Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Armenians, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians, Maronites and Samaritans. Israel also hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016. The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Hapoel Be'er Sheva F.C.
Hapoel Beer Sheva Football Club is an Israeli football club from the city of Beersheba, that competes in the Israeli Premier League. The club was founded in 1949, and businesswoman Alona Barkat has run it since 2007, the club also includes youth groups, teens and children, and football schools. The home uniform colors of the club are red and white, until 1959, the club played its home games at a stadium that was located in the old city of Beersheba. In 1960, the moved to Vasermil Stadium. Starting from the 2015–16 season, the ground of the team is Turner Stadium. The club won its first league title in 1975, over the years, the team has won three league titles, three Toto Cups, three Super Cups and one Lilian Cup. Hapoel Beer Sheva were formed in 1949 by Zalman Casspi, casspis ambition was to build a successful team full of talented young players. The clubs first game was against a team from Mefalsim, a kibbutz in Southern Israel, the Mefalsim team was mostly made up of immigrants from South America. The game was played in a stadium in Beer Shevas Old City, at this time Hapoel played in a league with only four other clubs. Hapoel drew their games against Hapoel Rishon LeZion, Hapoel Kfar Saba, in their other game against Hapoel Ramat Gan Beer Sheva lost 4–3. In 1952, the disbanded, but were re-established 3 years later and were granted entry into the Liga Gimel. In the 1956/57 season, the team finished at the top of the league under new manager Yosef Azran, in their final game of the season, they played against Jaffa, winning 5–0, a win which gained them promotion to Liga Bet. Following the clubs promotion to Liga Bet, they appointed Lonia Dvorin as their new manager and he was replaced by Jack Gibbons, who had previously managed Hapoel Petah Tikva to five national titles as well as being the head coach of the Israel National team. In the first game under Gibbons, they played against ZVI Single, however, Hapoel felt that ZVI had played illegally and reported them to the league, which resulted in Hapoel winning the points. In the second game against Maccabi Shaarayim Hapoel won 2–0, the final game against Hapoel Natanya, a 2–1 win for Beer Sheva, granted them promotion to Liga Alef. In 1958/59 Jack Gibbons left the club and was replaced by Yehiel Moore, in 1959/60 the team moved to a new stadium and invited Cypriot side Anorthosis Famagusta to officially open the stadium, the Cypriot side won the game 2–1. At the beginning of the 1960s the team did not try to promote to a higher league, but in 1961–62 the club decided to bring in a foreign coach, Rober Eryol. Eryol was the only Jewish player who played at the time in the Turkey national team
Israeli Declaration of Independence
It declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel, which would come into effect on termination of the British Mandate at midnight that day. The event is celebrated annually in Israel with a national holiday Yom Haatzmaut on 5 Iyar of every year according to the Hebrew calendar, the possibility of a Jewish homeland in Palestine had been a goal of Zionist organizations since the late 19th century. After World War I, the United Kingdom was given a mandate for Palestine, in the face of increasing violence after World War II, the British handed the issue over to the recently established United Nations. The result was Resolution 181, a plan to partition Palestine into Independent Arab and Jewish States, the Jewish state was to receive around 56% of the land area of Mandate Palestine, encompassing 82% of the Jewish population, though it would be separated from Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by most of the Jewish population, the result was 33 to 13 in favour of the resolution, with 10 abstentions. Resolution 181, PART I, Future constitution and government of Palestine, TERMINATION OF MANDATE, PARTITION AND INDEPENDENCE, Clause 3 provides, Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. Shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the forces of the mandatory Power has been completed. The first draft of the declaration was made by Zvi Berenson, a revised second draft was made by three lawyers, A. Beham, A. Hintzheimer and Z. E. Baker, and was framed by a committee including David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Moshe Sharett, a second committee meeting, which included David Ben-Gurion, Yehuda Leib Maimon, Sharett and Zisling produced the final text. On 12 May 1948, the Minhelet HaAm was convened to vote on declaring independence, three of the thirteen members were missing, with Yehuda Leib Maimon and Yitzhak Gruenbaum being blocked in besieged Jerusalem, while Yitzhak-Meir Levin was in the United States. The meeting started at 1,45 in the afternoon and ended after midnight, the decision was between accepting the American proposal for a truce, or declaring independence. The latter option was put to a vote, with six of the ten members present supporting it, For, David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Sharett, Peretz Bernstein, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Mordechai Bentov, against, Eliezer Kaplan, David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit. Chaim Weizmann, chairman of the World Zionist Organization and soon to be the first President of Israel, endorsed the decision, after reportedly asking What are they waiting for, the idiots. The draft text was submitted for approval to a meeting of Moetzet HaAm at the JNF building in Tel Aviv on 14 May. The meeting started at 13,50 and ended at 15,00, an hour before the declaration was due to be made, during the process, there were two major debates, centering on the issues of borders and religion. On the border issue, the draft had declared that the borders would be that decided by the UN partition plan. While this was supported by Rosen and Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit, it was opposed by Ben-Gurion and Zisling, with Ben-Gurion stating, We accepted the UN Resolution and they are preparing to make war on us. If we defeat them and capture western Galilee or territory on both sides of the road to Jerusalem, these areas become part of the state
Maccabi Tel Aviv F.C.
