respond to a left-handed batter by shifting toward first base, resulting in the shortstop being the infielder, closest to second base. Shortstops must cover third at various times, including the rotation play. Shortstops are given precedence on catching pop-ups in the infield as well, so they end up calling off other players many times, although on deep pop-ups they fall back when called off by an outfielder, they become the cutoff man on balls to any part of the outfield that are being directed towards third base and all balls to left and center field that are destined for second base.
Depending on the system the shortstop may cut balls from left field heading home. The emphasis on defense makes the position unusually difficult to fill. A strong shortstop did not have to be a good hitter; some of the weakest hitters in Major League Baseball have played the position, including Mario Mendoza, for whom George Brett popularized the eponymous Mendoza Line to describe a batting average below.200. Since the 1960s, such mediocre hitting has become rarer as teams demand players with ability to both field and hit. In practice, a marginal fielder as a shortstop who hits well can be moved to any other position second base or third base, whether early in their careers or due to diminished fielding range, slower reflexes, weaker throwing arms, increased risk of injury, or co-existence with another dominant shortstop, as with Ernie Banks, Cal Ripken Jr. Alex Rodríguez, Michael Young, or Miguel Tejada; the year in which the player was inducted is given in brackets after his name. John Henry Lloyd and Willie Wells were elected for their play in the Negro Leagues.
George Wright was elected as a pioneer, but starred as a shortstop in the 1860s and 1870s. Robin Yount started his career as a shortstop, moved to the outfield where he played his last nine seasons. Ernie Banks played shortstop for the first half of first base for the remainder. Ozzie Smith: 621 Glenn Wright: 601 Dave Bancroft: 598 (Philadelphia Phillies/New York Gia
Tampa Bay Rays
The Tampa Bay Rays are an American professional baseball team based in St. Petersburg, Florida; the Rays compete in Major League Baseball as a member of the American League East division. Since its inception, the team's home venue has been Tropicana Field. Following nearly three decades of unsuccessfully trying to gain an expansion franchise or enticing existing teams to relocate to the Tampa Bay Area, an ownership group led by Vince Naimoli was approved on March 9, 1995; the Tampa Bay Devil Rays began play in the 1998 Major League Baseball season. Their first decade of play, was marked by futility. Following the 2007 season, Stuart Sternberg, who had purchased controlling interest in the team from Vince Naimoli two years earlier, changed the team's name from "Devil Rays" to "Rays", now meant to refer to a burst of sunshine rather than a manta ray, though a manta ray logo remains on the uniform sleeves; the 2008 season saw the Tampa Bay Rays post their first winning season, their first AL East championship, their first pennant, though they lost to the Philadelphia Phillies in that year's World Series.
Since the Rays have played in the postseason in 2010, 2011, 2013. The Tampa Bay Rays' chief rivals are the New York Yankees. Regarding the former, there have been several notable on-field incidents; the Rays have an intrastate interleague rivalry with the National League's Miami Marlins, whom they play in the Citrus Series. The name "Tampa Bay" is used to describe a geographic metropolitan area which encompasses the cities around the body of water known as Tampa Bay, including Tampa, St. Petersburg and Bradenton. Unlike in the case of Green Bay, there is no municipality known as "Tampa Bay"; the "Tampa Bay" in the names of local professional sports franchises denotes that they represent the entire region, not just Tampa or St. Petersburg. Former civic leader and St. Petersburg Times publisher, Jack Lake, first suggested St. Petersburg pursue a Major League baseball team in the 1960s; the notable influences Lake held in the sport are what led to the serious discussions that changed St. Petersburg from a spring training location to a major league city.
He spoke to anyone who would listen about his desire to see the city of St. Petersburg have a Major league baseball team, his colorful direction dominated the mindset in both sports and business circles dating back to 1966. He was said to have the prominence to make it happen. Local leaders made many unsuccessful attempts to acquire a major league baseball team in the 1980s and 1990s; the Minnesota Twins, San Francisco Giants, Chicago White Sox, Texas Rangers, Seattle Mariners all considered moving to either Tampa or St. Petersburg before deciding to remain in their current locations; the Florida Suncoast Dome was built in St. Petersburg in 1990 with the purpose of luring a major league team; that same year two separate groups, one in Tampa and another in Sarasota, were seeking to get an expansion team. The Tampa one registered the name "Florida Panthers", after a local feline - a trademark which ended up being purchased by entrepreneur Wayne Huizenga one year and used by him to name an NHL ice hockey team.
When Major League Baseball announced that it would add two expansion teams for the 1993 season, it was assumed that one of the teams would be placed in the Dome. However, in addition to the application from St. Petersburg, a competing group applied to field a team in Tampa, prompting much conflict over the bid; the two National League teams were awarded to Miami instead. In 1992, San Francisco Giants owner Bob Lurie agreed in principle to sell his team to a Tampa Bay-based group of investors led by Vince Naimoli, who would move the team to St. Petersburg. However, at the 11th hour, MLB owners nixed the move under pressure from San Francisco officials and the Giants were sold to a group that kept them in San Francisco. On March 9, 1995, new expansion franchises were awarded to Naimoli's Tampa Bay group and a group from Phoenix; the new franchises were scheduled to begin play in 1998. The Tampa Bay area had a team, but the stadium in St. Petersburg was in need of an upgrade. In 1993, the stadium was renamed the Thunderdome and became the home of the Tampa Bay Lightning hockey team and the Tampa Bay Storm Arena Football League team.
After the birth of the Rays, the naming rights were sold to Tropicana Products and $70 million was spent on renovations. The records of the Rays' last five seasons in Major League Baseball; these statistics are current through the 2018 Major League Baseball season. Tampa Bay's primary rivals are the New York Yankees; the Red Sox/Rays rivalry dates back to the 2000 season, when Devil Ray Gerald Williams took exception to being hit by a pitch thrown by Boston pitcher Pedro Martínez and charged the mound, resulting in a game full of retaliations and ejections on both sides. There have been several other incidents between the teams during the ensuing years, including one in 2005 which resulted in two bench-clearing fights during the game and a war of words between then-Devil Rays manager Lou Piniella and then-Boston pitcher Curt Schilling through the media in the following days; the rivalry reached its highest level to date during the 2008 season, which included a brawl during a June meeting in Fenway Park and a 7-game American League Championship Series between the teams t
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Auburn University is a land-grant and public research university in Auburn, United States. With more than 23,000 undergraduate students and a total enrollment of more than 30,000 with 1,260 faculty members, Auburn is the second largest university in Alabama. Auburn University is one of the state's two public flagship universities. Auburn was chartered on February 1, 1856, as East Alabama Male College, a private liberal arts school affiliated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In 1872, under the Morrill Act, it became the state's first public land-grant university and was renamed as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama. In 1892, it became the first four-year coeducational school in Alabama, in 1899 was renamed Alabama Polytechnic Institute to reflect its changing mission. In 1960, its name was changed to Auburn University to acknowledge the varied academic programs and larger curriculum of a major university; the Alabama Legislature chartered the institution as the East Alabama Male College on February 1, 1856, coming under the guidance of the Methodist Church in 1859.
Its first president was Reverend William J. Sasnett, the school opened its doors in 1859 to a student body of eighty and a faculty of ten. Auburn's early history is inextricably linked with the Reconstruction-era South. Classes were held in "Old Main" until the college was closed due to the war, when most of the students and faculty left to enlist; the campus was a training ground for the Confederate Army, "Old Main" served as a hospital for Confederate wounded. To commemorate Auburn's contribution to the Civil War, a cannon lathe used for the manufacture of cannons for the Confederate Army and recovered from Selma, was presented to the college in 1952 by brothers of Delta Chapter of the Alpha Phi Omega fraternity, it sits today on the lawn next to Samford Hall. The school reopened in 1866 after the end of its only closure. In 1872, control of the institution was transferred from the Methodist Church to the State of Alabama for financial reasons. Alabama placed the school under the provisions of the Morrill Act as a land-grant institution, the first in the South to be established separately from the state university.
