Patrick Dennis Bowlen is the majority owner of the Denver Broncos of the National Football League. The Bowlen Family, including his two brothers John Bowlen and Bill Bowlen, sister Marybeth Bowlen, purchased the team from Edgar Kaiser in 1984, he served as the Broncos CEO from his purchase of the club in 1984 until July 2014, when he stepped down as Broncos' CEO due to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Bowlen was born in Prairie du Chien, the son of Arvella and Paul Dennis Bowlen, who became a millionaire in the Canadian oil business, founding Regent Drilling as a wildcatter; the oil company is now owned by his brother John. Bowlen is Catholic, he attended Campion Jesuit Catholic High School and earned degrees in business and law from the University of Oklahoma. The younger Bowlen became wealthy in his own right by becoming a successful lawyer in Edmonton, Alberta, he worked as an executive for his father's company and as a real estate developer and had major investments in the mining industry.
Bowlen is an initiated member of the Pi Kappa Alpha International Fraternity. He was initiated by the University of Oklahoma, Beta Omicron chapter in 1963, he is a member of the bar law society of Alberta, Canada. Bowlen is one of the largest donors to the University of Denver. From 1999 to 2008, Bowlen and the Broncos were involved in several legal battles against one-time owner Edgar Kaiser. In 1998, Bowlen agreed to sell retired football legend John Elway a share in the team; when Bowlen let the existence of the offer slip out to Kaiser while both were at the 1999 Bohemian Grove, Kaiser sued, claiming a breach of contract. Kaiser asserted that he had a right of first refusal if any deal is made involving franchise ownership. In 2004, a jury ruled in favor of Kaiser and a federal judge decreed that Kaiser was entitled to purchase back 10% of the Broncos using the identical purchase terms offered to Elway. Bowlen appealed the original verdict that ruled in favor of Kaiser and won in 2008, as the appellate court ruled that the structure of the Bowlen-Elway deal did not violate the original right of first refusal agreement.
On December 30, 2008, Broncos head coach and Vice President of Football Operations Mike Shanahan was fired by Bowlen after a 14-year tenure as the head coach. Bowlen stated, he undertook a search over two weeks and chose Josh McDaniels, who at the time was the offensive coordinator of the New England Patriots. Subsequently, after a losing streak in the 2010 season, McDaniels was fired as head coach of the Broncos. On February 12, 2009, Bowlen appointed Brian Xanders as the team's sole general manager and fired Jim Goodman and Jeff Goodman. Within two weeks of the end of the 2010-11 regular season and the Broncos had hired former Carolina Panthers' coach John Fox to be their new head coach. Although Bowlen had discussions with Fox before the hiring, new front-office executive John Elway was responsible for the hiring. By late 2009, rumors had begun to emerge that Bowlen had stepped out of the spotlight because of short-term memory loss, he told The Denver Post columnist Woody Paige that his memory wasn't what it used to be and that he couldn't recall details of the Broncos back-to-back Super Bowl titles in the late 1990s.
Starting in 2010, Bowlen no longer played a major role in the Broncos' decision making, Executive VP John Elway and President Joe Ellis assumed control. On July 23, 2014, due to complications with Alzheimer's disease, he relinquished control of the team to Joe Ellis. On November 1, 2015, Bowlen was inducted into the Broncos' Ring of Fame, earning him a bronze plaque that stands on the south side of Sports Authority Field at Mile High. Since Bowlen acquired the team in 1984, the Broncos have the highest winning percentage of any franchise in the National Football League, passing the San Francisco 49ers after the 2015 season. Besides being owner and CEO of the Broncos, Bowlen was part-owner of the Arena Football League's Colorado Crush, he shared ownership with Denver-based sports mogul Stan Kroenke and legendary Broncos quarterback John Elway. The Crush entered the AFL as an expansion franchise in 2003. After going through a 2-14 season in 2003, the team became a perennial playoff contender and one of the league's top franchises.
The Crush won the Arena Football League Championship in 2005. In 2006, Major League Lacrosse decided to expand adding the Denver Outlaws to its league of teams; the Denver Outlaws have been the most winning franchise that Bowlen has owned, boasting a regular season win percentage of.690 since their creation. The Outlaws have been to the playoffs every year of their existence except one and advanced to the championship game eight times, winning the championship in 2014, 2016, 2018. Inducted to the Pro Football Hall of Fame Three-time Super Bowl champion ArenaBowl XIX champion Three-time Steinfeld Cup champion Broncos Ring of Fame Colorado Business Hall of Fame Denver Broncos bio
Broncos Stadium at Mile High
Broncos Stadium at Mile High known as Invesco Field at Mile High and Sports Authority Field at Mile High, known as Mile High, New Mile High or Mile High Stadium, is an American football stadium in Denver, named Mile High due to the city's elevation of 5,280 feet. The primary tenant is the Denver Broncos of the National Football League, it opened in 2001 to replace Mile High Stadium and was paid for by taxpayers. Invesco paid $120 million for the original naming rights, before Sports Authority secured them in 2011. Despite its sponsor's liquidation and closure in 2016, the Sports Authority name remained on the stadium for two years afterwards because of regulatory hurdles; the Broncos announced on January 2, 2018 that the stadium's exterior signage would be removed. The stadium took on its current name on a temporary basis on June 20, 2018 after the city's stadium authority approved the change, hoping to resell naming rights. Many fans opposed a corporate name and wished to retain the previous venue's name, "Mile High Stadium."
The Denver Post refused to use the Invesco label and referred to it as Mile High Stadium for several years before changing its policy and adding Invesco to articles. On August 16, 2011, the Metropolitan Stadium District announced Invesco would transfer the naming rights to Englewood-based Sports Authority in a 25-year agreement worth $6 million per year. In August 2016, the Denver Broncos paid $3,601,890 to the Metropolitan Football Stadium District to purchase the naming rights to the stadium. In 2016, several Colorado legislators attempted to pass a bill in the Colorado State Legislature that would require the "Mile High" moniker regardless of any naming rights deal, citing the large public contribution to the stadium's construction; the stadium is used for American football games. It is the home field for the Denver Broncos; the stadium hosts the city's Major League Lacrosse team, the Denver Outlaws. In college football it has hosted the rivalry game between the Colorado State University Rams and the University of Colorado Boulder Buffaloes.
It is used for the CHSAA class 4A and 5A Colorado high school football state championship games, has been used for the CBA Marching Band Finals. In addition, it has been used for the Drum Corps International Championships in 1977, 1978 & 2004 and the annual Drums Along the Rockies competition, it is used for concerts, music festivals and other events, was home to the city's Major League Soccer franchise, the Colorado Rapids, before that team built and moved into Dick's Sporting Goods Park in suburban Commerce City. On June 23, 2018 England defeated New Zealand 36-18 in Rugby league; the construction of the stadium marked the completion of a six-year sporting venue upgrade program in Denver, including the construction of Coors Field and of Pepsi Center. As with the other venues, the stadium was constructed to be accessible, it sits along Interstate 25 near the Colfax 17th Avenue exits. It is bordered by Federal Boulevard, a major Denver thoroughfare, on the west side. A dedicated light rail station serves the stadium.
The stadium is located in the Sun Valley neighborhood. A home game tradition is the "Incomplete Chant." At Bronco home games, when the opposing team throws an incomplete pass, the stadium announcer will state "Pass thrown by intended for is..." at which time the fans complete the sentence by shouting "IN-COM-PLETE!!". The stadium has sold out every Denver Broncos' home game since its inception in 2001, extending the "sold-out" streak that began during the team's tenure at Mile High Stadium, where every home game had been sold out since 1970. In a tradition carried over from Mile High Stadium, the stadium's public-address announcer will give the final official attendance for the game, including the number of unused tickets. During the stadium's first years, in another tradition was carried over from Mile High, Broncos fans on one side of the stadium would chant "Go" and fans on the other side would respond "Broncos," back and forth chanting for several minutes; that tradition has since died out.
Another long-term tradition is famed rowdiness of fans seated in the "South Stands," although this tradition has diminished as well. In the upper two decks, the fans create their own'Mile High Thunder' by stamping their feet on the stadium's floors; the old Mile High Stadium was built with bare metal, the'Thunder' reverberated readily. The new stadium was built with steel floors to preserve this unique acoustic feature. On December 21, 2012, the Broncos announced a $30 million renovation project prior to the start of the 2013 season, including a new high-definition LED video board on the stadium's south end zone that triples the size of the old video board. In 2013, it was revealed that a Neil Smith Kansas City Chiefs jersey was buried somewhere near the 50-yard line by a couple of out-of-state contractors during renovations, despite Smith's play on the Broncos' Super Bowl XXXII and XXXIII-winning teams; the curse the contractors hoped to create did not occur as the Broncos won another Super Bowl two years Super Bowl 50.
On September 10, 2001, the stadium hosted its first regular season NFL game, in which the Broncos defeated the New York Giants 31–20. In a pre-game ceremony, Broncos legends John Elway, Steve Atwater, Randy Gradishar, Haven Moses, Billy
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
2003 NFL season
The 2003 NFL season was the 84th regular season of the National Football League. Regular-season play was held from September 4, 2003, to December 28, 2003. Due to damage caused by the Cedar Fire, Qualcomm Stadium was used as an emergency shelter, thus the Miami Dolphins–San Diego Chargers regular-season match on October 27 was instead played at Sun Devil Stadium, the home field of the Arizona Cardinals; the playoffs began on January 3, 2004. The NFL title was won by the New England Patriots when they defeated the Carolina Panthers, 32–29, in Super Bowl XXXVIII at Reliant Stadium in Houston, Texas, on February 1; this was the last season until the 2016 NFL season where neither of the previous Super Bowl participants made the playoffs. If an onside kick inside the final five minutes of the game does not go 10 yards, goes out of bounds, or is touched illegally, the receiving team will have the option of accepting the penalty and getting the ball immediately; the kicking team was penalized, but had another chance to kick again from five yards back.
League officials encouraged networks to cut to a commercial break if an instant replay challenge review was initiated. Networks were not permitted to utilize those game stoppages for their prescribed commercial periods. Dick Hantak and Bob McElwee retired in the 2003 off-season. Hantak joined the league as a back judge in 1978, was assigned Super Bowl XVII in that position, he was promoted to referee in 1986, working Super Bowl XXVII. McElwee joined the NFL in 1976 as a line judge, became a referee in 1980, he was the referee for three Super Bowls: XXII, XXVIII, XXXIV. Walt Anderson and Pete Morelli were promoted to referee to replace McElwee. Cincinnati Bengals – Marvin Lewis. Dallas Cowboys – Bill Parcells. Detroit Lions – Steve Mariucci. Jacksonville Jaguars – Jack Del Rio. San Francisco 49ers – Dennis Erickson. Philadelphia Eagles – New stadium: Lincoln Financial Field. New Orleans Saints – New AstroPlay home turf by mid-season Atlanta Falcons – New FieldTurf surface Green Bay Packers – New remodeled Lambeau Field Chicago Bears – New remodelled Soldier Field.
Buffalo Bills – New AstroPlay home turf Atlanta Falcons – New logo, new uniforms Detroit Lions – New uniforms, added black trim on logo and numbers Philadelphia Eagles – Added silver trim to numbers on uniforms. Introduce new home alternative uniforms. Black uniforms with white numbers with midnight green shadow in numbers. San Diego Chargers – White pants with road uniforms. New England Patriots – Added third alternative uniforms. Silver uniforms. Miami Dolphins – Added third alternate uniforms. Orange uniforms. Houston Texans – Added third alternate uniforms. Red Uniforms. Cleveland Browns – Added new alternate orange pants last worn in the Kardiac Kids era of coach Sam Rutigliano. Tennessee Titans – Added third alternate uniforms, powder blue Indianapolis finished ahead of Tennessee in the AFC South based on better head-to-head record. Denver clinched the AFC 6 seed instead of Miami based on better conference record. Buffalo finished ahead of N. Y. Jets in the AFC East based on better division record.
Jacksonville finished ahead of Houston in the AFC South based on better division record. Oakland finished ahead of San Diego in the AFC West based on better conference record. Philadelphia clinched the NFC 1 seed instead of St. Louis based on better conference record. Seattle clinched the NFC 5 seed instead of Dallas based on strength of victory. Within each conference, the four division winners and the two wild card teams qualified for the playoffs; the four division winners are seeded 1 through 4 based on their overall won-lost-tied record, the wild card teams are seeded 5 and 6. The NFL does not use a fixed bracket playoff system, there are no restrictions regarding teams from the same division matching up in any round. In the first round, dubbed the wild-card playoffs or wild-card weekend, the third-seeded division winner hosts the sixth seed wild card, the fourth seed hosts the fifth; the 1 and 2 seeds from each conference receive a bye in the first round. In the second round, the divisional playoffs, the number 1 seed hosts the worst surviving seed from the first round, while the number 2 seed will play the other team.
The two surviving teams from each conference's divisional playoff games meet in the respective AFC and NFC Conference Championship games, hosted by the higher seed. Although the Super Bowl, the fourth and final round of the playoffs, is played at a neutral site, the designated home team is based on an annual rotation by conference. * Indicates overtime victory ** Indicates double overtime victory The following teams and players set all-time NFL records during the season: The 2003 NFL Draft was held from April 26 to 27, 2003 at New York City's Theater at Madison Square Garden. With the first pick, the Cincinnati Bengals selected quarterback Carson Palmer from the University of Southern California. NFL Record and Fact Book NFL History 2001– Total Football: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League Football Outsiders 2003 Team Efficiency Ratings Pro Football Reference.com – 2003
Center (gridiron football)
Center is a position in American football and Canadian football. The center is the innermost lineman of the offensive line on a football team's offense; the center is the player who passes the ball between his legs to the quarterback at the start of each play. In recent years, the importance of centers for a football team has increased, due to the re-emergence of 3–4 defenses. According to Baltimore Ravens general manager Ozzie Newsome, "you need to have somebody who can neutralize that nose tackle. If you don't, everything can get screwed up. Your running game won't be effective and you'll have somebody in your quarterback's face on every play." The center's first role is to pass the football to the quarterback. This exchange is called a snap. Most offensive schemes make adjustments based on how the defensive line and linebackers align themselves in relation to the offensive line, what gaps they line up in; because the center has an ideal view of the defensive formation before the snap, he makes the first line call.
This call is based on the position of the defensive linemen or linebackers in his gaps, most subsequent adjustments are dependent on this call. In some cases the center may call an adjustment for the entire offensive line; this was taken to an extreme by the Indianapolis Colts in the early 21st century, with center Jeff Saturday having equal say with quarterback Peyton Manning in play calling, including audibles. The center is therefore the most intelligent player on the offensive line, critical to a center's success. After the snap, the center performs blocking assignments; the blocking assignments vary by offense but consist of the following: Run blocking assignments will vary based on the current play and the defensive formation when the ball is snapped. These assignments consist of the following: Blocking middle or backside linebackers in certain formations moving up to secondary levels if no linebacker is present. Assisting guards in their blocking assignments; this may be a center/guard double-team where the center and guard are assigned to the same target to get extra push or drive.
Assistance may be just a quick hit or "chip" to throw the defensive player off balance and help the guard to execute his block, while the center moves up to higher level targets. Backside blocking of defensive tackles for pulling guards. In some offensive schemes, certain plays will involve "pulling" an offensive lineman to block for the ball carrier. If a guard needs to pull for a block, the center will block the defensive tackle in order to fill the guard's void. Pass blocking for a center is similar to run blocking for a center; the center will help guards based on the position of the defensive linemen. In the case of a blitz, the center may need to pick up a rushing safety or corner. A good center needs to stay vigilant during pass blocking to protect against defensive stunts and twists. On most plays, the center will snap the ball directly into the quarterback's hands. In a shotgun formation, the center snaps the ball to the quarterback lined up several yards behind him. In punt and field goal formations, the center snaps the ball several yards behind him to the punter or holder on the field goal unit.
Because bad snaps can ruin special teams plays and cause turnovers, most teams have a center, trained for snapping the ball in punt and field goal formations. This player is referred to as the team's long snapper; the center does not have to snap the ball to the quarterback, holder, or punter. He is allowed to snap the ball to anyone behind him; because of this, some plays involve snaps directly to running backs instead of the player expected to receive the snap, hoping to fool the defense. In slang, the player receiving the snap is said to be "under center" if he receives the ball directly from the center; this phrase is applied to quarterbacks, but has been used in reference to other positions as well. On all special teams formations, the center is a long snapper. All NFL teams now have a specialized long snapper. Although the quarterback commands the ball, it is the center's snap. An astute center can help draw an opposing team offside prior to the snap or trick the other team into a penalty by snapping the ball while the opposing team attempts to substitute players.
Under college and high school rules, the center, as a long snapper, may not be contacted until 1 second after the snap has been initiated. This will result in "roughing the center." Additionally, a snap must be a continuous motion. If a center halts the snap motion, this draws the penalty of "illegal snap." In college football, the Dave Rimington Trophy is awarded annually to the nation's most outstanding center
Michael Edward Shanahan is an American football coach, the head coach for the Los Angeles Raiders, Denver Broncos, Washington Redskins of the National Football League for a total of 20 seasons. During his 14 seasons with the Broncos, he led the team to consecutive Super Bowl victories in XXXII and XXXIII, which were the franchise's first two NFL titles. Shanahan played high school football at East Leyden High School, Franklin Park, where he played wishbone quarterback for legendary Eagles coach Jack Leese's 1968 and 1969 teams. Shanahan held the single-game rushing record of 260 yards on 15 carries until it was broken in 1976 by Dennis Cascio, he graduated from high school in June 1970. He was a quarterback at Eastern Illinois University. In 1972, a piercingly hard hit on the practice field ruptured one of his kidneys, which caused his heart to stop for thirty seconds and nearly killed him. A priest was summoned to administer the last rites to a devout Roman Catholic. With his playing career abruptly ended, Shanahan entered coaching.
After graduation, he served as an assistant coach at Northern Arizona University and the University of Oklahoma. He returned to his alma mater as offensive coordinator and helped his school win the Division II football championship. Shanahan worked as the offensive coordinator for the University of Minnesota for a single season, before accepting the same position at the University of Florida under head coach Charley Pell in 1980. Shanahan stayed with the Gators through 1983. Shanahan first served as a receivers coach and offensive coordinator for the Broncos under Dan Reeves in the 1980s, it was his skill as an offensive mind that garnered Shanahan the attention of maverick Los Angeles Raiders owner Al Davis. After Shanahan and the Raiders parted ways in 1989, Shanahan returned to the Broncos as an assistant, he was fired several years by Reeves after finding himself in the middle of a growing feud between Reeves and quarterback John Elway. Shanahan was hired by the Raiders in 1988 to replace longtime Raiders coach Tom Flores.
He was the Raiders' first head coach hired from outside the organization since Davis himself 23 years earlier. Shanahan and the micromanaging Davis clashed immediately, this was only exacerbated after the Raiders finished a disappointing 7–9, losing four of their last five games. Tensions increased towards the end of the season when wide receivers coach and Shanahan loyalist Nick Nicolau got into a heated argument with assistant coach Art Shell in which Nicolau accused Shell of only having a job by virtue of his friendship with Davis; when Shell went to Davis to ask if this was true, Davis' response was to fire Nicolau. Shanahan responded by firing running backs coach Joe Scannella and offensive coordinator Tom Walsh, but Davis ordered them both back to work. At the end of the season, Shanahan fired defensive assistants Charlie Sumner. An enraged Davis re-hired Brown to a different position in the organization; when the Raiders began 1 -- 3 in 1989, Shanahan himself was replaced by Shell. Shanahan's final Raiders record was 8–12 in less than two seasons, going 2–7 after a 6–5 start.
In 1992, Shanahan was hired as offensive coordinator for the San Francisco 49ers under Head Coach George Seifert, capping his rise with a victory in Super Bowl XXIX after the 1994 season. His years under Seifert placed him in the Bill Walsh coaching tree. In 1994 while coaching for the 49ers, Shanahan added to the ongoing feud between him and Raiders owner Al Davis when he had QB Elvis Grbac throw a football at Davis' head, which missed by a few inches as Davis was able to dodge it just in time, afterwards Davis responded with an obscene gesture. Shanahan's success with the 49ers earned him a head coaching spot once more, this time back in Denver with the Broncos beginning in 1995, he led the Broncos to back-to-back Super Bowl championships in the 1997 and 1998 seasons, during which time the Broncos set a then-record for victories in two seasons. Between 1996–1998, the Broncos set the NFL record for victories by going 46–10 over a three-year span; the 1998 Broncos won their first 13 games on their way to a 14–2 mark.
Shanahan, taking his cue from West Coast offense guru Bill Walsh, was well known for scripting the first 15 offensive plays of the game, helped the 1998 Broncos set an NFL record for first quarter points scored in a season. In 2005, he passed Dan Reeves as the winningest coach in franchise history. Shanahan is known for a run-heavy variation of the West Coast offense he coached in San Francisco, he has found unheralded running backs from rounds of the annual NFL Draft and turned them into league-leading rushers behind small-but-powerful offensive lines. Examples of this phenomenon are Terrell Davis, Mike Anderson, Olandis Gary, Clinton Portis, Reuben Droughns and Tatum Bell, all of whom have had at least one 1,000-yard season in a Denver uniform during Shanahan's tenure. In 1999, with the assistance of writer Adam Schefter, Shanahan penned Think Like a Champion, a motivational book about leadership, it was published by Harper Collins. In 2006, he cooperated with Stefan Fatsis's endeavor to spend a year as a Broncos place-kicker, much of the resulting book A Few Seconds of Panic covers Shanahan's coaching from the player's point of view.
After Elway's retirement and Davis' career-ending injuries, Shanahan went seven years without a playoff win, a drought which caused criticism from fans. The playo