Serena Jameka Williams is an American professional tennis player. The Women's Tennis Association ranked her world No. 1 in singles on eight separate occasions between 2002 and 2017. She reached the No. 1 ranking for the first time on July 8, 2002. On her sixth occasion, she held the ranking for 186 consecutive weeks, tying the record set by Steffi Graf. In total, she has been No. 1 for 319 weeks, which ranks third in the "Open Era" among female players behind Graf and Martina Navratilova. Williams holds the most Grand Slam titles in singles and mixed doubles combined among active players, her 39 major titles puts her joint-third on the all-time list and second in the Open Era: 23 in singles, 14 in women's doubles, two in mixed doubles. She is the most recent female player to have held all four Grand Slam singles titles and the third player to achieve this twice, after Rod Laver and Graf, she is the most recent player to have won a Grand Slam title on each surface in one calendar year. She is together with her sister Venus, the most recent player to have held all four Grand Slam women's doubles titles simultaneously.
Her total of 23 Grand Slam singles titles marks the record for the most Grand Slam tournament wins in the Open Era, is second on the all-time list behind Margaret Court. She has won an all-time record of 13 Grand Slam singles titles on hard court. Williams holds the Open Era record for most titles won at the Australian Open and shares the Open Era record for most titles won at the US Open with Chris Evert, she holds the all-time record for the most women's singles matches won at majors with 335 matches. Williams has won 14 Grand Slam doubles titles, all with her sister Venus, the pair are unbeaten in Grand Slam doubles finals; as a team and Venus have the third most women's doubles Grand Slam titles, behind the 18 titles of Natasha Zvereva and the record 20 titles won by Martina Navratilova and Pam Shriver. Williams is a five-time winner of the WTA Tour Championships in the singles division, she has won four Olympic gold medals, one in women's singles and three in women's doubles—an all-time record shared with her sister, Venus.
The arrival of the Williams sisters has been credited with ushering in a new era of power and athleticism on the women's professional tennis tour. She is ranked at No.11 in the world by the WTA. Earning $29 million in prize money and endorsements, Williams was the highest paid female athlete in 2016, she repeated this feat in 2017 when she was the only woman on Forbes' list of the 100 highest paid athletes with $27 million in prize money and endorsements. She has won the'Laureus Sportswoman of the Year' award four times, in December 2015, she was named Sportsperson of the Year by Sports Illustrated magazine. Williams was born in Saginaw, Michigan, to Oracene Price and Richard Williams, is the youngest of Price's five daughters: half-sisters Yetunde and Isha Price, full older sister Venus, she has at least seven paternal half-siblings. When the children were young, the family moved to Compton, where Williams started playing tennis at the age of four, her father home-schooled her sister, Venus. While he and subsequently her mother have been the official coaches, other mentors who helped her learn the game included Richard Williams, a Compton man who shared her father's name and would go on to found The Venus and Serena Williams Tennis/Tutorial Academy.
When Williams was nine and her family moved from Compton to West Palm Beach, Florida, so that she could attend the tennis academy of Rick Macci. Macci did not always agree with Williams's father, but respected that "he treated his daughters like kids, allowed them to be little girls". Richard stopped sending his daughters to national junior tennis tournaments when Williams was 10, since he wanted them to go and to focus on school work. Experiences of racism drove this experience, as Richard Williams had heard white parents talk about the Williams sisters in a derogatory manner during tournaments. At that time, Williams had a 46–3 record on the United States Tennis Association junior tour and was ranked number one among under-10 players in Florida. In 1995, when Williams was in the ninth grade, her father pulled his daughters out of Macci's academy and, from on, took over all coaching at their home; when asked in 2000 whether having followed the normal path of playing on the junior circuit would have been beneficial, Williams responded: "Everyone does different things.