This act provided for 240,000 acres of Federal land to be sold to provide funds for an agricultural and mechanical school. As a result, in 1872 the school was renamed the Mechanical College of Alabama. Under the Act's provisions, land-grant institutions were supposed to teach military tactics and train officers for the United States military. In the late 19th century, most students at the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama were enrolled in the cadet program, learning military tactics and training to become officers; each county in the state was allowed to nominate two cadets to attend the college free of charge. The university's original curriculum focused on agriculture; this trend changed under the guidance of William Leroy Broun, who taught classics and sciences and believed both disciplines were important for the growth of the university and the individual. In 1892, two historic events occurred: women were admitted to the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama, football was played as a school sport.
Football replaced polo as the main sport on campus. The college was renamed the Alabama Polytechnic Institute in 1899 because of Broun's influence. On October 1, 1918, nearly all of Alabama Polytechnic Institute's able-bodied male students 18 or older voluntarily joined the United States Army for short-lived military careers on campus; the student-soldiers numbered 878, according to API President Charles Thach, formed the academic section of the Student Army Training Corps. The vocational section was composed of enlisted men sent to Auburn for training in radio and mechanics; the students received honorable discharges two months following the Armistice that ended World War I. API struggled through the Great Depression, having scrapped an extensive expansion program by then-President Bradford Knapp. Faculty salaries were cut drastically, enrollment decreased along with State appropriations to the college. By the end of the 1930s, Auburn had recovered, but faced new conditions caused by World War II.
As war approached in 1940, there was a great shortage of engineers and scientists needed for the defense industries. The U. S. Office of Education asked all American engineering schools to join in a "crash" program to produce what was called "instant engineers." API became an early participant in an activity that became Engineering and Management War Training. Funded by the government and coordinated by Auburn's Dean of Engineering, college-level courses were given in concentrated evening classes at sites across Alabama. Taken by thousands of adults – including many women – these courses were beneficial in filling the wartime ranks of civilian engineers and other technical professionals; the ESMWT benefited API by providing employment for faculty members when the student body was diminished by the draft and volunteer enlistment. During the war, API trained U. S. military personnel on campus. Following the end of World War II, API, like many colleges around the country, experienced a period of massive growth caused by returning military personnel taking advantage of their GI Bill offer of free education.
In the five-year period following the end of the war, enrollment at API more than doubled. Recognizing the school had moved beyond its agricultural and mechanical roots, it was granted university status by the Alabama Legi
Casey John Kotchman is an American former professional baseball first baseman. He played in Major League Baseball for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, Atlanta Braves, Boston Red Sox, Seattle Mariners, Tampa Bay Rays, Cleveland Indians and Miami Marlins, he was known for setting the record for having the most consecutive put-outs without committing an error. He was on the 2001 national champion team of Seminole High School in Florida; the Anaheim Angels selected Kotchman with the thirteenth overall pick in the 2001 Major League Baseball Draft. In 2006, the Angels moved 2005 starter Darin Erstad back to center field, announcing that Kotchman would open the season at first base. After struggling in his at-bats early in 2006 because of mononucleosis, Kotchman was placed on the disabled list in early May. In 2007, Kotchman proclaimed himself healthy and proved it by winning the Angels' opening day first baseman job for the second straight year. Kotchman missed 128 games in 2006, as he was kept away from the field with complications stemming from mononucleosis.
After a spring in which the Opening Day starting first baseman batted better than.400, he hit just.152 with one home run and six RBI in 29 games with the Angels. Kotchman tried to return to the field, but his rehab assignment was cut short when he experienced dizzy spells in July while playing for Triple-A Salt Lake, he spent much of the rest of the season at home in Florida. In 2007, he was one of seven Angels regulars to hit over.290 and established career highs in several offensive categories including batting average, home runs and RBI. He hit.320 at Angel Stadium and.274 on the road. He had his 4th seven-game streak of season, he left the June 16 game against the Los Angeles Dodgers in the 7th after being hit on the helmet by a pickoff throw at second base by Dodgers catcher Russell Martin and was diagnosed with a mild concussion and received three stitches behind his right ear. On June 25, he returned to the starting lineup after missing seven games, he logged the first three triples of his career.
He connected for his second career grand slam in the first inning on May 14 against the Texas Rangers. He was ranked fourth among AL first basemen in the 2007 season, he hit a solo home run on Opening Night against the Texas Rangers in his first at-bat of the season, his first home run since May 4, 2006, against the Detroit Tigers. He connected for the game-winning RBI single in the 9th inning on July 13 against the Rangers, he collected a career-best four hits in 1 game on August 17 against the Boston Red Sox. On July 29, 2008, Kotchman was traded to the Atlanta Braves along with minor league pitcher Stephen Marek for first baseman Mark Teixeira. Kotchman started his tenure with the Braves by batting just.157 in his first 20 games but he ended the season with a.237 batting average. Kotchman was placed on the bereavement list after his mother fell ill on August 20, 2008. After seven days, the Braves placed Kotchman on the restricted list so he could continue to be with his mother in Florida. Eleven days from first being placed on the bereavement list, the Braves activated Kotchman.
On January 31, 2009, Kotchman agreed to a one-year, $2.885 million contract. Kotchman mentioned at spring training in 2009. Kotchman suffered a shin contusion after being hit by a pitch from Arizona Diamondbacks' pitcher Max Scherzer on May 31 and was expected to be out two to three days; the injury did, force Kotchman on the 15-day disabled list and was activated on June 16. On July 31, 2009, Kotchman was acquired by the Red Sox in a trade for first baseman Adam LaRoche. In Kotchman's first game with the Red Sox, he hit a two-run home run off of Joba Chamberlain. With the Red Sox, Kotchman hit.218 with three doubles, one home run, seven RBIs, one stolen base in 29 games. This gave Kotchman a combined average of.268 with 23 doubles, seven home runs, 48 RBIs, 39 walks in 126 games between Boston and Atlanta. In early January 2010 the Red Sox traded him to the Seattle Mariners for utility player Bill Hall, a minor league player, cash. On February 3, Kotchman and the Mariners agreed on a new contract.
On June 3, 2010, Kotchman set the Major League Baseball individual streak record with 2,003 consecutive chances without an error. The previous record had been held by Kevin Youkilis of the Boston Red Sox, established between July 4, 2006, June 6, 2008. On August 21, 2010, the streak ended when Kotchman mishandled a hard groundball hit by Curtis Granderson of the New York Yankees; the error was his first since July 20, 2008, when he played for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, a streak of 2,379 fielding chances. He batted.217 for the season. On November 4, 2010, Kotchman refused an outright assignment to AAA by the Mariners, electing to become a free agent instead. Kotchman signed a minor league contract with an invitation to 2011 spring training with the Tampa Bay Rays. On March 26 the Rays assigned Kotchman to Durham. Following the retirement of Manny Ramirez six games into the 2011 season, Kotchman's contract was selected from Durham and he was added to the Rays' active roster. On August 9, 2011, Kotchman hit a walk-off home run off Kansas City Royals reliever Blake Wood to give the Rays a 2-1 win.
Through 2011, he had the best career fielding percentage among major league first basemen, ahead of Kevin Youkilis. Kotchman signed a one-year contract with the Cleveland Indians on February 3, 2012. On February 15, 2013 he signed a minor league contract with the Miami Marlins, he was releas
Joseph Patrick Mauer is an American former professional baseball catcher, designated hitter, first baseman who spent his entire 15-year Major League Baseball career with the Minnesota Twins. He is the only catcher in MLB history to win three batting titles, the only catcher to win a batting title in the American League, he won three consecutive Gold Glove Awards, the 2009 American League Most Valuable Player Award. Mauer played football and baseball for St. Paul's Cretin-Derham Hall Raiders, the high school of Hall of Fame member Paul Molitor. In his senior year he became the only athlete to be selected as the USA Today High School Player of the Year in two sports. In December 2009, Sports Illustrated magazine included Mauer in its article on ten "signature" moments in U. S. high-school sports in the 2000–2009 decade, referring to his selection by the Minnesota Twins as the first pick in the 2001 amateur draft. Mauer attended the same high school as Baseball Hall of Famer and former Milwaukee Brewer Paul Molitor who became his major league manager with the Twins.
Molitor has said that Mauer "has the best swing he had seen". Jim O'Neill, Mauer's baseball coach at Cretin-Derham Hall, said his former student "has been groomed for this job since he was a little boy. Mauer's dad, created a contraption for Joe he named the'Quickswing.' The device dropped balls down a tube from eye level and released them at waist level." Mauer had been asked to leave his T-ball league at the age of four, because he was hitting the ball too hard for the other players. "Another guy that came from Cretin-Derham Hall, Paul Molitor, was similar, had a good short swing," O'Neill said. "And they're both able to wait on the ball so long. Like anything, you keep simple and keep it small or short, there's not a lot of holes in it and not a lot of room for errors."A stand-out in baseball, Mauer struck out only once during his four-year high school career, hit.605 during his senior season. Years Mauer laughingly told an interviewer: "I can remember the time I did strike out, it was junior year, it was in the state tournament.
I came back to the bench and everybody thought something was wrong with me." Mauer's high school batting average exceeded.500 every year. He set a Minnesota high school record and tied the national preps mark by hitting a home run in seven consecutive games. Mauer caught for the Team USA Junior National team from 1998 to 2000 and hit.595 during his final year on the team. He was voted best hitter at the World Junior Baseball Championship in Canada in 2000. In 2001, Mauer was voted the United States District V Player of the Year. Mauer averaged more than 20 points a game as a point guard for Cretin-Derham Hall, he was named to the All-State team during his final two years on Cretin-Derham's basketball team. Mauer had an accomplished high school football career. In 2000, he appeared in the Faces in the Crowd section in Sports Illustrated. During his senior season as the Raiders' quarterback, Mauer completed 178 of 269 passes, for 3,022 yards, 41 touchdowns and 5 interceptions, he finished his two-year career as a starter with 5,528 yards and 73 touchdowns, leading the Raiders to two consecutive Class 5A State Championship Game appearances and winning the title in 1999, the Raiders' first of all time.
Mauer was honored as the 2001 Gatorade National Player of the Year, was named to the USA Today All-USA high school football team, was honored as USA Today's Player of the Year, was a Reebok/ESPN High School All-American, was awarded Player of the Year for the game that would go on to be known as the U. S. Army All-American Bowl. Mauer was named National High School Quarterback of the Year in 2000 by The National Quarterback Club. After committing to play football at Florida State University, Mauer decided instead to enter the Major League Baseball Draft. Mauer was selected by the Twins as the first overall pick of the 2001 draft, ahead of college pitcher Mark Prior, taken second overall by the Chicago Cubs. Mauer was part of the United States' roster at the 2003 All-Star Futures Game at U. S. Cellular Field before being promoted to the Twins' roster in 2004 after his predecessor, A. J. Pierzynski, was traded to the San Francisco Giants, in the 2003 offseason. Mauer went 2-for-3 in his Major League debut, hitting a single off Rafael Betancourt of the Cleveland Indians for his first major-league hit.
A knee injury to his left medial meniscus on April 7, 2004, required surgery and sidelined Mauer for more than a month. After a rehabilitation stint with the Twins' AAA affiliate Rochester Red Wings, Mauer returned to the Twins' lineup in June. In July and swelling in his knee forced an early end to Mauer's 2004 season. Following his injury-shortened 2004, Mauer signed a contract for $5.7 million with the Twins on January 24, 2005. In 2005, Mauer returned to the Twins' lineup for his first full major league season and had 144 hits in 131 games, with 9 home runs and 55 RBI, he ended the year with an average of.294. In his 2006 season, Mauer became the first catcher in American League history to lead the American League in batting average, finishing with an average of.347. Mauer's performance during the months of May and June garnered attention from the national media, he recorded a.528 batting average over the first ten days of June and hit.452 over the course of the month. He was the first player since Mike Piazza in 1997 to reach base four or more times for five consecutive games.
On June 12, Mauer was named the American League Player of the Week by Major League Baseball for h
For other institutions called "Cumberland College," see Cumberland College. For the school in Williamsburg, see University of the Cumberlands. Cumberland University is a private university in Tennessee, it was founded in 1842, though the current campus buildings were constructed between 1892 and 1896. The university was founded by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 1842 and received its Tennessee State charter in 1843. In 1847 Cumberland Presbyterian church leaders added a law school, the first in Tennessee and the first west of the Appalachian Mountains, in 1854 a school of theology was begun; the original building, designed by Philadelphia architect William Strickland, housed schools of art and theology. It was burned by the Union Army during the American Civil War. Following the war, the university's faculty included former Confederate general A. P. Stewart, he taught there during his post-Civil War Union parole. From its early years, Cumberland University maintained a reputation for high-quality education.