Maccabi Tel Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club and part of the Maccabi Tel Aviv sports club. Founded in 1906 as the HaRishon Le Zion-Yafo Association, Maccabi Tel Aviv is the oldest, largest and most decorated club in Israel. With the establishment of the city of Tel Aviv in 1909, in 1922 they became the first Jewish football club to participate in local competitions. Maccabi Tel Aviv have won more titles than any other Israeli club, winning 22 League Championships,23 prestigious State Cups, the club is named after the Maccabees. Maccabi Tel Aviv FC invest a lot of money in the development, the clubs youth system operate football academies at three sites in the Tel Aviv area, working with over 750 children aged 6–15. The club also runs 17 youth teams with 400 players between 9 and 19 years old and these teams tend to compete very successfully in local and national leagues. Durims decided to establish the Palestine League, in the same year the State Cup was founded under the name People Cup. That same year, the first Tel Aviv derby was played, with Maccabi winning, Maccabi won their first State Cup in 1929 after beating Maccabi HaShmonai. Maccabi won the State Cup for a time in 1930, beating the 48th Regiment of Foot 2–1, and a third in 1933. In 1936 the club was invited to play in the United States, on their way, Maccabi played in France, losing, 2–0, to Racing Paris and 3–1 to Lille. In the United States, Maccabi defeated the All-star team of New York City in front of 50,000 in Yankee Stadium. Maccabi also defeated the American Soccer League team in Brooklyn and Philadelphia on their ground, 1–0, and also played in Canada. Maccabi continued their tour in the USA and lost, 3–2, to St. Louis Stars, after returning from the United States, Maccabi players went on strike because they had not been paid. In 1937, after a year of action, the Football Association accepted their demands. In that year, Maccabi Tel Aviv also won their first league title, in 1939, after the start of World War II, Maccabi won their second championship. At the end of the season, Maccabi went to another tour and they played 18 games, winning 11, losing 5 and drawing 2. The games were against State sides, regional sides and five tests against the Australian national team, winning one, drawing one, in 1941 Maccabi won their first double, Winning both the league and State Cup, beating Hapoel Tel Aviv, 2–1, in the final. Between 1941 and 1945 the league was suspended because of the war, in 1946, the league was still suspended but the State Cup returned with Maccabi beating Hapoel Rishon LeZion, 6–0, on aggregate in the final
Penalty shoot-out (association football)
A penalty shoot-out is a method of determining the winner of an association football match that is drawn after the regulation as well as extra playing time. Although the procedure for taking kicks from the penalty mark resembles that of a penalty kick, most notably, neither the kicker nor any player other than the goalkeeper may play the ball again once it has been kicked. The method of breaking a draw in a match requiring a winner is determined beforehand by the organizing body. Although employed in football commonly since the 1970s, penalty shoot-outs remain unpopular with some, during a shoot-out, coaches, players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the centre circle. The kicking teams goalkeeper stands at the intersection of the goal line, goals scored during the shoot-out are not included in the final score, nor are they added to the goalscoring records of the players involved. A tie is a result in football. Exceptionally, a shoot-out after a league or round-robin match may be provided for and this provision appears for occasions where opposing teams in a final-day match finish the group with identical records, which can result in an immediate shoot-out. This happened in Group A of the 2003 UEFA Womens Under-19 Championship, several leagues, such as the J-League, have experimented with penalty shoot-outs immediately following a drawn league match, with the winner being awarded an extra point. A team that loses a penalty shoot-out is eliminated from the tournament but it does not count as a defeat, for instance, the Netherlands are considered to have concluded the 2014 FIFA World Cup undefeated, despite being eliminated at the semi-final stage. The following is a summary of the procedure for kicks from the penalty mark, the procedure is specified in Law 10 of the IFABs Laws of the Game document. The referee tosses a coin to decide the goal at which the kicks will be taken, the choice of goal by the coin toss winner may only be changed by the referee for safety reasons or if the goal or playing surface becomes unusable. The referee tosses the coin a second time to determine which team will take the first kick, all players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the pitchs centre circle. Each kick will be taken in the manner of a penalty kick. Each kick will be taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards from the line and equidistant from each touch line. Each team is responsible for selecting from the players the order in which they will take the kicks. The referee is not informed of the order, each kicker can kick the ball only once per attempt. Once kicked, the kicker may not play the ball again, no other player on either team, other than the designated kicker and goalkeeper, may touch the ball. The ball may touch the goalkeeper, goal posts, or crossbar any number of times before going into the goal as long as the referee believes the motion is the result of the initial kick
Beitar Jerusalem F.C.
Beitar Jerusalem Football club is an Israeli professional football club from Jerusalem, Israel. Founded in 1936 and plays in the Israeli Premier League, Beitar were the 1986–87, 1992–93, 1996–97, 1997–98 and 2006–07, 2007–08 champions of the Israeli Premier League and the winners of Israeli Cup, and Israeli Supercup. The club is based at the Teddy Stadium in the Malha neighborhood, Beitar Jerusalem was founded in 1936 by David Horn as a youth team. The first games were held against Armenian and Arab teams in Jerusalem, the club was dismantled in 1938 after one of its managers was arrested by the British Mandate authorities and another was shot and injured in another incident. Beitars troubles were linked to its connections with the Irgun underground with which David Horn. In 1942, the club was reestablished, this time as a club for adults rather than just a youth team, politics again became a problem, with British soldiers and policemen often attending Beitar games to spy and identify the faces of the players. 15 April 1944, Beitar Jerusalem – Plebis 1–1,22 April 1944, Beitar Jerusalem – Plebis 2–2. 13 May 1944, Beitar Jerusalem – Plebis 3–2,20 May 1944, Beitar Jerusalem – Allwain 1–3. Later, Beitar Jerusalem qualified for the final, which was to be held against the team of the Paymasters of the British mandate, on 19 October 1944, several club players were among 251 persons who were deported to Eritrea, Kenya and Sudan by the British Mandate Authorities. Among the deportees were David Horn and Rabinovich and some members of Beitar Jerusalems First team of 1936, a Beitar Jerusalem team was set up in Gilgil where many deportees played in city-of-origin based teams. A big running away plan was made involving a tunnel dug from the centre of a pitch in old Gilgil detention camp in Kenya. Two of the deportees were murdered by Sudanese guards for an alleged escaping attempt, all living deportees reached Israel in July 1948. With Shmuel Kirshtein left in Jerusalem, Beitar continued to exist in Jerusalem in its name, both games were held in Beirut. The British ambassador intervened, suggesting that the Union Jack is raised instead of the Eretz Yisrael flag, simon Alfasi, Shimon Stern, Yisrael Yehezqel and goalkeeper Yosef Meyuhas were the Beitar Jerusalem players in the trip. In 1946, Beitar Jerusalem qualified to the 2nd round of the Cup Games against Maccabi Tel Aviv, the scores were a 3–3 and a loss 3–2 in game 2. Simon Alfasi scored all five goals for the club, three in the first and two in the second, on 8 August 1947, all Beitar clubs were banned by the British mandate authorities. The club name was changed to Nordiah Jerusalem, before a league was set up in Jerusalem district in November 1947. During the war, Beitar Jerusalem player Asher Benjamin was killed by the British when he entered to a British camp in Jerusalem, in 1951–52 season, the club integrated into Liga Bet southern part, then the second tier
Bnei Sakhnin F.C.
Bnei Sakhnin F. C. is an Israeli football club based at the Doha Stadium in Sakhnin. They are the most successful Israeli Arab club in the country, the club was formed in 1991 by a merger of Maccabi Sakhnin and Hapoel Sakhnin. They were promoted to Liga Artzit in 1997, in 1998–99 they finished in the relegation zone, but were reprieved when Maccabi Jaffa, who had finished bottom of the top division, were relegated three leagues due to financial problems. Promotion was only won on the last day of the season, prior to their first season in the top division, Sakhnin were favourites to be relegated, and it was thought that Nazareth had a better chance of survival. Questions remained as to whether the squad that gained promotion would be able to compete at the top level and they also lost manager Momy Zafran who resigned shortly after the club won promotion, replacing him with Eyal Lahman. In addition, the club had to play games in Haifas Kiryat Eliezer Stadium, the club signed former Maccabi Haifa striker Raffi Cohen and loaned another striker, Lior Asulin from Maccabi Herzliya. Sagi Strauss was brought in to mind the nets from Maccabi Petah Tikva, despite the gloomy predictions, the club defied the odds, eventually finishing 10th, four points clear of relegation, whilst Nazareth finished bottom. However, the highlight of the season was the State Cup victory, in the final, Sakhnin beat surprise finalists, second division side Hapoel Haifa 4–1. The team gained a reputation for being a tough, combative outfit, captain and club stalwart Abbas Suan won particular acclaim, gaining a call-up to the Israel squad, and winning his first cap in February 2004. The cup win meant that the club became the first Arab team to play in Europe, after beating Partizani Tirana 6–1 on aggregate in the second qualifying round, the club faced Newcastle United in the first round. However, Sakhnin were beaten 7–1 on aggregate, including a 5–1 home defeat in a match played at the National Stadium in Ramat Gan due to security concerns. During the 2004–05 season, with its still under development the club played many of its home matches at Hapoel Nazareth Illits Municipal Stadium. During their spell in the top flight, several Sakhnin games were plagued by hooliganism, as a punishment, the IFA ordered the club to play two games behind closed doors. However, with one of the largest budgets in the division, the club were amongst the favourites to return quickly to the Premier League, in their first season back in the Premier League, they finished fourth, their highest ever league position, qualifying for the Intertoto Cup. The rise of the Bnei Sakhnin F. C. was the subject of a documentary film by noted Israeli director Ram Loevy. During the 2005–06 season, the signed a shirt sponsorship deal with Israeli mobile phone company Cellcom. The clubs budget was bolstered on 15 June 2006 when Gaydamak announced that he would donate two million shekels to the club in hope that they make a return to Israels top league. The fan base of Bnei Sakhnin is smaller in comparison to other Israeli clubs, the majority of fans of Bnei Sakhnin are Arab Israelis
Hapoel Ironi Kiryat Shmona F.C.
Hapoel Ironi Kiryat Shmona Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Kiryat Shmona. The club are members of the Israeli Premier League and play at the Ironi Stadium. They won their first league title in 2011–12, the merger was initiated by businessman Izzy Sheratzky owner of Ituran Location and Control, who are the official sponsors of the team. In the new clubs first season won the North Division of Liga Alef and were promoted to Liga Artzit. In 2002–03 they finished as runners-up to Hakoah Ramat Gan and were promoted to Liga Leumit, in their first season at the second level they narrowly missed out on promotion, only finishing below runners-up Hapoel Nazareth Illit on goal difference. They finished third again in 2005–06, but won the league in 2006–07 to earn promotion to the Israeli Premier League, in the same season they also won the Liga Leumit Toto Cup. The clubs first season in the Premier League saw them finish third, in their first season in Europe, home matches had to be played at the Kiryat Eliezer Stadium in Haifa. After knocking out FK Mogren, they lost to Litex Lovech in the qualifying round. In 2008–09, the finished bottom of the Premier League and were relegated to Liga Leumit. However, the season they won the division and were promoted back to the Premier League. On 15 December 2009, Ironi Kiryat Shmona won the 2009–10 Toto Cup Leumit, on 19 January 2011, Ironi Kiryat Shmona won the 2010–11 Toto Cup Al, a year after winning the Leumit version of the cup, it was their first major title. In addition, Ironi Kiryat Shmona became the first team to win both first and second Toto Cup trophy in a back-to-back year, on 24 January 2012, Ironi Kiryat Shmona defended their Toto Cup Al by beating Hapoel Tel Aviv in the 2011–12 Toto Cup Al finals. On 2 April 2012, Ironi Kiryat Shmona won the Israeli Premier League and they won the league after finishing their match against runner-up Hapoel Tel Aviv in a goalless draw with five rounds left in the league. Their championship was the first to be won by a team outside the three cities for almost 30 years. On 20 May 2012, The club changed its badge due to UEFA sponsorship rules which forbids the use of a name in both the kit and team badge. Only up to six non-Israeli nationals can be in an Israeli club squad
Maccabi Sha'arayim F.C.