I think for Venus and I, we just attempted a different road, it worked for us." Williams is a baseline player, her game is built around taking immediate control of rallies with her powerful and consistent serve, return of serve, forceful groundstrokes from both her forehand and backhand swings. Williams's forehand is considered to be among the most powerful shots in the women's game, as is her double-handed backhand. Williams strikes her backhand groundstroke using an open stance, uses the same open stance for her forehand. Williams's aggressive play, a "high risk" style, is balanced in part by her serve, which most say is the greatest in women's tennis history, she projects great pace and placement with her serves. What makes her serve more deadly is her ball placement and her ability to place powerful shots with gr
2001 WTA Tour
The WTA Tour is the elite tour for professional women's tennis organised by the Women's Tennis Association. The WTA Tour includes the four Grand Slam tournaments, the WTA Tour Championships and the WTA Tier I, Tier II, Tier III, Tier IV and Tier V events. ITF tournaments are not part of the WTA Tour; the year-end number one in 2000 and thus the No. 1 player as 2001 begun, Martina Hingis started the new season off well by winning the title at the Adidas International over nemesis Lindsay Davenport. The two looked like they might meet again in the Australian Open final: Hingis beat Venus Williams in her semifinal, but Davenport was surprised by a resurgent Jennifer Capriati, enjoying a dream run to her first Grand Slam final. Going against the odds, Capriati scalped Hingis to win her first Slam title and re-entered the top 10 in the rankings after a near-eight year absence, a record gap. Despite neither claiming the Australian Open and Davenport continued to dominate proceedings for the rest of January and February.
The two met again at the Toray Pan Pacific Open, with Davenport triumphing this time to win the title. Hingis won the inaugural events in the Middle East, the Qatar Total FinaElf Open and the Dubai Duty Free Women's Open, while Davenport was victorious at the State Farm Classic. Meanwhile, Amélie Mauresmo claimed both titles in her home country of France, winning at the Open Gaz de France and the Internationaux de Tennis Feminin Nice; the Pacific Life Open saw an all-teen battle commence in its championship match, with 19-year-old Serena Williams reclaiming the title she first won in 1999 by beating 17-year-old Kim Clijsters in the final. Serena's older sister, responded by winning March's other big title, the Ericsson Open, surviving a nail-biter against Australian Open champion Capriati; as the clay court season begun in April, Mauresmo continued to enjoy a strong run of form to win her third straight title on the green clay courts of the Bausch & Lomb Championships. Her 16-match win streak, was stopped by Hingis in the quarterfinals of the Family Circle Cup—a tournament that saw Capriati win her first Tier I title since the Canadian Open in 1991, defeating Hingis in three sets.
Moving on to the red clay courts, Venus Williams showed devastating form at the Betty Barclay Cup, losing just 12 games en route to the title. Mauresmo once again posted impressive results, taking down Hingis and Capriati to win the Eurocard German Open, making the final at the Italian Open—only being stopped by Yugoslav teenager Jelena Dokić, enjoying a career best week to win her first singles title; the French Open provided shocks from early on, with clay court standouts and favourites Mauresmo and Venus Williams both crashing out in the first round. The two upsets blew the bottom half of the draw wide open, allowing Kim Clijsters to reach her first major final, knocking out compatriot Justine Henin in the first all-Belgian semifinal in Grand Slam history. Over on the top half, things went more to plan, with Capriati and Hingis setting up a rematch of that year's Australian Open final. Capriati eased through that. After being two points from defeat on numerous occasions, she triumphed over Clijsters in a 12–10 third set to continue her faultless 14–0 record in Grand Slam play that year.
Wimbledon opened with a dramatic upset: World No. 1 Hingis crashed out in straight sets against Virginia Ruano Pascual, repeating her first round exit of 1999. Lindsay Davenport had returned to action on the grass after missing the entire clay season due to a right knee bone bruise, established herself as a threat with a title run at the Britannic Asset Championships, she advanced to the semifinals, before losing in a rematch of the 2000 final to Venus Williams. On the other side of the draw, Henin snapped Capriati's Grand Slam win streak to become the second straight Belgian player to compete in a major final. However, like Clijsters before her, she went down to the favourite, who became only the fourth woman in the Open era to win consecutive Wimbledon titles whilst winning her third Grand Slam overall. Americans players dominated their home turf during the summer hard court swing, with Venus Williams proving to be the standout player for the second straight year. Despite losing to Meghann Shaughnessy at the Bank of the West Classic, she won two events: the Acura Classic and Pilot Pen Tennis, allowing her to head into her US Open title defence on a 9-match winning streak.
