Salahuddin of Selangor
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj was the 11th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia and eighth Sultan of Selangor. Born Tengku Abdul Aziz Shah on 8 March 1926 at Istana Bandar Temasha, Kuala Langat, he is the eldest son of Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah by his royal consort Tengku Ampuan Raja Jemaah binti Raja Ahmad, he received his early education at the Pengkalan Batu Malay School in Klang in 1934. In 1936, he furthered his studies at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar until 1941 when World War II began. After World War II, he went to England in 1947 and studied at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London for two years. Upon his return from the United Kingdom, he served with the Civil Service Department as a Trainee Officer with the Selangor Survey Department, he served as an Inspector of Schools for eight years. In 1952, he attended a short-term course at the Malay Military Troop in Port Dickson for six months and was commissioned with the Queen Commission in the rank of captain.
Thereafter, he was promoted to the rank of major. Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah married at least four wives, his first wife and cousin, HRH Paduka Bonda Raja Raja Nur Saidatul Ihsan binti Al Marhum Raja Bendahara Tengku Badar Shah, whom he divorced, bore: Tengku Nor Halija Tengku Idris Shah Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Tengku Puteri Sofiah Tengku Laksamana Tengku Sulaiman Shah Tengku Puteri Zahariah Tengku Fatimah Tengku Panglima Besar Tengku Abdul Samad Tengku Puteri Arafiah Tengku Puteri AishahChe Maheram binti Muhammad Rais, his second wife, bore him: Tengku Indera Setia Tengku Ahmad ShahHis royal consort, Tengku Ampuan Rahimah binti Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah of the Langkat royal family in Sumatra died in 1993 before his election as Yang di-Pertuan Agong. She was the mother of: Tengku Puteri Nor Marina Tengku Puteri Nor ZehanHis last wife, commoner Tuanku Siti Aishah binti Abdul Rahman, served as his Raja Permaisuri Agong. Being fifty years younger than him, she was the youngest occupant of that office – only 29 at her succession to the throne.
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah was a keen sportsman. His interest in golf is well-known outside the country; the Sultan loved sailing, collecting antique cars, rearing animals and planting orchids. He likes visiting foreign countries to widen his knowledge and experience. Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah was appointed as the Tengku Laksamana of Selangor on 1 August 1946 and as the Raja Muda of Selangor on 13 May 1950. On the demise of his father, Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah, Tengku Abdul Aziz Shah became the eighth Sultan of Selangor with the title Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah on 3 September 1960 and was installed as the 28th Sultan on 28 June 1961. On 26 April 1984, Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah was appointed as Captain-in-Chief of the Royal Navy by the Malaysian Armed Forces in place of the position of Colonel-in-Chief of the Malaysian Royal Air Force which he held since 1966. Sultan Salahuddin was the Sultan who signed the cession of Kuala Lumpur from Selangor to the Federal Government to form a Federal Territory on 1 February 1974.
The Sultan cried after the signing as he was fond and proud of the city, but he did it for the greater good of Malaysia. The Kota Darul Ehsan arch was erected along the Federal Highway at the border of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor to commemorate the event in 1981. Sultan Salahuddin was a founder of Shah Alam, the new Selangor state capital in 1978, he said that for Selangor to become a modern state, it would need a new state capital as Kuala Lumpur had become a Federal Territory. At that time Klang was the state capital after the cession of Kuala Lumpur when the Sultan founded Shah Alam. Many buildings and roads in Shah Alam are named after him. Salahuddin held the rank of Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force, Field Marshal of the Malaysian Army and Admiral of the Fleet of the Royal Malaysian Navy as per constitutional provisions making him as the second royal military officer to become supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces, he was the second oldest ruler to be elected as the eleventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong on 26 April 1999 and installed on 11 September 1999.
