Erwin Lamond Dudley is an American professional basketball player for Sakarya BB of the Turkish Basketball Super League. He holds Turkish citizenship, under the name of Ersin Dağlı. Born in Uniontown, Dudley is a graduate of the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. While at the Capstone, he made a name for himself. During his college basketball career, Dudley was named an All-American by the Associated Press, a consensus Southeastern Conference 2002 Player of the Year and a unanimous All-SEC First Team pick. Dudley led the Southeastern Conference in rebounding for three consecutive seasons, becoming the first to do so since Shaquille O'Neal, he holds the University's school record with 129 career starts and ranks seventh all-time in scoring and fourth in rebounding. Dudley recorded 43 double-doubles, giving him the nickname “E-double double”, he missed the 2003-2004 season due to a knee injury. He would have played for Basket Rimini Crabs in Italy. In 2004, Dudley started his professional career with Maccabi Rishon LeZion in Israel starting in 22 games, averaging 19.7 points and 11.6 rebounds.
In 2005, he joined Türk Telekom in Ankara, where he averaged 17.1 points and 8.4 rebounds in 34 games. In 2006, Dudley re-signed with Türk Telekom, where he averaged 16.1 points, 8.8 rebounds and 1.4 assists in the Turkish Basketball League and 21.4 points, 6.8 rebounds, 1.2 assists in Fiba EuroCup. After playing five seasons with Türk Telekom, Dudley's contract came to an end. In the summer of 2010, he signed a contract with Efes Pilsen. In the summer of 2011, he signed a contract with Beşiktaş, he helped them to win the Turkish Basketball Turkish Cup and EuroChallenge. In July 2012, he signed a contract with Galatasaray Liv Hospital. In July 2014, he signed a contract with Turkish team Darüşşafaka. On November 16, 2017, he signed with Sakarya BB for the rest of the 2017–18 BSL season. Dudley is the son of Patricia Dudley and Otis Hunter II, he is married to the former Tamara Croom, has a daughter, LaDaisha. In August 2011, he and his wife welcomed twins. Due to playing with Türk Telekom for three consecutive seasons, Dudley was eligible to apply for Turlish citizenship.
On December 17, 2008, his Turkish citizenship became official. The 2009–10 basketball season was his first playing as a Turkish citizen. Dudley maintains dual American and Turkish citizenship. Erwin Dudley at eurobasket.com Erwin Dudley at euroleague.net Erwin Dudley at tblstat.net
Minnesota Golden Gophers men's basketball
Minnesota Golden Gophers men's basketball team represents the University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus. The Golden Gophers have played in the Big Ten since the conference began sponsoring basketball in 1905 and play their home games in Williams Arena; the Gophers had great success in the early years of basketball, but have been overshadowed by other programs since the end of World War I. In total, the Gophers have won nine Big Ten championships, but only four since 1919. College basketball research organizations have retroactively awarded Minnesota national championships in 1902, 1903, 1919; the team has had several instances of NCAA sanctions on the program that have affected performance and recruiting. In the 1970s, the Gophers were in a violent brawl with the Ohio State Buckeyes and were barred from post-season appearances for two seasons after an incident involving the illegal resale of tickets. Still more severe was the mid-1990s academic scandal under then-coach Clem Haskins that resulted in the forfeit of a Final Four appearance.
The Gophers team formed without any organized coach. L. J. Cooke took over the team in 1897. Cooke was put on the University payroll on a part-time basis in early 1897 and full-time by the fall. Cooke remained the coach of the Gophers for 28 seasons, his.649 winning percentage is the second highest in school history. Dave MacMillan, who coached the team from 1927 to 1942 and 1945 to 1948, had the second longest tenure as coach at 18 seasons. John Wooden succeeded McMillan as Gophers head coach; the Gophers have had several NBA coaches grace the sidelines. John Kundla took over as Gophers head coach. George Hanson was assistant coach under both Kundla and Fitch and was head coach for the 1970-71 season. Bill Fitch and Bill Musselman both coached the team for a couple seasons before departing for the NBA and ABA where each had success and coached for many years; the program has had a fair degree of stability with their coaching staff. Tubby Smith became the 16th head coach in Gopher basketball history when hired in 2007.