Davenport stamped herself as a major contender with a 13–3 win-loss record during the American hard court tournaments, including a title at the estyle.com Classic. Meanwhile, Serena Williams won the Rogers AT&T Cup; that year's US Open provided the first all-Williams final between sisters Venus and Serena, after both upset the world's top two players in their respective semifinals and Capriati. In a historic final, the first woman's final to be played in prime time, Venus beat her little sister to defend her title and repeat the Wimbledon-US Open double she did the previous year, it was the first all-sister final at a Grand Slam event since the 1884 Wimbledon Championships, between the Watson sisters and Lilian. Davenport proved to be the standout player during the indoor season, winning three tournaments in consecutive weeks: the Porsche Tennis Grand Prix, the Swisscom Challenge and the Generali Ladies Linz, repeating the achievement she did in 1998. Performing well were Dokić, who won two titles at the AIG Japan Open and the Kremlin Cup, just t
Lindsay Ann Davenport Leach is an American former professional tennis player. She was ranked World No. 1 for a total of 98 weeks. Davenport is one of five women who have been the year-end World No. 1 at least four times since 1975. She has achieved the No. 1 ranking in doubles as well. Noted for her powerful and reliable groundstrokes, Davenport won a total of 55 WTA Tour singles titles, including three Grand Slam titles, the gold medal at the 1996 Summer Olympic Games and the WTA Championships, she won 38 WTA Tour doubles titles, including three Grand Slam titles, three WTA Championships. She amassed career-earnings of $22,166,338 dollars. Davenport was coached for most of her career by Robert Van't Hof. In 2005, TENNIS Magazine ranked her as the 29th-greatest player of the preceding 40 years. Davenport was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 2014. Lindsay Davenport is the daughter of Wink Davenport, a member of the U. S. volleyball team at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, Ann Davenport, the president of the Southern California Volleyball Association.
Davenport was born to an athletic family. While her two older sisters and Shannon, played volleyball, she started playing tennis at age six, she was coached by Robert Lansdorp. She attended Chadwick School in California. At age 16, her family moved to Murrieta, where she attended and graduated from Murrieta Valley High School, she began to work with Lynne Rolley and Robert Van't Hof; when Davenport was 14, she joined the United States Tennis Association junior national team. She had a rapid growth spurt — about six inches in two years — which affected her coordination, but did not hinder her performance, she excelled at junior level competitions and swept the singles and doubles titles at the National Girls' 18s and Clay Court Championships in 1991 and won the Junior U. S. Open in'92. Davenport is a baseline player, her game was built around her groundstrokes, including her two-handed backhand, serve, which she hits with excellent placement and at its best was called "rock solid". Gigi Fernández once remarked that Davenport has developed "a forehand as good as Steffi Graf's."
Davenport had a reputation as one of the tour's hardest hitters. Gabriela Sabatini said that, " likes to hit the ball hard into the corner. Hard." Her lack of court speed and mobility was her greatest weakness until she overhauled her conditioning program and lost 30 pounds beginning in 1995, became mentally stronger. She was a thirteen-time grand slam finalist in doubles, but Davenport did not feel comfortable playing at the net in singles until her increased speed allowed her to approach more to the net in order to create easier volleys. While Davenport's first play dated back to 1991, she became a professional two years after her first professional-level matches. Davenport's doubles success in 1993 was a 17–16 record while she reached the top 100 in doubles rankings, she reached the third round at the 1993 Australian Open doubles competition with Chanda Rubin. Davenport entered the top 20, despite coming into her first tournament that year ranked no. 162. She qualified for the 1993 Australian Open.