The cession of Putrajaya, Selangor territory, to the Federal Government in 2001 to become a Federal Territory occurred during his reign as Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Persiaran Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah in Putrajaya was named after him. However, after reigning for two years and 6 months, he died in office on 21 November 2001 at the Gleneagles Intan Medical Centre in Kuala Lumpur, he underwent a heart operation to put a pacemaker two months prior to his death, which he did not recover from. He was buried in the Royal Mausoleum near Sultan Sulaiman Mosque in Klang. Several projects and institutions were named after the Sultan, including: SMK Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, a secondary school in Shah Alam, Selangor SMK Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah, a secondary school in Kajang, Selangor SAMT Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, a secondary school in Sabak, Selangor Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah in Shah Alam, Selangor Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Building, Selangor's state secretariat building in Shah Alam, Selangor Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Mosque, Selangor's state mosque in Shah Alam, Selangor Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Court Building, a court building in Shah Alam, Selangor Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Jamek Mosque, a mosque in Petaling Jaya, Selangor Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, an airport in Subang, Selangor KD Sultan Abdul Aziz
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong known as the Supreme Head or the King, is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957, when the Federation of Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom. Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected monarch as head of state; the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is one of the few elected monarchs in the world. In Malaysia's constitutional monarchy, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has extensive powers within the constitution on paper; the constitution specifies that the executive power of the Federal government is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. However, he is bound to exercise this power on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under Cabinet authority; the Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong from among the elected members of Parliament. Among them, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has discretionary powers to choose who he wants as the Prime Minister and is not bound by the decision of the outgoing prime minister if no party has won a majority vote.
It, does not afford him the right and authority to dismiss the prime minister. He can dismiss or withhold consent to a request for the dissolution of Parliament, he may discontinue or dissolve Parliament but he can only dissolve Parliament at the request of the Prime Minister. He can reject any new laws or amendments to existing laws but if he still withholds permission, it will automatically become law after 30 days from the initial submission to him; the queen consort for the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is known as the Raja Permaisuri Agong and the couple are styled in English as "His Majesty" and "Her Majesty". The 16th and current Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Al-Sultan Abdullah of Pahang, replacing Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan, who abdicated on 6 January 2019, he was elected on 24 January, at a special meeting of the Conference of Rulers. He was sworn in at the Istana Negara on 31 January; the full style and title in Malay is Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong. Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia means Under the dust of the Almighty referring to how the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's power is dust compared to God's power and the ruler is always subservient to God.
Seri Paduka Baginda refers to Seri as in a person. Paduka means victorious and the term Baginda is in Malay for a royal in the third person. Yang di-Pertuan Agong in literal English is "He Who is Made Supreme Lord", it is an archaic term for a presiding head, "Yang di-Pertuan" or means "the one-in-charge. "Agong" means "supreme". The term Agong is not translated, as in the Constitution of Malaysia. Common English terms used in the media and by the general public include "King", "Supreme King", "Paramount Ruler", "Head of State", "Head of the Federation" and "Head of State of the Federation". In Malaysian passports before 2010, the title "The Supreme Head of Malaysia" was used in the English version of the passport note. Since the issuance of ICAO-compliant e-passports in 2010, the untranslated title "His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia" is used, but in all English correspondence, the King is referred to as "His Majesty The Yang di-Pertuan Agong" In August 1957, having rejected the suggested title of Yang di-Pertuan Besar in favour of Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the Conference of Rulers elected the first occupant of the throne.
By seniority, the 84-year-old major general Ibrahim of Johor, Sultan of Johor since 1895, was first in line, but he declined due to old age. The next in line, Abu Bakar of Pahang, Sultan of Pahang since 1932, was rejected five times by his fellow electors, did not secure the necessary votes. Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, having been elected to his state throne in 1933, was elected by eight votes to one; the first Conference of Rulers comprised: The Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan, Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad The Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah The Raja of Perlis, Tuanku Syed Putra ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail The Sultan of Terengganu, Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Zainal Abidin III The Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Badlishah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah The Sultan of Kelantan, Sultan Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IV The Sultan of Pahang, Sultan Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdullah Al-Mutassim Billah Shah, Tunku Ismail ibni Sultan Ibrahim The Sultan of Perak, Sultan Sultan Yussuff Izzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Nasiruddin Mukhataram Shah Radziallah Hu'an-hu The following rulers have served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong: The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is formally elected to a five-year term by and from the nine rulers of the Malay states, who form the Conference of Rulers.