Five coaches led the team for more than 10 seasons: Cooke, McMillan, O. B. Cowles, Jim Dutcher, Clem Haskins. On March 25, 2013, Tubby Smith was fired after failing to reach the Sweet Sixteen again; the Gophers hired Richard Pitino on April 3, 2013. The Golden Gophers have had many successful players come through the program throughout its history. In the early years of basketball, when the Gophers had success, they recruited some of the best players in the country. George Tuck was a dominant center, the first All-America for the Gophers in 1905. Frank Lawler was another early star: he led the Big Ten in scoring in 1911 and was named to the All-America team, helped the Gophers to a contested conference title. In 1950, Lawler was named the greatest player in Gopher basketball history, but the subsequent decades of Gopher basketball have forgotten his legacy. Hall of Fame coach John Kundla was a Gophers star and helped lead the team to its 1937 Big Ten Championship. With the decline of the stature of the Gophers program, fewer elite players have joined the team.
The diminished reputation has not, prevented some superior athletes from coming to the Minneapolis campus. Lou Hudson had his number retired. Baseball Hall of Famer Dave Winfield played for the Gophers in the early 1970s, he played at the same time as star post player Jim Brewer. Mychal Thompson was the first overall pick in the 1978 NBA Draft. Among Thompson's teammates were former Minnesota Timberwolves, Detroit Pistons and Washington Wizards head coach Flip Saunders, as well as basketball hall of fame forward Kevin McHale. Trent Tucker led the 1982 squad to the Big Ten Championship. Voshon Lenard was a key player for the Gophers in the early 1990s and went on to play more than a decade in the NBA. Willie Burton once scored 53 points in an NBA game with the Philadelphia 76ers. Other former Gophers with long NBA careers include Randy Breuer, Mark Olberding, Archie Clark, Jim Petersen, Ray Williams. Five players from the 1997 Final Four team played in the NBA: Bobby Jackson, Sam Jacobson, Quincy Lewis, John Thomas, Trevor Winter.
No former Gophers play in the NBA. Jamal Abu-Shamala, a Jordanian-American, plays internationally for the Jordan national basketball team; this roster is current for the 2018–19 men's basketball season. The precise founding of the Gophers men's basketball program at the University of Minnesota is somewhat nebulous. Unlike many other universities with foundations, the team did not form as a conscious act of the campus administration; the University's student newspaper at the time, the Ariel, reported on basketball throughout 1895 as the sport was introduced to the campus from a rival school, Minnesota A&M in St. Paul incorporated into the larger University of Minnesota Twin Cities. In 1896, a team from the school began to participate in a league with the Agriculture school, YMCA teams, other local associations; the establishment of the Armory on-campus gave the team a new place to play. In February 1897, L. J. Cooke, a director of the Minneapolis YMCA, was hired on a part-time basis to coach the basketball program, became the full-time coach and director of physical education by the fall of that year.
Cooke was one of the first full-time professional coaches in all of college basketball and would remain at the program for 28 seasons. Cooke began to
Oklahoma Sooners men's basketball
The Oklahoma Sooners men's basketball team represents the University of Oklahoma in men's NCAA Division I basketball. The Sooners play in the Big 12 Conference; the Sooners enjoyed moderate success on the court during this era, posting just 16 losing records in their first 72 seasons. They were led by 9 different coaches during this period, beginning with Bennie Owen and ending with Dave Bliss in 1980; the Sooners participated in the first Final Four in 1939. OU made a second appearance in the championship game in 1947; the program gained national prominence under Billy Tubbs when he took over in 1981. Star players Wayman Tisdale, Mookie Blaylock, Stacey King guided the Sooners to several deep runs in the NCAA Tournament. In 1988, the Sooners reached the NCAA title game in Kansas City, where they fell four points shy of their first national title to the 11-loss Kansas Jayhawks, a team which they had beaten twice in regular season play. Tubbs resigned on April 10, 1994, indicating that "he did not feel appreciated enough working at a football school".
Tubbs' base salary at Oklahoma in his final season was $107,000 annually. Tubbs, 59 years old at the time, left to take over the struggling Texas Christian University basketball program, signing a 5-year contract worth between $200,000 and $400,000 per season. Tubbs' record at OU was 333-132 overall, 126-70 conference, with 10 NCAA Tournament appearances, one Final Four appearance, one National Title Game appearance. Tubbs finished with 5 Big 8 regular season titles and 2 Conference Tournament titles. Tubbs averaged 9 conference wins per season. Kelvin Sampson became the 11th head coach at the University of Oklahoma on April 25, 1994. Sampson was named national coach of the year in 1995 by the Associated Press, United States Basketball Writers Association and Basketball Weekly after guiding the Sooners to 23–9 overall and 15–0 home marks, it was the second-best overall record posted by a first-year coach in Big 8 history. Sampson possesses the highest winning percentage in Oklahoma history, he guided OU to nine consecutive 20-win seasons.
