The Eemian Sea was a body of water located where the Baltic Sea is now during the last interglacial, or Eemian Stage, Marine isotopic stage 5e 130,000 to 115,000 years BP. Sea level was 5 to 7 metres higher globally than it is today, due to the release of glacial water in the early stage of the interglacial. Although “Eemian” rightly applies only to the northern European glacial system, some scientists use the term in a wider sense to mean any high-level body of water in the last interglacial; the early Eemian Sea connected with the White Sea along the line of the present White Sea-Baltic Canal. Karelia was inundated and Lakes Ladoga and Onega were mere depressions in the shallow eastern end of the Eemian sea. At the other end the sea connected to the North Sea more broadly than its presently does. Much of northern Europe was under shallow water. Scandinavia was an island; the salinity of the Eemian Sea was comparable to that of the Atlantic. Scientists reach these conclusions from a study of types of micro-organisms fossilized in the clay sediments laid down in the Eemian Sea, from the included pollen of Corylus and Betula.
During MIS 5e, the mean annual temperature was 3°C higher than today. At its end, during the cooler prelude of MIS 5d, c, b and a, the region continued to rise isostatically; some water was recaptured in ice. Levels in the Eemian Sea dropped, the opening to the White Sea was blocked; the post-Eemian brackish lake did not last long geologically speaking, but was covered with ice. The Weichselian glaciation starting in MIS 4, with an interstadial in 3 and a greatest extent in 2, produced, at its maximum in 20,000-18,000 BP, an ice sheet more than 3 kilometres high; as the lake bed was only a few hundred metres deep, no lake could have existed. The ice extended southward into northern Europe eastward as far as Poland. At its recession, the Baltic Ice Lake appeared. Baltic Ice Lake, 12,600–10,300 Yoldia Sea, 10,300–9500 Ancylus Lake, 9,500–8,000 Mastogloia Sea, 8,000–7,500 Littorina Sea, 7,500–4,000 Post-Littorina Baltic Sea, 4,000–present Background to the BALTEEM Project Eemian at Peski
Richard Halleck Brodhead is an American scholar of 19th-century American literature and served as the ninth president of Duke University. Brodhead was born April 1947, in Dayton, Ohio, his family moved to Fairfield, Connecticut when he was six years old, where he attended public schools. He went on to attend Phillips Academy, where his high school classmates included Dick Wolf and George W. Bush. Brodhead graduated from Yale College in 1968. During his senior year at Yale was tapped for membership in the secret society Manuscript, he continued at Yale for graduate school and earned a Ph. D. in English in 1972. He met his wife, Cynthia Degnan, while both were graduate students at Yale. After receiving his Ph. D. in 1972, Brodhead was appointed an assistant professor of English at Yale. In 1980, he was named Director of Undergraduate Studies in English. By 1985, he had been made a full professor and was named chair of the English department as Bird White Housum Professor of English, he was appointed Dean of Yale College in 1993 and served until 2004.
Together with Yale President Richard C. Levin, Brodhead oversaw a major curricular review at Yale. An expert in 19th-century American literature, Brodhead has written or edited more than a dozen books on Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Charles W. Chesnutt, William Faulkner, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Louisa May Alcott, Richard Wright and Eudora Welty, among others, his scholarly work has been honored by election to the American Academy of Sciences. Brodhead won the DeVane Medal for outstanding teaching at Yale and spent eight summers teaching high school teachers at the Bread Loaf School at Middlebury, Vermont, he has lectured in universities in the United States and Asia. As dean and as a professor supervising graduate students, Brodhead was involved in the controversy surrounding efforts by graduate student-employees to unionize. In 2003, Brodhead was named a defendant along with, Richard Levin, Linda Lorimer in a lawsuit by Yale professor James Van de Velde claiming damage of reputation after Van de Velde was accused of murdering Suzanne Jovin, a female student, Brodhead subsequently canceled his class citing his presence as a "major distraction."
In 2007, A Connecticut Judge reopened Velde's lawsuit against al.. He left New Haven in 2004 succeeding Nan Keohane. Much of his leadership at Duke has focused on enriching the undergraduate experience of Duke students and expanding the university’s financial aid endowment to ensure that a Duke education is accessible to qualified students regardless of their family’s financial circumstances, he has called for Duke to become an international center in addressing health care inequities through a major global health initiative involving faculty and schools across the university, has championed Duke’s efforts to bring the fruits of faculty and student research through a translational process to serve society. Brodhead has been active in Durham promoting K-12 public education, several new community health clinics, neighborhood revitalization through the Duke-Durham Neighborhood Partnership, the future strategic direction of the Research Triangle Park. Brodhead led the successful Financial Aid Initiative, which raised $308.5 million for need-based scholarships at Duke at its conclusion in 2008.
His signature program has been DukeEngage, which "empowers students to address critical human needs through immersive service, in the process transforming students, advancing the University’s educational mission, providing meaningful assistance to communities in the U. S. and abroad". More than 300 students participate in DukeEngage each summer. Brodhead has made globalization a major strategic priority for the University. Under his leadership Duke established the Duke Global Health Institute, an interdisciplinary center that works to translate research findings to address health care inequities and improve the health of people around the world, he oversaw the creation of the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School in partnership with the National University of Singapore. Duke Kunshan University, a new joint venture institution created by Duke University and Wuhan University in China, opened in August 2014, offering degree and non-degree academic programs for students from China and around the world.
Brodhead is leading a comprehensive fundraising campaign. As the largest campaign in Duke’s history, it aims to raise $3.25 billion by 2017 to enrich the Duke experience and give Duke’s talented students and medical practitioners opportunities to advance ideas, make new connections, move the world forward. Brodhead serves on the board of trustees of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s National Security Higher Education Advisory Board. Under his leadership, Duke’s investments have strengthened K-12 public education, funded several new community health clinics, spurred downtown renewal and neighborhood revitalization through the Duke-Durham Neighborhood Partnership, he is involved in shaping the future strategic direction of the Research Triangle Park of North Carolina. On April 28, 2016, Brodhead announced that he would end his tenure as Duke's president on June 30, 2017. Afterwards, he will take a one-year sabbatical before returning to academia as a writer and instructor.
Brodhead's actions during the Duke lacrosse case proved controversial after three members of the nationally ranked men's lacrosse team were falsely accused of raping a stripper hired to perform at a team party off campus on March 13, 2006. Brodhead stated that "our students must be pres
The Ball Street Journal is the tenth studio album by rapper E-40. It was released on November 24, 2008; the first single from the album is "Wake It Up" featuring Akon, while the second is "Break Ya Ankles" featuring Shawty Lo. The album debuted at number 42 on the U. S. Billboard 200 chart, with 50,000 copies in its first-week of sales, has since sold over 450,000 copies; the album features guest appearances by Shawty Lo, Turf Talk, The Game, Snoop Dogg, T-Pain, Rock City, Bun B, Gucci Mane, Ice-T, Too Short, Cousin Fik, Kevin Cossom, B-Legit, Bosko & Suga-T. A photo shoot of the album appeared in an episode of the second season of From G's to Gents. "Got Rich Twice" featuring Turf Talk was released as a promo single on September 30, 2008, while "Poor Man's Hydraulics" was released as a promo single on October 28
Oscar Collett was a Norwegian landowner and benefactor. He was born in Trondhjem as a son of Nanna Høegh, he was a brother of chemist Emil Collett. He was a forester by education, spent his career as an executive of the family-owned forest estate company Firma Albert Collett together with his brothers Johan and Axel; the company still operates hundreds of square miles of forest in Namdalen, as well as several hydroelectric power stations. Collett became a member of the gentlemen's skiing club SK Fram in 1890, the club's second year of existence. From 1935 he served as a supervisory council member of the insurance company Forsikringsselskapet Viking, together with many acquaintances from Fram, he was a deputy board member of the Det norske Myrselskap. He was a co-founder of the first incarnation of the Norwegian Ornithological Society and its journal Norsk Ornithologisk Tidsskrift in 1920. By the end of 1920 Collett had become the single largest benefactor to the journal, he sat on the Ornithological Society's interim board until the first general assembly in 1922, where he was elected deputy board member.
Oscar Collett died in 1950, was buried at Vestre gravlund. His son Carl Oscar Collett, born 1922 and whose mother was Maria Iversen, became a landowner and politician. Carl Oscar became a son-in-law of Henning Bødtker, was admitted to SK Fram, continuing the family tradition
Roman cement is a substance developed by James Parker in the 1780s, being patented in 1796. The name is misleading as it is nothing like any material used by the Romans, but was a "natural cement" made by burning septaria – nodules that are found in certain clay deposits, that contain both clay minerals and calcium carbonate; the burnt nodules were ground to a fine powder. This product, made into a mortar with sand, set in 5–15 minutes; the success of Roman cement led other manufacturers to develop rival products by burning artificial mixtures of clay and chalk. There has been recent resurgence of interest in Natural cements and Roman cements due to the need for repair of façades done in this material in the 19th century; the major confusion involved for many people in this subject is the terminology used. Roman cement was the name given, by Parker, to the cement he patented, a Natural cement. In 1791, Parker was granted a patent "Method of Burning bricks, Chalk", his second patent in 1796 "A certain Cement or Terras to be used in Aquatic and other Buildings and Stucco Work", covers Roman cement, the term he used in a 1798 pamphlet advertising his cement.
He set up his manufacturing plant on Kent. It was notably patented late on. In the 1800s various sources of the correct type of marl, known as Cement Stone, were discovered across Europe and so there were a range of natural cements in use across Europe. An Austrian standard from 1880, providing a contemporary definition of Roman cements, reads: "Roman cements are products obtained from argillaceous marlstones by burning below the sintering temperature, they do not slake in contact with water and must therefore be ground to a floury fineness."From around 1807 a number of people looked to make artificial versions of this cement. Amongst these were James Frost who had about twenty patents from 1811 to 1822 including one for "British Cement" and in 1824 Joseph Aspdin, a British bricklayer from Leeds, with his now famous patent for a method of making a cement he called "Portland cement"; this was done by adding various materials together to make an artificial version of natural cement. The name "Portland cement" is recorded in a directory published in 1823 being associated with William Lockwood, Dave Stewart, others.
There followed a number of independently discovered or copied versions of this "Portland cement". Proto Portland cement had a different chemical makeup from other natural cements being produced at the same time: It was burnt at a higher temperature than other Natural cements and thus crosses the barrier between traditional Vertical Kiln fired Natural cement and the Horizontal Kiln fired Artificial cements; this cement is not, the same as the modern ordinary Portland cement, which can be defined as artificial cement. James Frost is reported to have erected a manufactory for making of an artificial cement in 1826. In 1843, Aspdin's son William improved their cement, called "Patent Portland cement," although he had no patent. In 1848, William Aspdin further improved his cement and in 1853, he moved to Germany where he was involved in cement making. William Aspdin made. Artificial cement: Development in the 1860s of rotating horizontal kiln technology brought dramatic changes in properties, arguably resulting in modern cement.
It is difficult to define whether an old render was a natural cement or an artificial one, but there is no doubt as whether the cement was fired in a vertical or horizontal kiln. The names Natural cement or Roman cement defines a cement coming from a single source rock. Early or Proto Portland cement could be used for early cement that comes from a number of sourced and mixed materials. There is no used terminology for these 19th-century cements. There had been, in order to rediscover this technology, two projects carried out by the European Union ROCEM and subsequently ROCARE. Both these only deal with Natural cement - referred to as Roman cement without reference to the early artificial cements. Notes BibliographyThurston A P, Parker's "Roman" Cement, Transactions of the Newcomen Society 1939 P193-206 Major A J Francis, The Cement Industry 1796-1914 A History, 1977, Davis & Charles Ltd, Devon UK, North Pomfret Vermont US, North Vancouver Canada Weber J, Mayr N, Bayer K, Hughes D, Kozłowski R, Stillhammerova M, Ullrich D, Vyskocilova R Roman cement mortars in Europe’s architectural heritage of the 19th century.
Journal of the American Society for Testing Materials International, Vol, 4 No 8Footnotes Parker's Roman Cement 1796