After a ruler has served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he may not stand for election until all rulers of the other states have stood for election. In the event of a vacancy of the office, the Conference of Rulers elects a new Yang di-Pertuan Agong as if the previous term had expired; the new Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected for a full five-year term. After his term expires, the Conference holds a new election, in which the incumbent would not be re-elected; the position de facto rotates among the nine rulers. The selection of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong follow
Volleyball is a popular team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules, it has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964. The complete rules are extensive, but play proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a'rally' by serving the ball, from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, into the receiving team's court; the receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times, but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively; the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court. The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either: a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent's court and winning the rally.
The team that wins the rally serves the ball to start the next rally. A few of the most common faults include: causing the ball to touch the ground or floor outside the opponents' court or without first passing over the net; the ball is played with the hands or arms, but players can strike or push the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking as well as passing and specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures. In the winter of 1895, in Holyoke, William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette, a name derived from the game of badminton, as a pastime to be played indoors and by any number of players; the game took some of its characteristics from other sports such as handball. Another indoor sport, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in high, a 25 ft × 50 ft court, any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul —except in the case of the first-try serve. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School, the game became known as volleyball. Volleyball rules were modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs; the first official ball used in volleyball is disputed. The rules evolved over time: in 1916, in the Philippines, the skill and power of the set and spike had been introduced, four years a "three hits" rule and a rule against hitting from the back row were established.
In 1917, the game was changed from requiring 21 points to win to a smaller 15 points to win. In 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries; the first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, was founded in 1947, the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women; the sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe, in Russia, in other countries including China and the rest of Asia, as well as in the United States. Beach volleyball, a variation of the game played on sand and with only two players per team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in 1987 and was added to the Olympic program at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Volleyball is a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled. Nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late 1920s.
By the 1960s, a volleyball court had become standard in all nudist/naturist clubs. Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics program for both men and women since 1964. A volleyball court is 9 m × 18 m, divided into equal square halves by a net with a width of one meter; the top of the net is 2.43 m above the center of the court for men's competition, 2.24 m for women's competition, varied for veterans a
2003 Southeast Asian Games
The 2003 Southeast Asian Games known as the 22nd Southeast Asian Games was a Southeast Asian multi-sport event held in Hanoi, Vietnam. This was the first time in history Vietnam hosted the Southeast Asian Games and the first time East Timor participated at the Southeast Asian Games; the games was held from 5 to 13 December 2003 although several events had commenced from 29 November 2003. Around 5000 athletes from 11 participating nations participated at the games, which featured 442 events in 32 sports. Vietnam is the seventh nation to host the Southeast Asian Games after Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei; the games was opened by Phan Văn Khải, the Prime Minister of Vietnam at the newly constructed Mỹ Đình National Stadium and was closed by Pham Gia Khiem, the Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam. The final medal tally was led by host Vietnam, followed by Indonesia. Several Games and National Records were broken during the games; the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst the Southeast Asian nations.
The 22nd SEA Games organising committee was formed to oversee the staging of the games with Nguyen Danh Thaiwas as its chairman. The Vietnamese government was spending a lot of money upgrading sports facilities and building new ones, including the 40,000-seat stadium, My Dinh National Stadium, the biggest stadium in the country, spending about 60 million to 70 million United States Dollars for its construction; the 2003 Southeast Asian Games used a mix of new and temporary venues with the centrepiece of the activities being the My Dinh Sports Complex, opened in September 2003. Incorporating the new 40,192-seat national stadium, it hosted most of the events. A games village was not built. Instead, a "village in the city" concept saw athletes and officials housed in hotels in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Besides being physically near to the sport venues, it was hoped that they will add vibe to both cities and reduce post-games costs in converting a dedicated games village to other uses; the 22nd Southeast Asian Games had 20 in Hanoi and 11 in Ho Chi Minh City.
The torch relay of the 2003 Southeast Asian Games began with Ho Chi Minh City and passed through several cities in Vietnam before it ended in Hanoi, the main venue of the games. The logo of the 2003 Southeast Asian Games is a stylisation of a legendary bird named "Chim Lac". Designed by Artist Nguyen Chi Long, it depicts the bird decorated the Ngoc Lu bronze drum, a typical antiquity of the ancient Dong Son Vietnamese culture; the Emblem is composed of harmonious and strong curves that resembles movement and strength upwards represents the Olympic Spirit: "Faster and Stronger". The 5 lines of colours represents the drastic competition in sports; the 10 intersecting circles, the symbol of the Southeast Asian Games Federation, represents the participating nations of the Southeast Asian Games and the Southeast Asian Games itself. Designed by artist Nguyen Thai Hung, the mascot of the 2003 Southeast Asian Games is a golden water buffalo named Trâu Vàng. Described as a gentle, wise and harmonious animal in nature, the buffalo resembles the water and rice civilisation in Vietnam, as well as in other Southeast Asian countries.
To the Vietnamese people, the Golden Buffalo symbolises a desire for abundant harvest, happiness and the Vietnamese martial spirit as well as open–heartedness and hospitality of the host country. The games' hymn was "For the World of Tomorrow", it was composed by Nguyen Quang Vinh. A total of 24 sponsors comprising 2 Official Partners and 22 Official Sponsors sponsored the games; the opening ceremony took place at the Hanoi My Dinh National Stadium at 19:00 VST. A total of 40,000 audiences attended the opening ceremony. Present at the ceremony were General Secretary Nong Duc Manh, Prime Minister Phan Van Khai, officials from ministries, national agencies, the diplomatic corps, the leaders of the Southeast Asian Sports Federation and heads of regional sporting delegations. A parallel ceremony was held in Ho Chi Minh City; the ceremony started with the song, "Vietnam – Our Fatherland" followed by the appearance of parachutists, carrying 11 national flags of the competing Southeast Asian countries with them.
The procession of Vietnam flag and the 22nd SEA Games' symbol flag took place as all the lights in the stadium came on at once. After that, eleven regional sporting delegations, including 5,005 coaches and athletes, marched past the reviewing stand in an exciting welcome from the officials and spectators; the sacred torch, taken from the Ho Chi Minh Museum was passed by Truong Quoc Thang, Bui Thi Nhung, Vu Kim Anh and athletes from 10 regional countries to Nguyen Thuy Hien. Nguyen Thuy Hien passed the flame to the Prime Minister who in turn passed it to an athlete dressed like national hero Giong; the athlete who dressed like Giong lit the flame on the cauldron which burn throughout the course of the Games. Minister-Chairman of the Physical Training and Sports Committee Nguyen Danh Thai, the chairman of the Vietnam National Olympic Committee, president of the 22nd Southeast Asia Sports Council and head of the 22nd SEA Games Organising Board gave his speech, warmly welcomed Party and State leaders, delegates and international guests, 11 sports delegations from Southeast Asian countries to the 22nd SEA Games.
After that, on behalf of the host country, Prime Minister Phan Van Khai declared the 22nd SEA Games open. Deputy Prime Minister Pham Gia Khiem, Chairman of the National Steering Board for the 22
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of one's entire body to move through water. The sport takes place in open water. Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports, with varied distance events in butterfly, breaststroke and individual medley. In addition to these individual events, four swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or medley relay. A medley relay consists of four swimmers; the order for a medley relay is: backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle. Swimming each stroke requires a set of specific techniques. There are regulations on what types of swimsuits, caps and injury tape that are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, such as tendinitis in the shoulders or knees, there are multiple health benefits associated with the sport. Evidence of recreational swimming in prehistoric times has been found, with the earliest evidence dating to Stone Age paintings from around 10,000 years ago.