He averaged 24.4 wins over those nine campaigns. He directed the Sooners to postseason tournament berths in each of his 12 seasons, with a Sweet 16 showing in 1999, a Final Four appearance in 2002 and an Elite Eight appearance in 2003, his teams played in the Big 12 Tournament title game on five occasions during the 10 seasons he coached in the Big 12. In 2001, 2002, 2003 the Sooners won that tournament. Sampson finished with a Big 12 Tournament record of 17-7. Standouts Eduardo Nájera and Hollis Price helped the Sooners maintain a streak of 25 straight post season appearances, the longest in the nation. Sampson left OU in 2006 to take a head job at Indiana. Sampson's record at OU was 279-109 overall, 128-60 conference, with 11 NCAA Tournament Appearances, including one Final Four appearance. In the Big 12, Sampson had 1 Conference Regular Season Title. During his final season at OU, Sampson's salary was $900,000 annually, not including bonuses. Sampson left OU in 2006 to become the head basketball coach at Indiana University, signing a 7-year, $10,500,000 contract, at $1,500,000 per season.
Under Sampson's watch, Oklahoma was placed under a three-year investigation by the NCAA for recruiting violations. At the end of their investigation, the NCAA issued a report citing more than 550 illegal calls made by Sampson and his staff to 17 different recruits; the NCAA barred Sampson from recruiting off campus and making phone calls for one year, ending May 24, 2007. Sampson averaged 11 conference wins per season. On April 11, 2006, Jeff Capel was named the 12th head basketball coach at Oklahoma, succeeding Kelvin Sampson. Though the Sooner Nation as a whole greeted Capel's hiring with optimism, one notable downside of the coaching change emerged—Sampson's departure caused three of the players who had signed with OU to rethink each's decision to attend OU. Scottie Reynolds went on to Villanova, Damion James to Texas. Capel was signed to a four-year, $3,000,000 contract, at $750,000 annually. In his first year, after going 8–4 in non-conference games, with losses to Memphis, Purdue and Alabama, the Sooners started 6–3 in conference play, before losing their final 7 conference games.
After winning only one game in the Big 12 Conference Tournament, losing to eventual conference tournament champion Kansas, the Sooners missed any form of postseason play, which snapped the nation's longest streak of 25 consecutive years in the postseason, starting with Billy Tubbs' second year in 1982 and ending with Kelvin Sampson's final year in 2006. In his second year, after signing McDonald's All-American Forward Blake Griffin, the Sooners finished 21–10 during the regular season earning them a No. 4 seed in the Big 12 Tournament, where they won one game before losing to Texas in the semi-finals. They received a No. 6 seed in the NCAA Tournament, where they defeated St. Joseph's in the first round before losing to No. 3 seed Louisville in the second round, finishing the season at 23–12, an improvement of 7 wins over the previous season. After this successful second season, Capel's name began to surface among many head coaching vacancies. In an effort to keep Capel, OU Athletic Director Joe Castiglione and the OU Board of Regents extended Capel's contract through 2014, increased his salary to $1,050,000 per year.
Alabama Crimson Tide men's basketball
The Alabama Crimson Tide men's basketball team represents the University of Alabama in NCAA Division I men's basketball. The program plays in the Southeastern Conference. In the conference it trails only long-time basketball powerhouse Kentucky in basketball wins and SEC tournament titles, is third behind Kentucky and LSU in SEC regular season conference titles. Alabama was retroactively recognized as the pre-NCAA Tournament national champion for the 1929–30 season by the Premo-Porretta Power Poll; the men's basketball program has spent most of its history in the shadow of Alabama's football team, but has risen in stature over the past several decades. Under former coach Mark Gottfried, the team achieved a No. 1 national ranking in 2003, competed for a NCAA Regional Tournament Championship in 2004. The program was notable as a regular conference basketball contender in the 1980s and early 1990s under the direction of coach Wimp Sanderson and in the 1970s under coach C. M. Newton. Alabama has eight NCAA Tournament Sweet 16 appearances.
In the 2003–04 season, the team defeated #1-seeded Stanford in the NCAA Tournament, reached the Elite Eight round where they lost to the eventual national champion, Connecticut. Former coaches with at least five years with the Crimson Tide include the following: Hank Crisp, Hayden Riley, C. M. Newton, Wimp Sanderson – Alabama's winningest coach, David Hobbs, Mark Gottfried, Anthony Grant. Other coaches include John Dee, Floyd Burdette, Charles A. Bernier. In 1968, legendary Alabama football coach Paul "Bear" Bryant, Alabama's athletic director, called Kentucky men's basketball coach Adolph Rupp looking for someone to turn around Alabama's basketball program. Rupp recommended C. M. Newton, a former backup player at Kentucky, at Transylvania University for 12 years. In twelve seasons at Alabama, Newton led the Tide to a record of 211–123; the Crimson Tide won three straight SEC titles under Newton, the only program besides Kentucky to accomplish this feat. Newton guided Alabama to four NIT and two NCAA Men's Division I Championship tournament berths, prompting the school to name a recruiting suite in his honor in 2006.
Just as he did at Transylvania, Newton recruited Alabama's first black player, Wendell Hudson, in 1969, integrating his second team in as many coaching stops. Newton resigned as head coach after the 1980–81 season to become assistant commissioner of the SEC, he was succeeded by Wimp Sanderson. He had been at Alabama since 1960 as a graduate assistant to Hayden Riley. In 12 years as head coach his teams averaged 21.8 wins a year, with a 267–119 record, they won 4 SEC tournaments. They played in one NIT and eight NCAA tournaments making the "Sweet 16" five times. Sanderson is the only coach in Alabama history to win 200 or more games in his first 10 years, he was the SEC Coach of the Year in 1987, 1989 and 1990, was the National Coach of the Year in 1987. Sanderson was best known for wearing garish plaid sports jackets on the sidelines. At one point, Coleman Coliseum was known as the "Plaid Palace", the mid-court logo was painted in a crimson-and-white plaid pattern. Hobbs was hired at Alabama as an assistant coach for Wimp Sanderson in 1985 and spent seven years as an assistant in Tuscaloosa helping the Crimson Tide win one SEC Championship and four SEC Tournament crowns while the Tide made four appearances in the NCAA Tournament's Sweet 16.
As an assistant, he had the opportunity to coach such All-SEC performers as Robert Horry, James "Hollywood" Robinson and Latrell Sprewell. When Sanderson left Alabama following the 1992 season, Hobbs was named head coach. In his first season, the Tide finished 16–13 and advanced to the NIT. In 1994 and 1995, Alabama recorded 20-win seasons and advanced to the NCAA Tournament behind the play of future NBA All-Star Antonio McDyess. In 1996, Hobbs led UA to a 19 -- a berth in the NIT Final Four, he resigned his post following the 1998 season after compiling a 110–76 career record and producing nine All-SEC players. Mark Gottfried served as the Crimson Tide's head coach from the 1998–99 season until midway through the 2008–09 season. Gottfried played 3 seasons of basketball at Alabama under Wimp Sanderson, the Crimson Tide advanced to the Sweet Sixteen in each of those seasons, he was hired by Alabama in March 1998 after coaching at Murray State for three seasons. The Crimson Tide achieved the highest pinnacle for the school in both the NCAA Championship Tournament and the Associated Press Poll reaching the Elite Eight in the tournament in 2004 and reaching the No. 1 spot in the nation in the AP poll in 2002, both under Mark Gottfried's command.
Gottfried led the Tide to its only SEC Championship under his watch during the 2001–02 season, although the team never won a conference tournament championship during his tenure. For his efforts in 2002, Gottfried was named SEC Coach of the Year by both the Associated Press and his fellow Southeastern Conference coaches, his biggest accomplishment as coach at Alabama was leading the Crimson Tide to five consecutive NCAA tournaments from 2002–2006, another first for the school that occurred under his watch. Gottfried resigned on January 26, 2009 with 11 regular season games still remaining on the team's schedule. Athletic Director Mal Moore named long-time Alabama assistant and former player, Philip Pearson as interim head coach for the remainder of the 2008–09 season. On March 27, 2009 Anthony Grant agreed in principle to become the twentieth Crimson Tide head men's basketball coach. Grant came to Alabama after serving as the head coach at V
Tulsa Golden Hurricane men's basketball
The Tulsa Golden Hurricane men's basketball team represents the University of Tulsa in Tulsa, in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. The team participates in the American Athletic Conference; the Golden Hurricane hired Frank Haith from Missouri on April 17, 2014 to replace Danny Manning, who had resigned to take the Wake Forest job after the 2013–14 season. The team has long been successful since the hiring of Nolan Richardson in 1980. Many big-name coaches worked at Tulsa, like University of Kansas coach Bill Self and Minnesota coach Tubby Smith; the Hurricane have been to the NCAA Tournament 14 times in their history. In addition, they have won two National Invitation Tournaments, in 1981 and 2001, one CBI tournament. In 2005, Street & Smith's named the University of Tulsa as the 59th best college basketball program of all time. Clarence Iba, brother of Henry Iba, helped to springboard Tulsa to success when named the head coach in 1949, he coached at the school for 11 years, the longest tenure of any Tulsa coach, is the second all-time winningest coach at the school with 137 wins in his 11 seasons.
Nolan Richardson is credited with bringing the Tulsa program to national prominence when hired in 1980, he led the school to the 1981 NIT Championship and had a.763 winning percentage at the school. He became the first coach in NCAA history to win 50 games in his first two seasons. In the 1990s and 2000s, a succession of Tulsa coaches went on to big-name programs across the country, including Tubby Smith, Buzz Peterson, Bill Self; the team remained successful throughout the string of coaches. Doug Wojcik, coach from 2005 to 2012, is the all-time winningest coach at the school with 140 wins. Notable assistants in the program's history have included Billy Gillispie, Flip Saunders, Kevin O’Neill, Tom Izzo, Mike Anderson and Ron Jirsa. Tulsa has had a series of great players at the program, many of whom have gone on to play in the NBA. Successful players to never make it to the NBA include Gary Collier, the 1994 MVC player of the year, Michael Scott, the 1989 and 1991 MVC defensive player of the year, Willie Biles who led the MVC in scoring in both the 1972–73 and 1973–1974 seasons.
Among those who did make it to the NBA, James King, who came back to coach the program after his NBA career, Bingo Smith had the greatest success. King was selected to the 1968 NBA All-Star Game, Smith scored more than 10,000 points in his career, having his number retired by the Cleveland Cavaliers. Steve Bracey Al Cueto Julian Hammond Steve Harris James King Tracy Moore Paul Pressey Michael Ruffin Shea Seals Bingo Smith Ken Smith Ben Uzoh Jerome Jordan Jordan Clarkson Shaquille Harrison Tulsa's basketball program was founded by W. R. Bergen in 1907, when the school still went by the name Kendall College, it went 1–1 in its first season. Following the 1908–09 season, the team went on hiatus for several years before restarting for the 1913–14 season under Harvey Allen. In 1917, the school played its first games outside the state of Oklahoma, but did not see great success until Francis Schmidt became head coach in 1918; the team hit hard times and achieved occasional modest success until the arrival of Clarence Iba in 1949.
Of special note is the 1942–1943 winless squad under Mike Milligan, whose team went 0–10. Under Iba, Tulsa reached the post-season for the first time in the 1953 NIT.. In 1955, Iba led the Golden Hurricane to their first Missouri Valley Conference title and NCAA tournament appearance. Joe Swank succeeded Iba in 1960, it was under Swank. Swank had some winning seasons, but the program would be without real success until the arrival of Nolan Richardson. Nolan Richardson's hiring helped to usher in a new era of success at Tulsa that has remained consistent since then, he led the team the NIT Championship in the 1980 -- his first at the school. Richardson won two MVC regular season and two MVC tournament championships in his five-season tenure, his flamboyant personality made him popular. Richardson was succeeded by J. D. Barnett, who continued the team's success, winning one tournament and one regular season championship and finishing lower than third in the conference only once. Barnett was fired, due to the significant increase in expectations at Tulsa following Richardson's success.
Barnett was succeeded by Tubby Smith, who went on to coach at Kentucky and Minnesota. Smith spent four seasons at Tulsa, winning two MVC championships and leading them past the first round of the NCAA tournament for the first time, to the Sweet Sixteen in both the 1993–1994 and 1994–1995 seasons. A succession of high-profile coaches came through following Smith's departure for Georgia. Steve Robinson led the team to consecutive NCAA appearances before departing for Florida State. Bill Self succeeded Robinson for three seasons, winning two WAC titles in the 1998–99 and 1999–00 seasons and leading Tulsa to its best record a 32–5 record in the 1999–00 season. Tulsa advanced to the Elite Eight in the 2000 NCAA tournament as a #7 seed. Self was succeeded by Buzz Peterson. Peterson led the team to the 2001 NIT Championship and promptly took the head coaching position at the University of Tennessee. Following Peterson's departure, John Phill
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
The Mercedes-Benz Superdome referred to as the Superdome, is a domed sports and exhibition venue located in the Central Business District of New Orleans, United States. It serves as the home venue for the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League, the home stadium for the Sugar Bowl, New Orleans Bowl in college football and the longtime rivalry football game of the SWAC Conference’s Southern University and Grambling State University, known as the Bayou Classic, it houses their schools’ Battle of the Bands between The Southern University "The Human Jukebox" and Grambling State’s Tiger Marching Band. Plans were drawn up in 1967 by the New Orleans modernist architectural firm of Curtis and Davis and the building opened as the Louisiana Superdome in 1975, its steel frame covers a 13-acre expanse and the 273-foot dome is made of a lamellar multi-ringed frame and has a diameter of 680 feet, making it the largest fixed domed structure in the world. It is adjacent to the Smoothie King Center.
Because of the building's size and location in one of the major tourist destinations of the United States, the Superdome hosts major sporting events, including the Super Bowl, College Football Championship Game, the Final Four in college basketball. The stadium was the long-time home of the Tulane Green Wave football team of Tulane University until 2014 and was the home venue of the New Orleans Jazz of the National Basketball Association from 1975 until 1979; the Superdome gained international attention of a different type in 2005 when it housed thousands of people seeking shelter from Hurricane Katrina. The building suffered extensive damage as a result of the storm, was closed for many months afterward, it was decided the building would be refurbished and reopened in time for the Saints' 2006 home opener on September 25. On October 3, 2011, it was announced that German automaker Mercedes-Benz purchased naming rights to the stadium; the new name took effect on October 23, 2011. The Superdome is located on 70 acres including the former Girod Street Cemetery.
The dome has an interior space of 125,000,000 cubic feet, a height of 253 feet, a dome diameter of 680 feet, a total floor area of 269,000 square feet. The Superdome has a listed football seating capacity of 76,468 or 73,208 and a maximum basketball seating capacity of 73,432. However, published attendance figures from events such as the Super Bowl football game have exceeded 79,000; the basketball capacity does not reflect the NCAA's new policy on arranging the basketball court on the 50-yard line on the football field, per 2009 NCAA policy. In 2011, 3,500 seats were added, increasing the Superdome's capacity to 76,468; the Superdome's capacity was 78,133 for WWE WrestleMania 34. The actual capacity is 73,208 people; the chronology of the capacity for football is as follows: The Superdome's primary tenant is the NFL's New Orleans Saints. The team draws capacity crowds; the NFL has hosted seven Super Bowls at the Superdome, most Super Bowl XLVII in 2013. The Superdome is scheduled to host its eighth Super Bowl in 2024.
The 1976 Pro Bowl was held at the Superdome on Monday, January 26, 1976. It was the NFL's 26th annual all-star game. Tulane University played their home games at the stadium from 1975 to 2013 before moving to on-campus Yulman Stadium; the BCS National Championship Game was played at the Superdome four times. The College Football Playoff semifinal game is played every three years in the stadium. Two other bowl games are played there annually: the Sugar Bowl and New Orleans Bowl; the Superdome hosts the Bayou Classic, a major regular-season game between two of the state's black colleges and universities, Grambling State and Southern. In 2013, the Arena Football League New Orleans VooDoo played their last six home games of the season at the stadium. From 1991 to 1992, the New Orleans Night of the AFL played at the stadium; the annual Louisiana Prep Classic state championship football games organized by the Louisiana High School Athletic Association have been held at the Superdome since 1981, except in 2005 following the extreme damage of Hurricane Katrina.
The first state championship game in the stadium matched New Orleans Catholic League powers St. Augustine and Jesuit on December 15, 1978; the Purple Knights won their second Class AAAA title in four seasons by ousting the Blue Jays, 13–7, in front of over 42,000 fans. Home field advantageSince the Superdome's reopening in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the increased success of the New Orleans Saints, the Superdome has developed a reputation for having a strong home field advantage. While all domed stadiums possess this quality to some degree, the Superdome is known to get loud during games during offensive drives by the visiting team. During a pregame interview before the Minnesota Vikings' opening game of the 2010 NFL season against the Saints, Brett Favre, reflecting on the Vikings' loss to the Saints in the 2009–10 NFC Championship Game, said of the Superdome: "That was, by far, the most hostile environment I've been in. You couldn't hear anything." It was during that loss. It was the first game of the season.
When the plaza level seats remained moveable, the capacity for baseball was 63,525 and the field size was as followed: 325 feet to both left field and right field, 365 feet to both left-center field and right-center field, 421 feet to center field, 60 feet to the backstop. The bowl