The Cumberland School of Law at one time was said to have had more of its alumni elected to Congress than any other in the South. The Civil War nearly destroyed Cumberland University. University Hall was burned to the ground by Confederate forces under the command of General Joseph Wheeler. A Cumberland student wrote on a ruined Corinthian column the Latin Ex Cineribus Resurgam; the university thereafter adopted the mythical phoenix bird as its symbol. By 1866, just one year after the war's end, all departments were again operating in various locations in the town of Lebanon. Cumberland University moved to its present campus location in 1892; the university fell on hard times during the Great Depression. After World War II, Cumberland experienced several changes in sponsorship and programs. In 1946, The Tennessee Baptist Convention assumed control of the school, ending a century of operation by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. In 1951, the Tennessee Baptists closed the College of Arts and Sciences and operated only the School of Law.
In 1956, the Board of Trust secured an amendment to the Charter and changed Cumberland to a private, independent corporation. The College of Arts and Sciences was reopened as a two-year junior college, known as Cumberland College of Tennessee. In 1962, the assets of the School of Law were transferred to Howard College, now known as Samford University, in Birmingham, Alabama; the Board of Trust expanded the academic programs of the junior college in 1982, returning Cumberland to a four-year, degree institution. It resumed the old name of Cumberland University. Since Cumberland has expanded its academic program to include new majors and specialized student-learning opportunities. Cumberland University believes that a broad education, based in the liberal arts, is the best foundation for a lifetime of learning. Students from every state and from many foreign countries now attend Cumberland, its alumni include 14 governors, more than 80 members of the United States Congress, two Supreme Court justices, three United States ambassadors, one United States Secretary of State.
In 1847 Cumberland Presbyterian church leaders added the Cumberland School of Law, the first law school in Tennessee and the first west of the Appalachian Mountains. For many years the law school was located in historic Caruthers Hall, named for Robert Looney Caruthers, a founder of Cumberland University; the trustees sold the School of Law and its assets in 1962 to what is now Samford University in Birmingham, Alabama. The law school continues to operate there. Cumberland University gives back to the local community in many ways. Cumberland has a Circle K club, affiliated with Kiwanis International. On February 13, 2010, Cumberland University hosted a conference basketball game, donated half of its gate admissions to Sherry's Run, a non-profit organization created to benefit people with cancer; the Cumberland University cycling team formed its own chapter of local non-profit organization Ride for Reading. The university has 5 fraternities; the sororities include the Lambda Omicron chapter of Alpha Omicron Pi and the Delta Mu chapter of Alpha Sigma Tau as well as Zeta Phi Beta.
The fraternities include the Theta Prime chapter of the Nu chapter of Sigma Chi. There are 3 NPHC fraternities: Gamma Rho Gamma chapter of Phi Beta Sigma, the Phi Delta Delta chapter of Omega Psi Phi and Kappa Alpha Psi. Cumberland University teams, nicknamed athletically as the Phoenix, are part of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics competing in the Mid-South Conference; the Phoenix competed in the TranSouth Athletic Conference. Men's sports include baseball, cross country, golf, soccer and wrestling. Cumberland football began on October 26, 1894 with a 6–6 tie with Peabody and finished that first year with a 2–1–1 season record; the early days of Cumberland football were promising. The pinnacle of the early days of CU football was the 1903 season that began with a win over Vanderbilt a loss to Sewanee and continued with a five-day road trip with victories over Alabama November 14, 1903, LSU November 16, 1903, Tulane November 18, 1903. Cumberland would play a postseason game against Coach John Heisman's Clemson team on Thanksgiving Day that ended in an 11–11 tie and a record of 4–1–1 which gave Coach A.
L. Phillips and Cumberland University the Championship of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association; the 1916 game against Georgia Tech is famous as the most lop