At the Indian Wells Masters, Davenport reached. 99, but lost to 7th-ranked and future doubles partner Mary Joe Fernandez. That year, Davenport won her first Tier III title at the European Open where she beat Nicole Bradtke in three sets in the finals, she reached the third round at the 1993 Wimbledon Championships, at the 1993 US Open, the American reached the fourth round ranked no. 24. 1993 is notable because it was the one time she faced Martina Navratilova, falling in three sets, 6–1 3–6 5–7, in the Oakland semifinals. Davenport won the first professional tournament she entered in Australia. At the Australian Open, she reached her first Grand Slam quarterfinal, defeating no. 5 Mary Joe Fernandez in the fourth round, before losing in the quarterfinals to top-ranked Steffi Graf. Davenport reached the semifinals at Indian Wells and Miami and won the title in Lucerne. At Wimbledon, Davenport reached her second Grand Slam quarterfinal. Ranked ninth, Davenport defeated tenth ranked Gabriela Sabatini, before losing to third ranked Conchita Martínez, who went on to win the tournament.
In November, she reached her first WTA Tour Championship final. In doubles, Davenport won Indian Wells with Lisa Raymond and reached the French Open doubles final with Raymond, where they lost to Gigi Fernández and Natasha Zvereva. Davenport teamed with Arantxa Sánchez Vicario to win the title in Oakland, defeating Gigi Fernández and Martina Navratilova in the final. In December 1994, Davenport hired Craig Kardon as her coach. Davenport started the year by reaching the final of the tournament in Sydney, where she lost to Gabriela Sabatini. Davenport again reached the Australian Open quarterfinals and the following week, lost to Kimiko Date in the final of the tournament in Tokyo. On clay, Davenport won the tournament in Strasbourg on her first attempt, defeating Kimiko Date in the final. Da
Lisa Raymond is an American retired professional tennis player who has achieved notable success in doubles tennis. Raymond has 11 Grand Slam titles to her name: 6 in women's doubles and 5 in mixed doubles. On June 12, 2000, she reached the World No. 1 Ranking in doubles for the first time. Her career high singles ranking was No. 15 in October 1997. Over the course of her career, Raymond won four singles titles and 79 doubles titles, held the World No. 1 doubles ranking for a total of 137 weeks. Earning more than US$10 million in prize money in her career, Raymond reached the quarterfinals in singles at the 2004 Australian Open and the 2000 Wimbledon Championships. Raymond, who plays right-handed, has wins over former World No. 1's Venus Williams, Arantxa Sánchez Vicario, Monica Seles, Jennifer Capriati and Martina Hingis, as well as other accomplished former top 10 players such as Magdalena Maleeva, Lori McNeil, Irina Spîrlea, Natasha Zvereva, Conchita Martínez, Marion Bartoli, Svetlana Kuznetsova and Maria Kirilenko.
She is one of the few players to win a career Grand Slam in doubles. Among her doubles partners are Lindsay Davenport, Martina Navratilova, Rennae Stubbs, Samantha Stosur, Květa Peschke, Cara Black and Liezel Huber. Raymond is an Olympic medalist, winning the bronze medal in the mixed doubles competition at the 2012 Summer Olympics for the United States, partnering with Mike Bryan. Born in Norristown, Raymond is a 1991 graduate of The Academy of Notre Dame de Namur, a private Catholic girls school in Villanova, Pa, she received an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Florida in Gainesville, where she played for coach Andy Brandi's Florida Gators women's tennis team. As a Gator, she won the NCAA singles title in 1992 and 1993 and led the Gators to their first NCAA national team championship in 1992, she was the first player to win all three collegiate Grand Slam titles in a single season. She received the 1992 Volvo Rookie of the Year award, the 1992 Tennis Magazine Collegiate Player of the Year award, twice received the Honda Sports Award for Tennis, recognizing her as the outstanding collegiate female tennis player of the year in 1991–92 and in 1992–93.
As a junior, Raymond won five U. S. National singles and doubles titles, she was ranked No. 1 in the U. S. for players 18 and under in 1990. She was inducted into the University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame as a "Gator Great" in 2003. Played the first half of the year with Rennae Stubbs before beginning a partnership with Samantha Stosur, winning the US Open, her second doubles crown at Flushing Meadows, the Season Ending Championships her second. Raymond and Stosur won six titles together and were named ITF World Doubles Champions of 2005. In 2006, Raymond and Stosur won ten titles including the French Open and their second Season Ending Championships. By winning the French Open, Lisa Raymond became only the 13th person in history to have won all four double Grand Slams. Finished the year as the co-holders of the number one spot. Won a WTA-leading 10 titles. Raymond and Stosur were again awarded by the ITF as World Doubles Chapmpions of 2006, they received the WTA Team of the Year award for their achievements.
The year 2007 was a good one for Stosur, with the pair winning five titles. However, Stosur was diagnosed with a virus, forcing her to miss the second half of the season meaning Raymond had to play with various partners. Though they only played half the season together, they had still qualified for the Season-ending Championships but could not compete. Raymond began 2008 playing with Elena Likhovtseva with solid results but was cut short due to injury but reunited with former partner Samantha Stosur in May, after the latter's return from injury, they went on losing both. Raymond won titles in Memphis and New Haven. In 2009, Raymond began a partnership with Květa Peschke, where they reached four finals and two semi-finals before their year was cut short by an injury to Peschke, just before Wimbledon. Lisa played with different partners, winning one title, taking her tally to 68. Raymond now considers her 2008–2009 seasons to be almost'lost' due to a lack of drive in her fitness. Raymond started the year by reuniting with former partner Rennae Stubbs.
They lost their first round in Sydney, before reaching the semi-finals of the Australian Open, as the number six seeds, losing to Venus and Serena Williams. Raymond made the semi-finals of the Mixed doubles tournament. Raymond and Stubbs won the Aegon International against Květa Peschke and Katarina Srebotnik in the final 6–2 2–6 Both Raymond and Stubbs qualified for the WTA Tour Championship at Doha and will face second seeds Květa Peschke and Katarina Srebotnik. Raymond started the year by teaming up with Julia Görges but in April started a new partnership with Liezel Huber. Starting by May their results picked up with a quarter-final showing in Warsaw, semi-finals at Roland Garros and Birmingham, runners-up in Eastbourne and Stanford, they were quarter-finalists at Wimbledon and Cincinnati. They won their first tournament in Toronto and claimed the US Open and Tokyo, with a semi-final finish in Beijing which qualified them for the WTA Championships in Istanbul. Both have stated they want to continue their partnership in 2012 and play the London Olympics.
Raymond has now won six women's Grand Slam double titles, three at the US Open, bringing her grand total to 9 and 73 double titles in total. In Raymond's first tournament of the year, at Sydney she and her partner Huber were 2nd seeds, they got to the final where they were against top seeds Peschke and Srebotnik
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Martina Hingis is a Swiss former professional tennis player. She spent a total of 209 weeks as the singles world No. 90 weeks as doubles world No. 1, holding both No. 1 rankings for 29 weeks. She won five Grand Slam singles titles, thirteen Grand Slam women's doubles titles, winning a calendar-year doubles Grand Slam in 1998, seven Grand Slam mixed doubles titles. In addition, she won the season-ending WTA Finals two times in singles and three times in doubles, an Olympic silver medal. Hingis set a series of "youngest-ever" records during the 1990s, including youngest-ever Grand Slam champion and youngest-ever world No. 1. Before ligament injuries in both ankles forced her to withdraw temporarily from professional tennis in 2002, at the age of 22, she had won 40 singles titles and 36 doubles titles and, according to Forbes, was the highest-paid female athlete in the world for five consecutive years, 1997 to 2001. After several surgeries and long recoveries, Hingis returned to the WTA tour in 2006, climbing to world No.
6, winning two Tier I tournaments, receiving the Laureus World Sports Award for Comeback of the Year. She retired in November 2007 after being hampered by a hip injury for several months and testing positive for a metabolite of cocaine during that year's Wimbledon Championships, which led to a two-year suspension from the sport. In July 2013, Hingis came out of retirement to play the tournaments of the North American hard-court season alongside Daniela Hantuchová. During her doubles comeback, Hingis won four Grand Slam women's doubles tournaments, six Grand Slam mixed doubles tournaments, 27 WTA titles, a silver medal partnering her compatriot Timea Bacsinszky at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. Hingis retired after the 2017 WTA Finals. 1. Considered an all-time tennis great, Hingis was ranked by Tennis magazine in 2005 as the 8th-greatest female player of the preceding 40 years, she was named one of the "30 Legends of Women's Tennis: Past and Future" by TIME in June 2011. In 2013, Hingis was elected into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, was appointed two years the organization's first Global Ambassador.
Hingis was born in Košice, Czechoslovakia as Martina Hingisová, to accomplished tennis players Melanie Molitorová and Karol Hingis. Molitorová was a professional tennis player, once ranked tenth among women in Czechoslovakia, was determined to develop Hingis into a top player as early as pregnancy, her father was ranked as high as 19th in the Czechoslovak tennis rankings. Martina Hingis spent her early childhood growing up in the town of Rožnov pod Radhoštěm. Hingis's parents divorced when she was six, she and her mother defected from Czechoslovakia in 1987 and emigrated to Trübbach in Switzerland when she was seven, her mother remarried, to Andreas Zogg, a computer technician. Hingis acquired Swiss citizenship through naturalization. Hingis entered her first tournament at age four. In 1993, 12-year-old Hingis became the youngest player to win a Grand Slam junior title: the girls' singles at the French Open. In 1994, she retained her French Open junior title, won the girls' singles title at Wimbledon, reached the final of the US Open.
She made her WTA debut at the Zurich Open in October 1994, two weeks after turning 14, ended 1994 ranked world No. 87. In 1996, Hingis became the youngest Grand Slam champion of all time, when she teamed with Helena Suková at Wimbledon to win the women's doubles title at age 15 years and 9 months, she won her first professional singles title that year at Filderstadt, Germany. She reached the singles quarterfinals of the 1996 Australian Open and the singles semifinals of the 1996 US Open. Following her win at Filderstadt, Hingis defeated the reigning Australian Open champion and co-top ranked Monica Seles in the final in Oakland, but lost to Graf in the year-end WTA Tour Championships final in five sets. In 1997, Hingis became the undisputed World No. 1 women's tennis player. She started the year by winning the warm-up tournament in Sydney, she became the youngest Grand Slam singles winner in the 20th century by winning the Australian Open at age 16 years and 3 months. In March, she became. In July, she became the youngest singles champion at Wimbledon since Lottie Dod in 1887 by beating Jana Novotná in the final.
She defeated another up-and-coming player, Venus Williams, in the final of the US Open. The only Grand Slam singles title that Hingis failed to win in 1997 was the French Open, where she lost in the final to Iva Majoli, she won the Australian Open women's doubles with Natasha Zvereva. In 1998, Hingis won all four of the Grand Slam women's doubles titles, only the fourth in women's tennis history to do so, she became only the third woman to hold the No. 1 ranking in both singles and doubles simultaneously. She retained her Australian Open singles title by beating Conchita Martínez in straight sets in the final. Hingis, lost in the final of the US Open to Lindsay Davenport. Davenport ended an 80-week stretch Hingis had enjoyed as the No. 1 singles player in October 1998, but Hingis finished the year by beating Davenport in the final of the WTA Tour Championships. 1999 saw. She had dropped her former doubles partner Jana Novotná, she re
Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir