France national rugby league team
The France national rugby league team represent France in international rugby league tournaments. They are referred to as les Chanticleers or less as les Tricolores; the team is run under the auspices of the Fédération Française de Rugby à XIII and is made up of players from Super League and the Elite One Championship. The French rugby league team first played in 1934 on a tour of England, they have taken part in all World Cups, twelve in total, with the first being held in 1954 in France. They have never won the title but finished runners-up in both 1954 and 1968; these are considered the glory years of French rugby league as from the 1950s to the 1970s the team were strong and beat Australia, New Zealand and Great Britain. Since those days, les Chanticleers have not done as well, not managing to win a single match in the 1995 World Cup, but doing better in the 2000 World Cup with wins over Tonga and South Africa before losing to eventual finalists, New Zealand. In 2006, the Perpignan based team Catalans Dragons entered Super League Europe, have since produced a number of top-class French players.
Despite improved professionalism, France finished 10th in the 2008 World Cup in Australia. The team reached the quarter-finals of the 2013 World Cup; the team is ranked fifth in the world. In Europe alone they are ranked second, ahead of Ireland and Lebanon, but behind their main rival, England. On New Year's Eve 1933, England and Australia played in Paris – the first game of rugby league football in France; the match was one-sided, with Australia winning 63-13 in front of a crowd of about 5,000, but the seed was sown. French rugby union players, disgruntled that France had been suspended from the Five Nations Championship, formed the "Ligue Francaise de Rugby à XIII" on 6 April 1934. Jean Galia, a former rugby union international and champion boxer, led France on a six-match tour of England in 1934 and they recorded their first win in Kingston upon Hull; the national team's first game was in Paris on 15 April 1934, losing 21-32 to England in front of a crowd of 20,000. By 1939, the French League had 225 clubs and the national side won the 1938–39 European Rugby League Championship where they became the first French team in any sport to beat England at home.
The game of rugby league suffered in France during the Second World War, as administrators within French rugby union worked with the collaborating Vichy regime to have rugby league banned. Some players and officials of the sport were punished, whilst the total assets of the rugby league and its clubs were handed over to the union. After the war the French game was re-established and the French became one of rugby league's major powers, competing in the Rugby League World Cup and in major international series against Great Britain and New Zealand, despite continuing persecution. In 1949, they became the first French sporting team to win at Wembley Stadium. In 1951 France embarked on their first tour of Australasia, coached by Bob Samatan and led by the legendary chain-smoking fullback, Puig Aubert, their flamboyant style of unorthodox attacking rugby attracted huge crowds. When the two nations met for the first Test, the match became the first "all ticket" international to be staged at the Sydney Cricket Ground, attracted a crowd of over 60,000.
On Saturday 30 June 1951, Australia secured a hard-fought second Test victory over France in Brisbane by 23 points to 11. The third Test took place at Sydney Cricket Ground three weeks before a crowd of 67,009. Late tries from Duncan Hall and Brian Davies could not prevent the Kangaroos from suffering an embarrassing 35-14 defeat. France played 28 matches during the three-month tour, winning 21 matches, drawing twice and losing just five times. In November 1951, France met "Other Nationalities" in an International Championship match at the Boulevard, Hull which became known as the "Battle of the Boulevard". Other Nationalities won 17-14 but the match centred on the behaviour of Edouard Ponsinet, involved in most of the violence that happened at the game; the Other Nationalities were down to eleven players at one stage, with Arthur Clues being the most serious casualty, hospitalised with head injuries. Ponsinet was sent off, ten minutes from time after breaking the nose of Jeff Burke. Despite this defeat France went on to retain the title with home victories over Wales.
In the 1954 World Cup, the first of either rugby code and was instigated by France, Les Tricolores defeated both Australia and New Zealand, drew with Great Britain to reach the final. This was the closest they went to getting their hands on the World Cup, going down narrowly, 16-12, to Great Britain in the final in Parc des Princes. France donated the original World Cup trophy. France repeated the success of their 1951 tour in 1955, with bigger attendances greeting the team. Puig Aubert did not tour. Despite this, France played splendidly to win the second test in Brisbane and the third test at the SCG; the 1951 and 1955 French sides that toured Australia are still regarded as two of the strongest sides to tour that country. In the 1957 World Cup, held in Australia, the winner was decided by finishing top of the table with no final being played. France finished winning one match against New Zealand. History was made when the returning French and British squads visited South Africa and played a series of exhibition matches in
Jamie Rooney is an English former professional rugby league footballer, the head coach of his hometown amateur club Featherstone Lions. He is a former England international, being an integral part of the 2006 Federation Shield winning side. Rooney is at home in both the stand-off and scrum half positions. Rooney made his professional début for Featherstone Rovers in 1998 in the Treize Tournoi against Limoux, he made his league début in 1999 away at Whitehaven, coming off the substitutes bench and scoring one goal, became the first choice no. 7 at age 19. In two consecutive seasons he scored more than 100 points in the first 10 games, he is in the Featherstone Rovers record books for most points in a season, he joined Wakefield Trinity Wildcats in December 2002. The England international had an excellent season with Trinity in 2006, amassing 197 points in 20 games after missing the early part of the season recovering from surgery on a troublesome knee, he shone for Wakefield Trinity again in 2007, playing 25 games and scoring 208 points during 25 appearances.
This led to his earning a place in the Great Britain initial train-on squad for the Gillette Fusion Test series against New Zealand. Rooney's autobiography, High Ambitions, was released at the end of March 2009. In July 2009, he was signed on loan to Co-operative Championship title hopefuls Barrow. After his contract expired at Wakefield, he rejected numerous offers from Super League clubs, instead deciding to stay at Barrow, he was made captain for the 2010 season. He left the club at the end of the 2011 season to join French side Limoux for the 2011-12 Elite One Championship season, he signed for South Wales Scorpions for the 2012 season. South Wales Scorpions released Rooney "by mutual consent" on 11 April 2012, according to the scorpions website. Rooney went on to play for Whitehaven and Gateshead until July 2014 when he re-signed for Featherstone Rovers. Http://www.pontefractandcastlefordexpress.co.uk/sport/featherstone-rovers/rovers-snap-up-veteran-rooney-1-6751581 His son Brennan suffers from cerebral palsy, a fund, the Brennan Rooney Fund, set up by Wakefield Trinity, has received over £70,000.
Barrow Raiders profile Raiders beat Widnes to stay top Raiders earn Super League boost Johnston delighted by Barrow win Rooney leaves Wildcats for Barrow
Rob Parker (rugby league)
Rob Parker is an English former professional rugby league footballer for Leigh, signing from Super League neighbours Salford City Reds in time for the 2012 season. An England international representative forward, he played for Super League clubs. Parker played his junior rugby with Leigh East. Débuting in 2000 Parker marked his case for a regular position in Super League during a ten-game loan spell with London Broncos in 2001, he rose out of the Bradford Bulls Academy to play in the Bradford pack. He collected Super League medals in 2003 and 2005 and played in a winning Challenge Cup Final and World Club Challenge, he missed out on a spot in the 2003 Super League Grand Final. Having won Super League VIII, Bradford played against 2003 NRL Premiers, the Penrith Panthers in the 2004 World Club Challenge. Parker played from the interchange bench in Bradford's 22-4 victory. At the end of that year he played for Bradford Bulls from the interchange bench in their 2004 Super League Grand Final loss against Leeds.
An accomplished performer in both front and second row. Whilst at Bradford, Parker was loaned out to Wakefield RFC where he made seven Rugby Union appearances over two seasons, he was led his country to the European Nations Cup. Parker won caps for England while at Bradford Bulls in 2004 against Russia and Ireland. Signed by Warrington for the 2006 season, released from his contract at the end of the 2008 season. After joining Salford he was announced as their new club captain on 10 February after long-serving skipper Malcolm Alker was stripped of the captaincy during pre-season.. In July 2011, he went on loan to Castleford. Parker joined hometown club Leigh in time for the 2012 Co-Operative Championship season
Dalymount Park is a football stadium in Phibsborough on the Northside of Dublin, Ireland. It is the home of Bohemian F. C. who have played there since the early 20th century. Affectionately known as Dalyer by fans, it was historically the "home of Irish football", holding many Irish internationals and FAI Cup finals, it has hosted UEFA Champions League qualifiers, UEFA Cup and UEFA Cup Winners' Cup matches. However, the ground was undeveloped between the 1940s and the 2000s, has now fallen out of use as a major venue, except for the home games of Bohemians; the ground has been used as a home ground by other League of Ireland teams, including Shamrock Rovers, Dublin City F. C. and Sporting Fingal, will be used by Shelbourne F. C. once it has been developed. Bohemians have redeveloped the ground to some extent. In 1999 the old main stand was replaced by a modern structure with 2,742 seats, known as the "Jodi Stand"; this was at a cost of £1.1 million. This new structure replaced the 90-year-old wooden stand and at the time was meant to be phase one of the redevelopment of Dalymount Park.
Half of the terrace on the opposite side was knocked down, the remainder had seats installed on the terracing and now holds 3,720 but since 2011 is closed due to health and safety concerns. The old "Shed End", now called "The Des Kelly Carpets Stand" has had seats added and now has a capacity of 1,485; the terrace behind the opposite goal is therefore closed. The modern capacity of Dalymount, in use is 3,193. Bohs' average crowd is about 2,000. There is no designated stand for away fans with traveling support accommodated in different stands depending on the numbers expected; the Bohemians fans meanwhile, gather at the western end of the main stand. Dalymount Park was common land with a large vegetable plot and known as Pisser Dignam's Field until it was taken over by Bohemian F. C.. It hosted its first game on 7 September 1901, between Bohemians and Shelbourne F. C. and in front of an attendance of around 5,000. Harold Sloan scored the first goal at the ground in a 4–2 win for Bohs. On that day, it was just an ordinary field enclosed by a corrugated iron fence, the playing pitch being separated from the spectators by a roped barrier and a tent at one end served as dressing rooms for the players.
Within a few weeks, paling had replaced the ropes and the line of demarcation between "reserved" and "unreserved" was fixed by a 6 ft high hoarding. An "unreserved" entrance was erected at the Connaught Street side. A small wooden stand to the east of the reserved entrance soon appeared as did a similar stand behind each goal. Dalymount was chosen as the venue for the Irish Cup Final in 1903 between Bohemians and Distillery and on 26 March 1904, it hosted its first international, a game which saw Ireland play Scotland in a 1–1 draw, between 1904 and 1913 Dalymount hosted at least one Irish international in the years when Ireland had more than one home match in the British Home Championship. By the 1907/08 season, the ground had been widened, large wooden stands were erected behind both goals, another was built in the centre of the "popular" side and in the reserved enclosure an additional wooden stand appeared to the west of the entrance. Over the following years, the main stand on the reserved side was roofed and a similar addition made on the unreserved side.
In 1915, Dalymount hosted the IFA Intermediate Cup final when UCD beat Portadown 2-1. Huge improvements happened to the ground during the 1927/28 season. A new steel stand was erected in the reserved enclosure and provision was made for fitting out club rooms, etc. when more money was available. Entrance to the stand was by steps facing the field of play; this stand cost £5,833. Other additions included an iron railing along the pitch on the reserved side, new banking on both reserved and unreserved sides and a gymnasium and kicking alley. Within a few years, the Bohemian F. C. committee engaged the services of famous Scottish architect Archibald Leitch who drew up plans for future building of Dalyer. Another section was added to the reserved stand, new entrances and exits were placed at the rear. More banking and terracing around the entire pitch were completed, crush barriers erected and new stile houses installed; this new work meant that between 1925/26 and 1932, a total of £17,000 had been spent on upgrading the stadium.
In its heyday, Dalymount Park, or "Dalyer" as it is popularly known saw crowds of up to 40,000 for big games, whether it was able to accommodate this number of spectators safely is open to question. The stadium consisted of three sides of open terracing, one side the "Shed End" or "School End" being covered with a roof over half the terrace since 1945; the fourth side was the main stand. The stand was constructed in 1928 from iron and wood, with wooden benches and terraced standing room at the front; the floodlights that adorn Dalymount Park once stood at Arsenal's old stadium, Arsenal Stadium aka Highbury. They were shipped to Dublin in 1962; the inaugural floodlit match saw Arsenal beat Bohemians 3-8. Dalymount's record attendance was put at 48,000, for an Irish international game against England on 19 May 1957. A similar crowd attended the first entry of an Irish team into the European Cup, when Shamrock Rovers played Manchester United in 1957; the record attendance at the venue for an FAI Cup Final is 45,000, achieved when Shamrock Rovers beat Bohs in 1
Wales national rugby league team
The Wales national rugby league team represents Wales in international rugby league football matches. The team is ranked ninth in the RLIF World Rankings; the team was run under the auspices of the Rugby Football League, but an independent body, Wales Rugby League, now runs the team from Cardiff. Three Welsh players have been entered into the Rugby League Hall Of Fame; as with other Welsh national sporting teams, Wales strip has been red. However, in the World Cup campaign in 2000 they wore a shirt featuring the Welsh flag, adding a touch of green and white; the team is known as "The Dragons" and so the teams logo on the shirt is a red dragon. The team date back to 1907, making them the third oldest national side after England and New Zealand, it was a touring New Zealand side that Wales first played against in 1908, winning 9–8 at Aberdare. Since Wales have played England, since 1935 France, as well as welcomed the touring Australia and New Zealand teams, although they toured themselves, not playing a match in the Southern Hemisphere until 1975.
For 26 years Wales competed against their two biggest rivals and France, in the European Nations Cup, winning the trophy four times. Wales has competed in the World Cup on five occasions, the first time being in 1975. In 1995 and 2000 they had their most successful tournaments to date, making the Semi-Finals on both occasions before being beaten by England and Australia respectively. Wales failed to qualify for the 2008 World Cup, being the second highest ranked side not to do so, having lost to Scotland on points difference over two matches, they qualified for the 2013 World Cup but failed to win a game, including losing 32–16 to low ranked Italy in their opening game at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. In recent seasons, Wales has taken massive strides under former player Iestyn Harris who had coached Wales to back to back European Cup successes, which culminated in a Four Nations appearance in 2011. In 2014 former England and France coach John Kear became the new head coach after Iestyn Harris left the post to concentrate on his new job as head coach at Salford Red Devils.
On 5 April 1904, England played an international match against the "Other Nationalities", a team of Welshmen and Scotsmen, in Wigan. Of the twelve players who played for the Other Nationalities team, as it was a 12-a-side game, ten of them were Welshmen coming from Northern English clubs. At the turn of the century many Welshmen made the switch from rugby union, wanting to be paid for playing, although the numbers switching were increasing, the Northern Union did not think that a Welsh side would be strong enough for England. After 80 minutes however, the Other Nationalities had beaten England 9–3; this team carried on for another two years, playing England annually in 1905 and 1906, losing 26–11 and drawing 3–3 respectively. From 1905 to 1910 Rugby League as a sport enjoyed growth, not just in Wales and England, but on the east coast of Australia and in northern New Zealand; when Albert Henry Baskerville's NZ All Golds with their guest Australian star Dally Messenger arrived in Britain for the inaugural tour by a southern hemisphere side, the first full international was against Wales on New Year's Day 1908.
The Welsh rugby league team were contesting their first national fixture, managed to beat the touring Kiwis 9–8 in Aberdare in front of 20,000 spectators. This was the first international match played under new "Northern Union" rules, which would be changed again, but these rules were a small departure from traditional rugby union rules, used in previous international matches; the New Zealand team, or the "All Golds" as they were being called by the New Zealand newspapers, had never played rugby by these rules before but did have a week of preparation and training sessions leading up to the match. With this Welsh victory and large crowd, Wales played their second fixture in Tonypandy, managed to win that match too recording a 35–18 win against what would soon become their main rival, the England Lions. At the end of 1908 Wales played their third and final fixture of the decade, playing England again, but this time in Broughton, Lancashire; this time they lost 31–7. However, in 1909 another victory was to occur for Welsh Rugby League, with a Welsh League XIII made up of players still playing in Wales beating a touring Australian side 14–13 in Merthyr.
In the years before the outbreak of the war, Wales played England. The two national teams played each other every year, including 1914. Due to Rugby League only extensively being played in the two countries in the whole of the Northern Hemisphere, touring Australia and New Zealand teams were the only chances to play someone different. Although the two matches against the English played in Wales were played in Ebbw Vale in Monmouthshire, the Welsh travelled around England for away matches, playing in Coventry, Plymouth and St. Helens. Collectively those seven matches in Wales and England produced six defeats for the Welsh team, although there were signs of improvement, in the last match in St Helens the Dragons narrowly lost by just four points, the match ending 16–12. On the 7 October 1911 Wales played Australia for the first time; the match, held at Ebbw Vale again, drew 7,000 people to watch Wales go down 20–28. The match was significant though because throughout the next few decades Australia would play the Dragons in Wales whenever they toured Great Britain.
During and after the First World War many sports suffered, rugby league in Wales was no exception, the team didn't play a match again until 1921. After a seven-year hiatus Wales once again played England and continued to
Mark Calderwood is an English former professional rugby league footballer. An England international representative winger, he has played in the Super League for the Leeds Rhinos, the Wigan Warriors, Hull F. C. and the Harlequins RL. Calderwood was born in Greenwich, England, he started his playing career at Stanningley ARLFC before signing for the Leeds Rhinos Academy in 2000 Calderwood scored over 40-tries in his first season at the Leeds Rhinos Academy which earned him a call up into the first team in 2001. He made his début against London from the bench in the first match of the season he scored his first try for Leeds in a Challenge Cup semi-final against St. Helens, went to score 12-tries in the rest of the 2001 season, he won the Eddie Waring Memorial Award as the best try in the 2001 Challenge Cup. Mark gained international and representative experience with Yorkshire. At the end of the 2001 season Mark was selected by John Kear for the England U21 tour to South Africa, he scored 4 tries in the first test, when England won 112–6 and a further 2 tries in the second test.
He is eligible to represent Jamaica national rugby league team, the West IndiesHe retained his place in the England side in 2002 and was part of the squad that lost 34–12 to New Zealand. In 2002 the England A squad toured Fiji and Tonga and Mark played a part in both of England's victories, beating Fiji 44–8 and Tonga 30–18. In 2002 and 2003 Calderwood finished the leading try scorer at Leeds Rhinos, the leading try scorer for the Super League, he played for the Leeds Rhinos on the wing in their 2004 Super League Grand Final victory against the Bradford Bulls. As Super League IX champions, the Rhinos faced 2004 NRL season premiers, the Bulldogs in the 2005 World Club Challenge. Calderwood scored a try in Leeds' 39 -- 32 victory. 2005 was another good season for Mark he finished leading Super League try scorer for the third time with 27 touchdowns in 28 appearances during 2005 and 35 tries in all competitions. During the season he received a runners-up medal in the 2005 Challenge Cup final, having scored a try when Leeds lost 25–24 to Hull FC, another runners-up medal in the 2005 Super League Grand Final when Leeds lost to Bradford 15–6.
Despite his success with Leeds, Mark refused a contract extension with the Leeds and instead signed a 2-year contract with Wigan Warriors starting in 2006. He made his Wigan début against Catalans Dragons but it took him 3 months to get his first try for Wigan which came against Castleford Tigers in May 2006. Wigan spent most of 2006 struggling against relegation from the Super League but despite this he managed to form a good playing connection with Wigan full back Chris Ashton. Mark finished the season with 6 tries. Mark represented England in the 2006 Federation Shield, scoring two tries in the opening match against France. 2002 saw Mark make his début for Yorkshire in the Origin game, when Yorkshire were defeated 22–18 and retained his place in 2003, scoring a sensational try at Odsal when Yorkshire defeated Lancashire 56–6. Mark lifted the European Nations Cup with England, helping them reach the final with a hat trick against Russia in the qualifiers and four against France in the final, with a man of the match perforscored a hat trick of tries in Wigan's epic 31–30 playoff win over Bradford Bulls on 21 September 2007 as the Warriors fought back from a 30–6 deficit but was forced off the field in the following game against Hull F.
C. with a broken bone in the bottom of his leg which forced him to miss Wigan's final game of the 2007 season against Leeds Rhinos. The next season turned out to be his final one for the club, his form was mixed throughout the campaign and was signalled out for poor performances in the 46–10 defeat by local rivals St. Helens. Throughout his Wigan career he was criticised for not producing the form that gave him his name at Leeds, many fans thought that he had pace but was not giving everything into every match which began to have negative effect on his future at the club, he withdrew from the Scotland training squad for the 2008 Rugby League World Cup after being called up by England. In September 2008 he was named in the England training squad for the 2008 Rugby League World Cup, in October 2008 he was named in the final 24-man England squad, he was named in the England team to face Wales at the Keepmoat Stadium prior to England's departure for the 2008 Rugby League World Cup. but he like many other England stars produced many disappointing performances.
Mark signed for Hull for the 2009 season Following his departure from Hull FC, Calderwood was linked with the likes of Wakefield Trinity Wildcats, Crusaders RL and Salford City Reds, however, no deal was reached. With John Kear the coach at Wakefield, they were the favourites to secure his signature for 2011. However, he joined Harlequins on a month-long trial, won a contract at the London side. In May 2012, he signed for Co-operative Championship 1 side Workington Town. Official Mark Calderwood Profile Unofficial Mark Calderwood Profile Leeds Rhinos Profile Profile on Lasttackle.com Statistics at wigan.rlfans.com
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p