Maccabi Shaarayim is an Israeli football club from the city Rehovot, currently playing in Liga Leumit. The club spent the past seven seasons in the top division from 1963 to 1969, the club was promoted to Liga Leumit for the first time in 1963. In their first season in the league they finished 11th out of 15, the following season the club finished sixth, which remains their highest ever league position. In the 1965–66 season they avoided relegation, finishing one place above the relegation zone. In 1969 Maccabi reach the cup final for the first time, in the same season they finished second bottom of the league and were relegated back to Liga Alef. The final match of the 1971–72 season saw the club have a chance to return to the top flight, but they lost 2–1 to Hapoel Marmorek, which were promoted instead. Two years later qualified for the promotion/relegation play-offs, but failed to win any of their five matches. At the end of the 1977–78 season they finished bottom of Liga Artzit and were relegated to Liga Alef, however, they finished bottom, and were relegated back to Liga Artzit. At the end of the 2011–12 season the club returned to Liga Alef, in the 2015–16 season, the club won Liga Alef South division and promoted to Liga Leumit. Thus, the returned to the second tier of Israeli football after 23 years
Israel State Cup
The State Cup, is a knockout cup competition in Israeli football, run by the Israeli Football Association. The State Cup was first held in 1928 as the Peoples Cup, the holders of the State Cup are the Israeli Premier League side Hapoel Ironi Kiryat Shmona, who beat Maccabi Netanya in the 2014 final on 7 May 2014. Maccabi Tel Aviv have 23 titles, having the record for most titles won, Hapoel Tel Aviv in 1937–1939 and 2010–2012 are the only club to have retained the State Cup for three consecutive seasons. The draw also determines which teams play at home. Each tie is played as a single leg, if a match is drawn, the game is settled with extra time and penalty shootouts, though until 1964 replays would be played until one team was victorious. Some ties took as many as three matches to settle, there are a total of 13 rounds in the competition—nine rounds, followed by quarter-finals, semi-finals, and the final. Which are contested by the lowest-ranked clubs, clubs playing in the Liga Alef are given exemption to the Fifth Round, and Liga Leumit teams are given exemption to the Eighth Round. The 18 winners from that round join the 14 clubs from the Israeli Premier League, as well as being presented with the trophy, the winning team also qualifies for the UEFA Europa League. If the winners have qualified for the UEFA Champions League via the Israeli Premier League. If they also have qualified for the UEFA Champions League, the place goes to the next highest placed finisher in the league table. The draw for round, performed by drawing the clubs name from a jar, is a source of great interest to clubs and their supporters. Sometimes two top clubs may be drawn against each other in the rounds, removing the possibility of them meeting in the final. Mid-ranked teams hope for a draw against a peer to improve their chances of reaching future rounds, top-ranked teams look for easy opposition, but have to be on their guard against giant-killers and lower teams with ambition. The balls are being drawn by the officials of the Israel Football Association, the semifinals and the finals are traditionally held in the national Ramat Gan Stadium in the middle of the week. The match considered more interesting to the public is usually the second, for the final, the two winning teams of the semifinal return to Ramat Gan, with the winning team being awarded the State Cup from the President of Israel. The presidents role is traditional, and entered the Israeli sports lexicon, Israel Football Association List of winners on IFA website State Cup Soccerway Israel – List of Cup Finals