Written references date from 2000 BC, with some of the earliest references to swimming including the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, the Quran and others. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first book about swimming, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming. Swimming emerged as a competitive recreational activity in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public. By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London; the recreational activity grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association was formed, there were over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country. In 1844 two Native American participants at a swimming competition in London introduced the front crawl to a European audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from some South American natives and debuted the new stroke in 1873, winning a local competition in England.
His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today. Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel, in 1875. Using the breaststroke technique, he swam the channel 21.26 miles in 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T. W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911. Other European countries established swimming federations; the first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892. Men's swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavill introduced freestyle to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation, was formed. Women's swimming was introduced into the Olympics in 1912. Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. Competitive swimming became popular in the 19th century.
The goal of high level competitive swimming is to break personal or world records while beating competitors in any given event. Swimming in competition should create the least resistance in order to obtain maximum speed. However, some professional swimmers who do not hold a national or world ranking are considered the best in regard to their technical skills. An athlete goes through a cycle of training in which the body is overloaded with work in the beginning and middle segments of the cycle, the workload is decreased in the final stage as the swimmer approaches competition; the practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition is called tapering. Tapering is used to give the swimmer's body some rest without stopping exercise completely. A final stage is referred to as "shave and taper": the swimmer shaves off all exposed hair for the sake of reducing drag and having a sleeker and more hydrodynamic feel in the water. Additionally, the "shave and taper" method refers to the removal of the top layer of "dead skin", which exposes the newer and richer skin underneath.
This helps to "shave" off mere milliseconds on your time. Swimming is an event at the Summer Olympic Games, where male and female athletes compete in 16 of the recognized events each. Olympic events are held in a 50-meter pool, called a long course pool. There are forty recognized individual swimming events in the pool; the international governing body for competitive swimming is the Fédération Internationale de Natation, better known as FINA. In open water swimming, where the events are swum in a body of open water, there are 5 km, 10 km and 25 km events for men and women. However, only the 10 km event is included in the Olympic schedule, again for both women. Open-water competitions are separate to other swimming competitions with the exception of the World Championships and the Olympics. In competitive swimming, four major styles have been established; these have been stable over the last 30–40 years with minor improvements. They are: Butterfly Backstroke
Racewalking, or race walking, is a long-distance discipline within the sport of athletics. Although it is a foot race, it is different from running in that one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times; this is assessed by race judges. Held on either roads or on running tracks, common distances vary from 3000 metres up to 100 kilometres. There are two racewalking distances contested at the Summer Olympics: the 20 kilometres race walk and 50 kilometres race walk. Both are held as road events; the biennial IAAF World Championships in Athletics features these three events, in addition to a 50 km walk for women. The IAAF World Race Walking Cup, first held in 1961, is a stand-alone global competition for the discipline and it has 10 kilometres race walks for junior athletes, in addition to the Olympic-standard events; the IAAF World Indoor Championships featured 5000 m and 3000 m race walk variations, but these were discontinued after 1993. Top level athletics championships and games feature 20 km racewalking events.
The sport emerged from a British culture of long-distance competitive walking known as pedestrianism, which began to develop the ruleset, the basis of the modern discipline around the mid-19th century. Since the mid-20th century onwards and Chinese athletes have been among the most successful on the global stage, with Europe and parts of Latin America producing most of the remaining top level walkers. Compared to other forms of foot racing, stride length is reduced. There are only two rules; the first dictates that the athlete's back toe cannot leave the ground until the heel of the front foot has touched. Violation of this rule is known as loss of contact; the second rule requires that the supporting leg must straighten from the point of contact with the ground and remain straightened until the body passes directly over it. These rules are judged by the unaided human eye. Athletes lose contact for a few milliseconds per stride, which can be caught on film, but such a short flight phase is said to be undetectable to the human eye.
Athletes stay low to the ground by keeping their arms pumping low, close to their hips. If one sees a racewalker's shoulders rising, it may be a sign that the athlete is losing contact with the ground. What appears to be an exaggerated swivel to the hip is, in fact, a full rotation of the pelvis. Athletes aim to move the pelvis forward, to minimize sideways motion in order to achieve maximum forward propulsion. Speed is achieved by stepping with the aim of rapid turnover; this minimizes the risk of the feet leaving the ground. Strides are short and quick, with pushoff coming forward from the ball of the foot, again to minimize the risk of losing contact with the ground. World-class racewalkers can average under five minutes per kilometre in a 20-km racewalk. Races have been walked at distances as short as 3 kilometres —at the 1920 Summer Olympics—and as long as 100 km; the men's world record for the 50-mile race walk is held by Israeli Shaul Ladany, whose time of 7:23:50 in 1972 beat the world record that had stood since 1935.
The modern Olympic events are the 20 km race walk and 50 km race walk. One example of a longer racewalking competition is the annual Paris-Colmar, 450 to 500 km. There are judges on the course to monitor form. Three judges submitting "red cards" for violations results in disqualification. There is a scoreboard placed on the course. If the third violation is received, the chief judge removes the competitor from the course by showing a red paddle. For monitoring reasons, races are held on a looped course or on a track so judges get to see competitors several times during a race. A judge could "caution" a competitor that he or she is in danger of losing form by showing a paddle that indicates either losing contact or bent knees. No judge may submit more than one card for each walker and the chief judge may not submit any cards. Disqualifications are routine at the elite level, such as the famous case of Jane Saville, disqualified within sight of a gold medal in front of her home crowd in the 2000 Summer Olympics, or Yet Lyu, disqualified 20 meters before the finish line at the 2017 World Championships in Athletics.
Racewalking developed as one of the original track and field events of the first meeting of the English Amateur Athletics Association in 1880. The first racewalking codes came from an attempt to regulate rules for popular 19th century long distance competitive walking events, called pedestrianism. Pedestrianism had developed, like footraces and horse racing, as a popular working class British and American pastime, a venue for wagering. Walkers organised the first English amateur walking championship in 1866, won by John Chambers, judged by the "fair heel and toe" rule; this rather vague code was the basis for the rules codified at the first Championships Meeting in 1880 of the Amateur Athletics Association in England, the birth of modern athletics. With football and other sports codified in the 19th century, the transition from professional pedestrianism to amateur racewalking was, while late, part of a process of regularisation occurring in most modern sports at this time. Racewalking is an Olympic athletics event with distances of 20 kilometres for both men and women and 50 kilometres for men only.
Racewalking first appeared in the modern Olympics in 1904 as a half
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket, strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court; the object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages; the sport can be played by anyone. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis, it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis; the rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s.
A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye. Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is a popular worldwide spectator sport; the four Grand Slam tournaments are popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, the US Open played on hard courts. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.
In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following a exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace, it wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, now known as real tennis. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. Further, the patenting of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is believed to have been the catalyst, for the preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing fields, greens, etc.
This in turn led to the codification of modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls and others. Between 1859 and 1865 Harry Gem, a solicitor and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham, United Kingdom. In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue Road, Leamington Spa; this is. After Leamington, the second club to take up the game of lawn tennis appears to have been the Edgbaston Archery and Croquet Society in Birmingham. In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”. In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè, was soon known as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.
According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis." According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most you had his rules, he was terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had good connections with the clergy, the law profession, the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874." The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874. This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877; the first Championships culminated a significant debate on. In the U. S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite, returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascin