The Celtic Football Club is a professional football club based in Glasgow, which plays in the Scottish Premiership. The club was founded in 1887 with the purpose of alleviating poverty in the immigrant Irish population in the East End of Glasgow, they played their first match in May 1888, a friendly match against Rangers which Celtic won 5–2. Celtic established themselves within Scottish football, winning six successive league titles during the first decade of the 20th century; the club enjoyed their greatest successes during the 1960s and 70s under Jock Stein when they won nine consecutive league titles and the 1967 European Cup. Celtic have won the Scottish league championship 49 times, most in 2017–18, their seventh consecutive championship, they have won the Scottish League Cup 18 times. The club's greatest season was 1966–67, when Celtic became the first British team to win the European Cup winning the Scottish league championship, the Scottish Cup, the League Cup and the Glasgow Cup. Celtic reached the 1970 European Cup Final and the 2003 UEFA Cup Final, losing in both.
Celtic have a long-standing fierce rivalry with Rangers, the clubs are known as the Old Firm, seen by some as the world's biggest football derby. The club's fanbase was estimated in 2003 as being around nine million worldwide, there are more than 160 Celtic supporters clubs in over 20 countries. An estimated 80,000 fans travelled to Seville for the 2003 UEFA Cup Final. Celtic Football Club was formally constituted at a meeting in St. Mary's church hall in East Rose Street, Glasgow, by Irish Marist Brother Walfrid on 6 November 1887, with the purpose of alleviating poverty in the East End of Glasgow by raising money for the charity Walfrid had instituted, the Poor Children's Dinner Table. Walfrid's move to establish the club as a means of fund-raising was inspired by the example of Hibernian, formed out of the immigrant Irish population a few years earlier in Edinburgh. Walfrid's own suggestion of the name Celtic was intended to reflect the club's Irish and Scottish roots and was adopted at the same meeting.
The club has The Bhoys. However, according to the Celtic press office, the newly established club was known to many as "the bold boys". A postcard from the early 20th century that pictured the team and read "The Bould Bhoys" is the first known example of the unique spelling; the extra h imitates the spelling system of Gaelic, wherein the letter b is accompanied by the letter h. On 28 May 1888, Celtic played their first official match against Rangers and won 5–2 in what was described as a "friendly encounter". Neil McCallum scored Celtic's first goal. Celtic's first kit consisted of a white shirt with a green collar, black shorts, emerald green socks; the original club crest was a simple green cross on a red oval background. In 1889 Celtic reached the final of the Scottish Cup, this was their first season in the competition, but lost 2–1 in the final. Celtic again reached the final of the Scottish Cup in 1892, but this time were victorious after defeating Queen's Park 5–1 in the final, the club's first major honour.
Several months the club moved to its new ground, Celtic Park, in the following season won the Scottish League Championship for the first time. In 1895, Celtic set the League record for the highest home score when they beat Dundee 11–0. In 1897, the club became a Private limited company and Willie Maley was appointed as the first'secretary-manager'. Between 1905 and 1910, Celtic won the Scottish League Championship six times in a row. In both 1907 and 1908 Celtic won the Scottish Cup, this was the first time a Scottish club had won the double. During World War I, Celtic won the league four times in a row, including 62 matches unbeaten between November 1915 and April 1917; the mid-1920s saw the emergence of Jimmy McGrory as one of the most prolific goalscorers in British football history. Over a sixteen-year playing career, he scored 550 goals in 547 games, a British goal-scoring record to this day. In January 1940, Willie Maley's retirement was announced, he was 71 years old and had served the club in varying roles for nearly 52 years as a player and as secretary-manager.
Jimmy McStay became manager of the club in February 1940. He spent over five years in this role, although due to the Second World War no official competitive league football took place during this time; the Scottish Football League and Scottish Cup were suspended and in their place regional league competitions were set up. Celtic did not do well during the war years, but did win the Victory in Europe Cup held in May 1945 as a one-off football tournament to celebrate Victory in Europe Day. Ex-player and captain Jimmy McGrory took over as manager in 1945. Under McGrory, Celtic defeated Arsenal, Manchester United and Hibernian to win the Coronation Cup, a one-off tournament held in May 1953 to commemorate the coronation of Elizabeth II, he led them to a League and Cup double in 1954. On 19 October 1957, Celtic defeated Rangers a record 7–1 in the final of the Scottish League Cup at Hampden Park in Glasgow, retaining the trophy they had won for the first time the previous year; the scoreline remains a record win in a British domestic cup final.
The years that followed, saw Celtic struggle and the club won no more trophies under McGrory. Former Celtic captain Jock Stein succeeded McGrory in 1965, he won the Scottish Cup with Celtic in his first few months at the club, led them to the League title the following season.1967 was Celtic's annus mirabilis. The club won every competition they entered: the Scot
2004 UEFA Cup Final
The 2004 UEFA Cup Final was a football match that took place on 19 May 2004 at Ullevi in Gothenburg, between Valencia of Spain and Marseille of France. Valencia won the match 2 -- 0 with goals from Mista; the game was to be the last in which Rafael Benítez was in charge of Valencia before he took over at Liverpool in England. Valencia had been on a 14-match unbeaten run previous to this match, which had only ended the previous week to Villarreal, the side they beat in the semi-final to reach the final, due to a weakened lineup after securing the La Liga title. Marseille had lost four of their last five matches in Ligue 1; the start of the match was conservative due to the wind. Didier Drogba threatened early on, was sent tumbling by a robust challenge from Roberto Ayala, which led to a free kick, in which the resulting shot was cleared off the line by Carlos Marchena; this sparked Valencia into life and David Albelda produced a save from Fabien Barthez after pouncing on Mista's rebounded shot.
Valencia dominated possession, which led to frustration, Steve Marlet getting booked in the tenth minute. Marseille's first meaningful attempt at goal came in the 16th minute when Steve Marlet headed over from Camel Meriem's cross. Minutes Meriem himself had a chance to give Marseille the lead, but he shot wide from the edge of the area. Marseille had another chance when Habib Beye got on the end of Drogba's free kick, but he headed wide; the definitive moment in the match came on the stroke of half time, when Barthez brought down Mista in the area after a cross by Curro Torres. Barthez was sent off and Valencia were awarded a penalty. Jérémy Gavanon replaced Barthez with Camel Meriem making way for him. Vicente dispatched the penalty to give Valencia a 1–0 lead going into half time; the second half started off with Valencia in total ascendancy, after 13 minutes of near-total possession, Valencia doubled their lead. Vicente had cut the ball in from the left for Mista, who finished the chance with ease to record his fifth goal of the competition.
Marseille's heads dropped. They came forward in flourishes in the last remnants of the game, when Drogba's free kick was stopped by Santiago Cañizares. Drogba nearly played in Steve Marlet with a through-ball, but it was intercepted at the last second. Marseille found a way back into the Valencia goal area in the 80th minute, but Sylvain N'Diaye's shot was saved by Cañizares. After this, the match descended into a stoic affair and Valencia ran out winners to win their first major European trophy in 24 years, victory after two successive UEFA Champions League final defeats, in 2000 and 2001; the victory meant that Amedeo Carboni became the oldest player to win a European final at 39 years and 43 days old. 2003–04 UEFA Cup 2004 UEFA Super Cup Olympique de Marseille in European football Valencia CF in European football 2003–04 season at UEFA.com
Verein für Bewegungsspiele Stuttgart 1893 e. V. known as VfB Stuttgart, is a German sports club based in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg. The club is best known for its football team, part of Germany's first division Bundesliga. VfB Stuttgart has won the national championship five times, most in 2006–07; the football team plays its home games at the Mercedes-Benz Arena, in the Neckarpark, located near the Cannstatter Wasen where the city's fall beer festival takes place. Second team side VfB Stuttgart II plays in the Regionalliga Südwest, the second highest division allowed for a reserve team; the club's junior teams have won the national U19 championships a record ten times and the Under 17 Bundesliga six times. A membership-based club with over 64,000 members, VfB is the largest sports club in Baden-Württemberg and the fifth-largest in Germany, it has departments for fistball, hockey and field, table-tennis and football referees, all of which compete only at the amateur level. The club maintains a social department, the VfB-Garde.
Verein für Bewegungsspiele Stuttgart was formed through a 2 April 1912 merger of predecessor sides Stuttgarter FV and Kronen-Club Cannstatt following a meeting in the Concordia hotel in Cannstatt. Each of these clubs was made up of school pupils with middle class roots who learned new sports such as rugby union and football from English expatriates such as William Cail who introduced rugby in 1865. Stuttgarter Fußballverein was founded at the Zum Becher hotel in Stuttgart on 9 September 1893. FV were a rugby club, playing games at Stöckach-Eisbahn before moving to Cannstatter Wasen in 1894; the rugby club established a football section in 1908. The team drew players from local schools, under the direction of teacher Carl Kaufmann, achieved its first success. Rugby was soon replaced by football within the club, as spectators found the game too complicated to follow. In 1909, FV joined the Süddeutschen Fußballverband. In their second season FV won a district final against future merger partner Kronen-Klub Cannstatt before being defeated by FV Zuffenhausen in the county championship that would have seen the side promoted.
They advanced to the senior Südkreis-Liga in 1912. Cannstatter Fußballklub was formed as a rugby club in 1890 and quickly established a football team; this club was dissolved after just a few years of play and the former membership re-organized themselves as FC Krone Cannstatt in 1897 to compete as a football-only side. The new team joined the Süddeutschen Fußballverband as a second division club and won promotion in 1904. Krone possessed their own ground. Following the 1912 merger of these two clubs, the combined side played at first in the Kreisliga Württemberg and in the Bezirksliga Württemberg-Baden, earning a number of top three finishes and claiming a title there in 1927; the club made several appearances in the final rounds of the SFV in the late 1920s and early 1930s. In 1933, VfB moved to the site of its current ground. German football was re-organized that same year under the Third Reich into sixteen top-flight divisions called Gauligen. Stuttgart played in the Gauliga Württemberg and enjoyed considerable success there, winning division titles in 1935, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1943 before the Gauliga system collapsed part way through the 1944–45 season due to World War II.
The club had an intense rivalry with Stuttgarter Kickers throughout this period. VfB's Gauliga titles earned the team entry to the national playoff rounds, with their best result coming in 1935 when they advanced to the final where they lost 4–6 to defending champions Schalke 04, the dominant side of the era. After a third-place result at the national level in 1937, Stuttgart was not able to advance out of the preliminary rounds in subsequent appearances. After the war, VfB continued to play first division football in the Oberliga Süd, capturing titles in 1946, 1952, 1954, they made regular appearances in the German championship rounds, emerging as national champions in 1950 and 1952, finishing as runner-up in 1953, winning two DFB-Pokal titles in 1954 and 1958. The team which won four titles in eight years was led by Robert Schlienz who had lost his left arm in a car crash. Despite these successes, no player from the Stuttgart roster had a place on the team that won the 1954 FIFA World Cup.
Due to disappointing results in international competition including the 1958 and 1962 FIFA World Cup, in response to the growth of professionalism in the sport, the German Football Association replaced the regional top flight competitions with a single nationwide professional league in 1963. Stuttgart's solid play through the 1950s earned them a place among the 16 clubs that would make up the original Bundesliga; as an amateur organisation, due to proverbial Swabian austerity, the club hesitated to spend money, some players continued to work in an everyday job. Throughout the balance of the decade and until the mid-1970s, the club would earn mid-table results. One of the few stars of the time was Gilbert Gress from Strasbourg. In 1973, the team qualified for the UEFA Cup for the first time and advanced to the semi-finals of the 1974 tournament where they were eliminated by eventual winners Feyenoord. VfB Stuttgart was in crisis in the mid-1970s, having missed new trends in football such as club sponso
Polonia Warsaw, founded in 1911, is the oldest existing Warsaw sports club, with football, basketball and field and swimming teams. Polonia Warsaw was formed in the autumn of 1911 as a union of two school teams; the founder of the club was captain Wacław Denhoff-Czarnocki, who came up with the name of the club. Polonia is Latin for "Poland" and is used by Polish ex-patriates in reference to their communities in other countries; the choice of such a name was a brave decision at the time, since Poland was not an independent country, Warsaw was a part of Russian partition. The players played in black-and-white striped shirts, but in the spring of 1912, they switched to their now traditional design of all black shirts; the legendary patriotic explanation for this color scheme was that it was a sign of mourning for the occupied and divided motherland of Poland. This lasting devotion to tradition resulted in the club's popular name: The Black Shirts; the uniform's white shorts and red socks come from the colors of the Polish flag.
The club's first match on 19 November 1911 was against a strong local rival and ended 3–4 in favor of Korona. Two years in February 1913, The Black Shirts defeated Korona 4–0. During the first world war, German occupants were more liberal in their ways than the previous Russian counterparts, allowed the official registration of sports clubs on Polish territory, on 15 October 1915 Polonia official became a football club, despite existing for four years; the first match between Polonia and Legia Warsaw was played on 29 April 1917. It was the first historic "Great Derby of Warsaw" – the clash of these two rival teams. A month there was a second match between the teams, ending with the same score. Hatred divided their supporters early in the clubs' history and continues to this day, driving strong emotions during the matches and sometimes greater emotions between matches. In 1921, the Black Shirts came second in the first season of the Polish football championship. In 1926, they finished the season as joint-champions.
Polonia was Warsaw's favorite club – the great majority of the city's inhabitants were devoted Black Shirt supporters. In the late 1930s, Polonia became one of powerhouses of Polish football, with players, such as Jerzy Bulanow, Wladyslaw Szczepaniak, Erwin Nyc and Henryk Jaznicki capping for the national team; the friendship between Polonia and KS Cracovia – the prewar Polish football legend and the first champions of Poland – dates back to those days. In 1946, Polonia won the Polish Championship title, it was burned capital. The final match was played on "Wojska Polskiego" Stadium on Lazienkowska Street, because Polonia's stadium on 6 Konwiktorska Street had been ruined during the war; the Black Shirts defeated AKS Chorzów in the final. In 1952, Polonia Warsaw won their first Polish Cup. In the final, Polonia managed to outscore local rivals Legia Warsaw 1-0, much to the delight of Warsaw's fans, who supported the Black Shirts. During the Stalinist period, Polonia's name and colors were changed – Warsaw's oldest club was renamed Kolejarz, as the team was now tied to the Polish National Railroad company.
The Black Shirts were banned, as the Stalinist regime was trying to erase everything, associated with Warsaw from before the war. Every Polish football club got a ` sponsor', such as militia or mining industry. At the time, the railroad was one of the poorest sponsors choosing another club, as the main club they were investing in. Polonia's management struggled to face the problems that the club came across, which contributed to its eventual relegation to the Polish second division. Fifteen years there were still thousands of fans on Konwiktorska Street. Nobody thought it would take 40 years for Polonia to come back to top-flight football. One of the reasons behind this, was that all the young men, promising footballers to be – from all over Poland, the Warsaw youth academies, were called up for compulsory army training, which under the communist rule lasted about 5 years, or sometimes longer. Many of the players received an offer to play for the army sponsored Legia Warsaw, which led to some of Polonia's bitter rivals biggest successes, in the 1960s.
Till the modern day Polonia's fans attribute Legia's current popularity in Warsaw to the communist regime, the'stealing' of talented players. Polonia's ultras fans put up a flag with an anti-communist symbol, in the center of'Kammienna' sector every game. In the 1992–93 season, after 40 years playing in the lower leagues, Polonia Warsaw was promoted to the first division; the organization of the club was insufficient to compete with the strongest clubs in Polish football - the biggest problems being lack of money and a sound training base. After one season, the team was relegated yet again, but only for a year as in the 1995–96 season Polonia Warszawa won promotion again. In 1996, Janusz Romanowski took over as chairman of Polonia, having just backed out from sponsoring local rivals Legia Warszawa. In 1998'The Black Shirts' finished runner-up in the top flight and in 1999 reached the semi-finals of the Intertoto Cup. In the 1999/2000 season, Polonia were not considered challengers for the title.
At the end of the autumn round, the Black Shirts were for the first time in club's history leading the league. That team had two managers – Jerzy Engel (who became the coach of the Polish national team, which qualified for the World C
Anderson Luís de Souza, known as Deco, is a retired professional footballer who played as an attacking midfielder or central midfielder. Deco is one of the few players to have won the UEFA Champions League with two clubs, with Porto in 2004 and Barcelona in 2006, he was named UEFA Club Footballer of the Year and UEFA Best Midfielder in Porto's Champions League-winning season and was named Man of the Match in the 2004 UEFA Champions League Final. Deco was the first player to win the UEFA Best Midfielder Award with two clubs and Barcelona, he was awarded the 2006 FIFA Club World Cup Golden Ball and the Man of the Match award in the final despite losing to Internacional. Born and raised in Brazil, Deco received Portuguese citizenship in 2002 having completed five years of Portuguese residence, subsequently opted to play internationally for the Portugal national team, he earned 75 caps for them, playing at two UEFA European Championships and two FIFA World Cups, reaching the final of Euro 2004, achieving a fourth-place finish at the 2006 World Cup.
Deco announced his retirement on 26 August 2013, following a hamstring injury. Born in São Bernardo do Campo, Deco spent time at Corinthians as a youngster, competing in the Copa São Paulo de Futebol Júnior for them. In the 1997 edition, Benfica sent Toni to scout the tournament, he soon noticed Deco, recommending his signing. In June 1997, Benfica purchased his rights from CSA and sent him on loan to their farm team, Alverca. After helping them win promotion to the top tier in 1997–98 season by scoring 13 goals in 32 appearances, he returned to Benfica in July 1998. However, he left for Salgueiros in exchange for Nandinho; when asked by Nuno Gomes in an interview for FourFourTwo why he did not stay and become a legend at Benfica, Deco said, "Benfica decided, it wasn't my decision. They didn't want me; the coach was Graeme Souness at the time. I was young and Benfica needed some players."At Salgueiros, Deco was plagued by injuries and only made a few appearances, until Porto purchased him in March 1999, in time to win the league title.
His release from Benfica and subsequent success with Porto was considered by António Simões as an "historical mistake", while Toni stated he saw in Deco, a successor for Rui Costa the club needed since his departure. Under the guidance of manager José Mourinho, Deco was given the role of leading an ambitious Porto team. A key figure in the 2002–03 season, he scored 10 goals in 30 matches and received 17 yellow cards and 1 red card. Deco was one of the key players in Porto's UEFA Cup final 3–2 win over Celtic that year. In the 2003–04 season, Deco helped Porto recapture the national title and led the team to the 2004 UEFA Champions League Final, in which Porto won 3–0 over Monaco, scoring the second goal of the match, he was the UEFA Champions League's top assist provider and suffered the most fouls in the Champions League that season. That season, Deco won the UEFA Club Footballer of the Year as well as the award for the best midfielder in the competition. On 17 June 2004, Deco told a Portuguese radio station he would certainly join English side Chelsea following UEFA Euro 2004.
He said a transfer deal between Porto and Chelsea had been all but finalised, that the only remaining steps were passing a physical examination and signing a formal contract with Chelsea. However, on 26 June 2004, Deco told the Portuguese sports daily O Jogo he would rather move to Barcelona than follow Mourinho to Chelsea. While Bayern Munich gave up on Deco after the Chelsea deal seemed to have been concluded, it was still uncertain whether the German side would make a new bid; the best offer at that time was a €21 million bid from Barça, but this figure was still €4 million short of the request by Porto's board of directors. Portuguese newspapers reported Barça would try to offer Portuguese winger Ricardo Quaresma as part of the exchange in order to ease the deal. A deal was achieved between Porto and Barcelona the day after the Euro 2004 final. Barcelona agreed on a €15 million fee in cash, plus the complete rights of Quaresma to Porto, which tagged Quaresma for €6 million. Deco signed a four-year deal with the Catalan side on 6 July 2004.
In Barcelona, some suggested Deco would be eclipsed by Brazilian star Ronaldinho. Indeed, many Barcelona fans met the transfer with raised eyebrows, as Deco was considered an attacking midfielder, a department, well covered. Instead, coach Frank Rijkaard used him in a three-man midfield, where his tactical knowledge, passing abilities and enormous work rate surprised many. In December 2004, he came second in France Football's Ballon d'Or 2004 award, losing to Andriy Shevchenko and beating teammate Ronaldinho by six votes. On 14 May 2005, Deco played in the draw against Levante, which gave Barcelona their 17th La Liga title, he was named Barcelona's player of the season in the 2005–06 season. Deco scored twice in the 2006 Supercopa de España. Deco won the UEFA Best Midfielder Award yet again for his performance in Barça's UEFA Champions League-winning season, enabling him to join the exclusive group of players that have won the same award more than once with different teams, having won the Champions League with Porto.
He was awarded the Golden Ball at the FIFA Club World Cup and the Man of the Match award, despite losing the final to Internacional. On 30 June 2008, Chelsea signed Deco from Barcelona on a three-year contract for €10 million, he was the first signing of new Chelsea coach Luiz Felipe Scolari, the head coach o
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Panathinaikos Football Club, known as Panathinaikos, or by its full name, the name of its parent sports club, Panathinaikos A. O. or PAO, is a Greek professional football club based in the capital-city of Athens. The name "Panathinaikos" was inspired by the ancient work of Isocrates, where the orator praises the Athenians for their democratic education and their military superiority, used for the benefit of all Greeks. Today a part of Panathinaikos A. O. they are the oldest active football club in Greece founded only to practice this sport. Created in 1908 as "Podosfairikos Omilos Athinon" by Georgios Kalafatis, they play in the Super League Greece, being one of the most successful clubs in Greek football and one of three clubs which have never been relegated from the top division. Amongst their major titles are 20 Greek Championships, 18 Greek Cups, achieving eight times the Double, 3 Greek Super Cups, they are the only club that won a championship undefeated, going without a loss in a top-flight campaign, a feat that no other club in Greece has been able to achieve.
Panathinaikos is the most successful Greek club in terms of achievements in the European competitions. It is the only Greek team that has reached the European Cup final in 1971, the semi-finals twice, in 1985 and 1996, it is the only Greek team that has played for the Intercontinental Cup. Furthermore, they have reached the quarter-finals of the Champions League on another two occasions, as well as the quarter-finals of the UEFA Cup twice, they have won the Balkans Cup in 1977. Panathinaikos is a member of the European Club Association. Since the 1950s, the club maintains some of the oldest and most successful academies in Greece, producing talent for the first team and feeding the Greek national football team. Panathinaikos became professional and independent in 1979, they have played their home games in the Apostolos Nikolaidis Stadium, considered their traditional home ground, the Athens Olympic Stadium. According to the most recent researches and polls, Panathinaikos is the second-most popular football team in Greece, with the percentage difference between Olympiacos and themselves varying between 2% to 9%.
The club has million of fans inside Greece and millions of others in the Greek communities all over the world. They hold a long-term rivalry with Olympiacos, the clash between the two teams being referred to as the "Derby of the eternal enemies."The derby of the eternal enemies is traditionally included among the world's top 10 greatest football derbies, by the international media, compared with rivalries such as Boca Juniors-River Plate, Real Madrid-Barcelona, Rangers-Celtic,Galatasaray-Fenerbahce and Manchester United-Liverpool. According to the official history of the club, Panathinaikos was founded by Giorgos Kalafatis on 3 February 1908, when he and 40 other athletes decided to break away from Panellinios Gymnastikos Syllogos following the club's decision to discontinue its football team; the name of the new club was "Podosferikos Omilos Athinon". It was founded with the aim of spreading and making more known this new sport to the Athenian and Greek public in general; the intention of the founders was to create a team for all of Athens and to be connected with the rest of the European football movement, active.
The first president elected was Alexandros Kalafatis, brother of Giorgos. The ground of the team was in Patission Street. Oxford University athlete John Cyril Campbell was brought in as coach, the first time that a foreigner was appointed as the coach of a Greek team. Konstantinos Tsiklitiras, the great Greek athlete of the early 20th century, played as goalkeeper for the new team. In 1910, after a dispute among a number of board members, Kalafatis with most of the players—also followed by Campbell—decided to pull out of POA and secured a new ground in Amerikis Square. Subsequently, the name of the club changed to Panellinios Podosferikos Omilos and its colours to green and white. By 1914, Campbell had returned to England but the club was at the top of Greek football with players such as Michalis Papazoglou, Michalis Rokkos and Loukas Panourgias. In 1918, the team adopted the trifolium as its emblem. In 1921 and 1922, the Athens-Piraeus FCA organized the first two post-WWI championships, in both of which PPO was declared champion.
By that stage, the club had outgrown both the grounds in Patission Street and Amerikis Square, due to its expansion in other sports, began to look at vacant land in the area of Perivola on Alexandras Avenue as its potential new ground. After long discussions with the Municipality of Athens, an agreement was reached and in 1922 Leoforos was granted to the club; the move to a permanent home ground heralded another—final—name change to Panathinaikos Athlitikos Omilos, "All-Athenian Athletic Club", on 15 March 1924, from now on a multi-sport club. However, the decision was taken by 1922. In 1926, the Hellenic Football Federation was founded and the first Greek Championship under its authority took place in 1927. Panathinaikos won undefeated the Championship of 1929–30 under the guidance of József Künsztler and Angelos Messaris as the team's star player. Other notable players of this Belle Époque period of the team were Antonis Migiakis, Diomidis Symeonidis, Mimis Pierrakos and Stefanos Pierrakos, amo