Valve Corporation is an American video game developer and digital distribution company headquartered in Bellevue, Washington. It is the developer of the software distribution platform Steam and the Half-Life, Counter-Strike, Day of Defeat, Team Fortress, Left 4 Dead, Dota 2 games. Valve was founded in 1996 by Mike Harrington, their debut product, the PC first-person shooter Half-Life, was released in 1998 to critical acclaim and commercial success, after which Harrington left the company. In 2003, Valve launched Steam, which accounted for around half of digital PC game sales by 2011. By 2012, Valve employed around 250 people and was worth over US$3 billion, making it the most profitable company per employee in the United States. In 2015, Valve entered the game hardware market with the Steam Machine, a line of third-party built gaming PCs running Valve's SteamOS operating system. Valve was founded by former longtime Microsoft employees Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington on August 24, 1996, as Valve, L.
L. C. based in Washington. Alternative names explored by Newell and Harrington include "Fruitfly Ensemble" and "Rhino Scar". Harrington left the company in 2000. In 2003, the company moved from its original location to Bellevue, re-incorporated as Valve Corporation. In 2010, the office was moved again to a larger location in Bellevue. In 2016, Valve signed a nine-floor lease in the Lincoln Square complex in downtown Bellevue, doubling the size of their offices. For its first product, Valve settled on a concept for a horror first-person shooter using a modified Quake engine licensed from id Software known as GoldSrc. Half-Life was released in November 1998, it was praised by numerous publications as one of the best and most influential games of all time. The Team Fortress Classic mod, a port of the original Team Fortress mod for Quake, was released for Half-Life in 1999. Gearbox Software created the expansion packs Opposing Force, Blue Shift, Decay, ported the game to PlayStation 2. A port to Dreamcast was canceled in 2001.
After the success of Half-Life, the team worked on mods, spin-offs, sequels, including Half-Life 2. All current Valve games are built on its Source engine; the company has developed six game series: Half-Life, Team Fortress, Counter-Strike, Left 4 Dead and Day of Defeat. Valve is noted for its support of its games' modding community, most prominently, Counter-Strike, Team Fortress, Day of Defeat. Valve has branched out with this tradition to continue developing Dota 2 as the standalone sequel to the Warcraft III mod; each of these games began as a third-party mod that Valve developed into a full game. They distribute community mods on Steam. Valve announced the Source 2 engine in March 2015 porting the entirety of Dota 2 to the engine in September of that year. Valve has grown both in commercial value. In January 2008, they announced the acquisition of Turtle Rock Studios, which would be renamed Valve South. Turtle Rock Studios spun out of Valve again in March 2010. In April 2010, the company won The Escapist Magazine's March Mayhem tournament for the best developer of 2010, beating out Zynga in the semi-finals and BioWare in the final.
In December 2012, Valve acquired Star Filled Studios, a two-man gaming company, to open a San Francisco office. However, Valve ended the operation in August 2013 when it was decided that there was little benefit coming from the arrangement. In April 2018, Valve acquired the independent developer Campo Santo, known for the 2016 adventure game Firewatch. Campo Santo will continue to develop its own titles under Valve. Valve's internal network has been infiltrated by hackers three times, in 2003 where content of the yet to be released Half-Life 2 was leaked onto the internet, Newell's email account was compromised, keyloggers were installed on several Valve systems. In 2011 the Steam customer databases and forums were compromised. In September 2011, a hacker broke into the network and downloaded the beta code of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3. In June 2014, a developer from SCS Software reported an exploit that allowed announcement pages to be injected with code, after no response, he edited an announcement to redirect users to a Harlem Shake video.
In March 2016, a vulnerability on the Steam Store allowed a user to publish a game without any authorization from Valve. Valve has developed and published the main games in both the Half-Life and Portal series, as well as published both and developed one of the Left 4 Dead games, the other of, developed by Valve South. Valve developed and published Team Fortress, Team Fortress 2, Dota 2, Artifact. Several of Valve's series feature only two primary games, such as Half-Life and Half-Life 2. With no apparent announcements of a third title in these series, Valve has acquired a joking reputation for being unable to count to 3. In the absence of an official announcement of a Half-Life 3, players and journalists have claimed to have found proof that a sequel remained under active development, many of which have been revealed as hoaxes or leaks of dubious authenticity. Unreleased and cancelled games include a fairy-themed role-playing game and Stars of Blood. Valve worked with Arkane Studios on The Crossing, canceled in May 2009.
Arkane tried to develop Return to Ravenholm without consent by Valve, canceled. Valve announced Steam, its digital distribution software platfor
2003 in art
The year 2003 in art involves various significant events. January 21 – The Spire of Dublin is completed. May 11 – Benvenuto Cellini's Saliera is stolen from the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. June 15-November 2 - A record number of seven co-curators is involved in the 50th edition of the Venice Biennale, directed by Francesco Bonami. November – Gustav Klimt's Landhaus am Attersee sells for $29,128,000. December 25 – Beagle 2 lands on the surface of Mars. Date unknown - Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design takes over the Byam Shaw School of Art. Jim Sanborn, Critical Assembly, Corcoran School of Art Patti Smith, Strange Messenger, The Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh Archibald Prize – Geoffrey Dyer, a portrait of Richard Flanagan Beck's Futures – Rosalind Nashashibi Schock Prize in Visual Arts – Susan Rothenberg Turner Prize – Grayson Perry The Venice Biennale - The Lion d'Or Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement: Michelangelo Pistoletto and Carol Rama The Lion d'or for best artwork in the main exhibition: Fischli and Weiss The Lion d'Or for Best Pavilion: Sun-Mei Tse Wynne Prize – Tim Kyle, Seated Figure Eco-Earth Globe, Oregon Jake and Dinos Chapman – Insult to Injury Tony Cragg – Stainless Steel Pillar Cornelia Parker – The Distance: Subconscious of a Monument 20 January – Al Hirschfeld, American caricaturist.
21 January – Tony O'Malley, Irish painter. 27 January – Louis Archambault, Canadian sculptor. 2 February – Emerson Woelffer, American painter. 10 February – Edgar de Evia, Mexican-born American photographer. 14 March – Jack Goldstein, Canadian-born American performance and conceptual artist turned painter. 9 April – Jorge Oteiza, Spanish sculptor, painter and writer. 16 April – Graham Stuart Thomas, English horticultural artist and garden designer. 23 April – Fernand Fonssagrives, French photographer. 25 April – Lynn Chadwick, 88, English sculptor 29 May – Pierre Restany, French art critic and cultural philosopher. 7 June – Georges Pichard, French comics artist. 11 July - Dorothy Miller, 99, American curator. 15 August – Kirk Varnedoe, American art historian and curator. 21 August – Wesley Willis, American artist and musician. 29 August – Vladimír Vašíček, Czech painter. 1 September – Terry Frost, English artist noted for his abstracts. 3 October – William Steig, American cartoonist and author. 16 October – Avni Arbaş, Turkish artist.
9 November – Mario Merz, Italian artist. 4 December – David Vaughan, English psychedelic artist and muralist. 15 December – George Fisher, American political cartoonist. 17 December – Wally Hedrick, American artist
True Crime: Streets of LA
True Crime: Streets of LA is a 2003 open world action-adventure video game developed by Luxoflux for PlayStation 2, Xbox and GameCube. It was ported to Windows by LTI Gray Matter, to mobile by MFORMA, to OS X by Aspyr, it was published for all systems by Activision, except the OS X version, published by Aspyr. The PlayStation 2, Xbox and GameCube versions were released in November 2003, the PC version in May 2004, the mobile version in November 2004 and the OS X version in March 2005; the game tells the story of Nicholas Kang, an uncompromising Los Angeles police officer, recruited into the Elite Operations Division in order to investigate a series of bombings in Chinatown. As he delves further into the case, he discovers it may be connected to the disappearance of his police-officer father twenty years previously; the game features a 240-square-mile re-creation of a large part of Los Angeles, including most of Beverly Hills and Santa Monica, with most street names and highways reproduced accurately.
True Crime received mixed to positive reviews. Common criticisms were graphical and technical problems, an unlikable protagonist, poorly implemented gameplay. Many critics, praised the ambitious nature of the game, the differentiation between itself and Grand Theft Auto III, the branching storyline system and the overall'feel'; the game was a commercial success, selling over three million units worldwide across all platforms, the True Crime franchise continued in 2005, with the release of True Crime: New York City for PlayStation 2, Xbox and GameCube. True Crime is an open world action-adventure game played from a third-person perspective, in which the player controls Detective Nicholas Kang of the "Elite Operations Division", a hand-picked autonomous unit of the regular LAPD; the game was one of the first non-Grand Theft Auto open world action-adventure games released after Grand Theft Auto III in 2001, and, as such, was labeled by many as a Grand Theft Auto clone, as the core game mechanics are identical to Grand Theft Auto III, its 2002 successor, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City – the player can travel across the city commandeer vehicles, do whatever they want in terms of attacking and/or killing innocent civilians, progress through the storyline at their own leisure, spending as much time traversing the city as they wish.
However, the major difference from Grand Theft Auto games is that in True Crime, the player controls a law enforcement officer. As such, True Crime has been called "the GTA III clone where you play a cop."The game involves four main types of mission, each with their own unique gameplay. In many levels of the game if missions are failed, the storyline will continue, sometimes with a different opening cutscene for the next level, sometimes with an alternate version of the level by branching into an different storyline. During shooting missions, the game auto-targets the closest opponent. If the player wishes to switch target to another opponent, they must do so manually; when the player is in shooting mode, they can enter "Precision Targeting" at any time. At this point, the game switches to first-person, zooms in on the target, goes into slow motion momentarily. While in Precision Targeting, if the targeting reticule turns green, the player can hit the enemy with a neutralizing, non-lethal shot.
If the player fires when the reticule is red, the enemy will be killed instantly. Players can take cover during shootouts, firing from behind cover when the opportunity presents itself. Players are free to pick up any weapons dropped by enemies. Once the ammo of these weapons is depleted, Kang will drop the weapon and revert to his standard issue revolver, although it does need to be reloaded, never runs out of ammo. In hand-to-hand combat, the player has four main attacks. After hitting an enemy a certain number of times, the enemy will be stunned, at which point the player can perform a combo by pressing a series of buttons. During stealth missions, the player is automatically placed into stealth mode; the player can either knock them out or kill them. Bumping into objects or walking over broken glass or plastic bags will cause nearby enemies to become aware of the player's presence. Driving missions can involve either trying to catch another car, escape from another car or tailing another car.
At all times, when the player is in a car, their car's condition is shown on screen. If the car's health meter empties, the car is close to destruction; when another car is involved, that car's health meter will be shown on-screen. When the player is tailing another car, a "Tail meter" will appear on-screen, with three sections and a moving arrow. If the arrow is in the top section, it must back off. If the arrow is in the bottom section, it must speed up; as such, the player must try to keep the arrow in the middle section as much as possible. During normal driving missions, the player can solve random crimes given by the radio dispatcher; the player can access 24/7 facilities throughout the game to upgrade either their driving, fighting or shooting abilities. 24/7 facilities are only accessible if the player has an available "badge." Badges are earned by acquiring "Reward points". Entry into a 24/7 facility costs one badge, the player must complete a challenge to earn the upgrade. If they fail, they must spend another badge to try again.
Rewards points are necessary for the player to heal themselves at a pharmacy or have their car repaired at a garage.
Sony Interactive Entertainment
Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC is a multinational video game and digital entertainment company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the central hub for the American businesses under the Japanese conglomerate Sony Corporation. The company was founded in Tokyo and established on November 16, 1993, as Sony Computer Entertainment, to handle Sony's venture into video game development through its PlayStation brand. Since the successful launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994, the company has been developing the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles and accessories. Expanding into North America and other countries, the company became Sony's main resource for research and development in video games and interactive entertainment. In April 2016, SCE and Sony Network Entertainment International was restructured and reorganized into Sony Interactive Entertainment, carrying over the operations and primary objectives from both companies; the same year, SIE moved its headquarters from Tokyo to California.
Sony Interactive Entertainment handles the research and development and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation video game systems. SIE is a developer and publisher of video game titles, operates several subsidiaries in Sony's largest markets: North America and Asia. By August 2018, the company had sold more than 525 million PlayStation consoles worldwide. Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company's ventures into the video game industry. The original PlayStation console was released on December 1994, in Japan; the company's North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America, were established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, the North American office was headed by Steve Race. In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All video game marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica to Foster City.
On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish; this proved to be the beginning of a run of exceptional managerial turnover, with SCEA going through four presidents in a single year. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995; as part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA and Sony Computer Entertainment Europe were both re-established as wholly owned subsidiaries of SCEI. The launch of the second PS console, the PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, the U. S. on October 26, 2000. On July 1, 2002, chairman of SCEI, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were promoted to senior vice presidents of SCE; the PlayStation Portable was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, it was unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004.
The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI, it became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008. On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006, video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, tentatively named "PlayStation Network Platform" and called just PlayStation Network.
Sony stated that the service would always be connected and include multiplayer support. The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at the Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, California, on May 8, 2006; the PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, the U. S. date was November 17, 2006. The PSN was launched in November 2006. On November 30, 2006, president of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as chairman of SCEI, while Hirai president of SCEA, was promoted to president of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as chairman of SCEI and group CEO, passing on his duties to the appointed president of SCE, Hirai. On September 20, 2007, video game developers Evolution Studios and Bigbig Studios, creators of the MotorStorm series, were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, president and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post.
He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as chairman of SCEE in 2003, president in 2005. His role of president and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990; the PSP Go was released on October 1
Fatal Frame, titled Zero in Japan and Project Zero in Europe, is a survival horror video game series created and developed by Koei Tecmo, co-owned by Koei Tecmo and Nintendo. Debuting in 2001 with the first entry in the series for the PlayStation 2, the series consists of five main entries; the series is set in 1980s Japan, with each entry focusing on a location beset by hostile supernatural events. In each scenario, the characters involved in the present investigation use Camera Obscura, objects created by Dr. Kunihiko Asou that can capture and pacify spirits; the series draws on staple elements of Japanese horror, is noted for its frequent use of female protagonists. The series was conceived by Keisuke Kikuchi. After being introduced to the PlayStation 2 hardware and after the success of the Silent Hill series, the pair decided to develop a horror series inspired by Shibata's own spiritual experiences and popular Japanese horror films of the time, their main goal was to make the most frightening game experience possible.
Installments have refined the gameplay mechanics while adding more complex narrative elements. The series has received critical acclaim, being ranked alongside other horror series including Resident Evil and Silent Hill series, while individual games have been ranked among the best survival horror games in existence. While the sales of individual games have never been high, the series as a whole has sold over one million copies worldwide as of April 2014. Multiple Japanese media adaptations have been made; as of 2014, the series consists of five mainline video games, not counting remakes, re-releases and spin-offs. The only main Fatal Frame title yet to be released in the west is the fourth entry. While a European release was planned, it was cancelled, no North American release was planned. A fan translation of the fourth game was released in 2010, which enabled the game to be played on any Wii system. Outside their international releases, the Fatal Frame games are not numbered; this was due to the series' creators considering each entry to be a standalone game, with minimal connections to previous titles.
The Fatal Frame IP is co-owned by Koei Tecmo and Nintendo, resulting in series titles since the fourth game only appearing on Nintendo consoles. The titular first entry in the series was released on the PlayStation 2 in 2001 in Japan and 2002 in North America and Europe; the second game, Fatal Frame II: Crimson Butterfly, was released again for PlayStation 2 in 2003 in Japan and North America, 2004 in Europe. Fatal Frame III: The Tormented released for the PlayStation 2 in 2005 for Japan and North America, 2006 in Europe. In 2008, Fatal Frame: Mask of the Lunar Eclipse released in Japan for the Wii, has not been released overseas; the fifth title, Fatal Frame: Maiden of Black Water, was released for the Wii U in 2014 in Japan and 2015 in North America and Australia. The first two titles have received expanded re-releases. An expanded port of the original game was released for the Xbox in 2002 in Japan and 2003 in Western territories, it featured gameplay refinements and a new difficulty setting.
For Crimson Butterfly, a "Director's Cut" for the Xbox was released in 2004 in Japan and North America, 2005 in Europe. A new expanded remake for the Wii was released in Japan and Europe in 2012. A mobile title, Real Zero, was released in 2004 for DoCoMo mobile devices; the game involves users taking pictures of their environments and superimposing ghost images somewhere in the frame. Seventy different ghosts were available to collect, with each new ghost triggering the sending of an email to provide clues for finding the next ghost or other messages; the game's service was terminated in 2011. A spin-off for the Nintendo 3DS, Spirit Camera, was released in all regions in 2012; the story follows a girl named Maya, trapped in a haunted house controlled by a mysterious woman in black, seeks to escape the woman's control. To commemorate the release of Crimson Butterfly, a special interactive attraction titled Zero4D opened in 2004, it featured movie scenes designed by the same team behind the CGI movies for Crimson Butterfly.
A manga based on the series written by Shin Kibayashi, Fatal Frame: Shadow Priestess, was released in both Japanese and English through DeNA's website in July 2014. A Japanese live-action movie directed by Mari Asato for Kadokawa Pictures was released in cinemas in 2014; the novel it was based on, Fatal Frame: A Curse Affecting Only Girls by Eiji Ohtsuka, was released a few months prior to the movie. A Hollywood film adaptation of the first game, Fatal Frame, was announced in 2003. Robert Fyvolent and Mark R. Brinker were hired as the project's writers, John Rogers was hired as its producer; the title was being produced by DreamWorks. That year, it was announced that Steven Spielberg was helping Rogers to polish the game's script, that sessions to find a director and cast the movie would follow. In 2014 alongside the formal announcement of Maiden of Black Water, it was confirmed that the Hollywood film was still planned. Now produced by Samuel Hadida, it is set to begin production after the completion and release of the game.
The gameplay has remained consistent through the series' lifetime. Each environment is filled with ghosts, with separate games having different attack behaviors for them. While navigating these environments, the main character's only means of defense is the Camera Obscura, which can be used to damage ghosts, capturing them on film and pacifying them; when using the camera, the view switches from a third-person to a first-person perspective. The camera locks onto a ghost, with the amount of damage dealt depending on how much of a focus the
Steven Allan Spielberg is an American filmmaker. He is considered one of the founding pioneers of the New Hollywood era and one of the most popular directors and producers in film history. Spielberg started in Hollywood directing television and several minor theatrical releases, he became a household name as the director of Jaws, critically and commercially successful and is considered the first summer blockbuster. His subsequent releases focused on science fiction and adventure films, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, the Indiana Jones series, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park are seen as archetypes of modern Hollywood escapist filmmaking. Spielberg transitioned into addressing serious issues in his work with The Color Purple, Empire of the Sun, Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan, he has adhered to this practice during the 21st century, with Munich, Bridge of Spies, The Post. He co-founded Amblin Entertainment and DreamWorks Studios, where he has served as a producer for several successful films, including the Gremlins, Back to the Future, Men in Black, the Transformers series.
He transitioned into producing several games within the video-game industry. Spielberg is one of the American film industry's most critically successful filmmakers, with praise for his directing talent and versatility, he has won the Academy Award for Best Director twice; some of his movies are among the highest-grossing movies of all-time, while his total work makes him the highest-grossing film director in history. His net worth is estimated to be more than $3 billion. Spielberg was born on December 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio, his mother, was a restaurateur and concert pianist, his father, Arnold Spielberg, was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. His family was Orthodox Jewish. Spielberg's paternal grandparents were Jewish Ukrainian immigrants who settled in Cincinnati in the 1900s. In 1950, his family moved to Haddon Township, New Jersey, when his father took a job with RCA. Three years the family moved to Phoenix, Arizona. Spielberg attended Hebrew school from 1953 in classes taught by Rabbi Albert L. Lewis.
As a child, Spielberg faced difficulty reconciling being an Orthodox Jew with the perception of him by other children he played with. "It isn't something I enjoy admitting," he once said, "but when I was seven, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents' Jewish practices. I was never ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times." Spielberg said he suffered from acts of anti-Semitic prejudice and bullying: "In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses, it was horrible." At age 12, he made his first home movie: a train wreck involving his toy Lionel trains. Throughout his early teens, after entering high school, Spielberg continued to make amateur 8 mm "adventure" films. In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badge by making a nine-minute 8 mm film entitled The Last Gunfight. Years Spielberg recalled to a magazine interviewer, "My dad's still-camera was broken, so I asked the scoutmaster if I could tell a story with my father's movie camera.
He said yes, I got an idea to do a Western. I got my merit badge; that was how it all started." At age 13, while living in Phoenix, Spielberg won a prize for a 40-minute war film he titled Escape to Nowhere... using a cast composed of other high school friends. That motivated him to make 15 more amateur 8 mm films; some of the films he cited as early influences that he grew up watching include the Godzilla kaiju film King of the Monsters, which he called "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was happening", as well as titles such as Captains Courageous and Lawrence of Arabia. In 1963, at age 16, Spielberg wrote and directed his first independent film, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight, which would inspire Close Encounters; the film was made for $500, most of which came from his father, was shown in a local cinema for one evening, which earned back its cost. After attending Arcadia High School in Phoenix for three years, his family next moved to Saratoga, where he graduated from Saratoga High School in 1965.
He attained the rank of Eagle Scout. His parents divorced while he was still in school, soon after he graduated Spielberg moved to Los Angeles, staying with his father, his long-term goal was to become a film director. His three sisters and mother remained in Saratoga. In Los Angeles, he applied to the University of Southern California's film school, but was turned down because of his "C" grade average, he applied and was admitted to California State University, Long Beach, where he became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity. While still a student, he was offered a small unpaid intern job at Universal Studios with the editing department, he was given the opportunity to make a short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute, 35 mm, Amblin', which he wrote and directed. Studio vice president Sidney Sheinberg was impressed by the film, which had won a number of awards, offered Spielberg a seven-year directing contract, it made him the youngest director to be signed for a long-term deal with a major Hollywood studio.
He subsequently dropped out of college to begin pro
Take-Two Interactive Software, Inc. is an American video game holding company based in New York City. The company owns two major publishing labels, Rockstar Games, 2K, itself composed of two divisions: 2K Games and 2K Sports, all of which own and operate various game development studios. Take-Two's portfolio includes numerous successful video game series across personal computer and video game consoles, including BioShock, Civilization, Grand Theft Auto, NBA 2K, Red Dead, XCOM; as of March 2018, it is the third-largest publicly traded game company in the Americas and Europe after Activision Blizzard and Electronic Arts, with an estimated market cap of US$13 billion. Take-Two was founded by Ryan Brant in September 1993, looking to become a major publisher in the video game area; the company went public in April 1997, acquired the publisher and developer behind Grand Theft Auto, through which it formed Rockstar Games and Rockstar North and leading to their long-standing "label" structure. From 2003 to 2005, the company fell under investigation by the Security and Exchange Commission related to corporate and personal financial fraud after going public that led to Brant resigning by 2006 alongside the departures of other former executives and board members.
As a result of this mismanagement, the company's majority shareholders led a takeover of Take-Two in March 2007, replacing them with Strauss Zelnick as the new Chairman and CEO. Take-Two subsequently rejected a US$1.9 billion buy-out from Electronic Arts in 2008. Since the company has continued to grow through acquisitions and creation of new studios. More Take-Two created the label Private Division to support publishing from independent developers, acquired the developer Social Point to establish itself in the mobile game market; the company owns 50% of professional esports organization NBA 2K League. Take-Two Interactive was founded on September 30, 1993, by Ryan Brant, the son of Interview co-owner Peter Brant. While Brant had worked for his father on business matters for Interview, he wanted to forge his own path, deciding to create a video game publishing company. Brant stated "I wanted to get into a business. In technology people expect you to be a younger person." An initial US$1.5 million in funding was established from family and private investors to launch the company.
Take-Two found its first major success within games that included full motion video with well-known live actors performing the parts, following the success that Mechadeus had with The Daedalus Encounter which featured Tia Carrere. Take-Two hired Dennis Hopper, among others, to star in parts for Hell: A Cyberpunk Thriller, which sold over 300,000 copies over the following year and established profit for the company; this was followed by Ripper, of which US$625,000 of its US$2.5 million budget was used to hire actors such as Christopher Walken, Karen Allen, Burgess Meredith. The success of both these games, as well as earlier titles, led to a publishing agreement between Take-Two and Acclaim Entertainment to publish Take-Two's titles, as well as obtaining overseas distribution. Take-Two secured a license with Sony Computer Entertainment to publish on the PlayStation line of consoles. Around 1996, the company was making about US$10 million, but Brant wanted to further expand the company, made its first acquisition of Mission Studios and publishing its JetFighter III game in 1996.
Brant decided to secure additional funds for acquisition by taking the company public. The company completed its initial public offering on April 15, 1997, being listed under the ticker symbol TTWO on the NASDAQ stock exchange. From the IPO, the company gained about US$6.5 million along with US$4 million on venture fund promissory notes. The additional funds allowed Take-Two to acquire GameTek's European operations, their interal Alternative Reality Technology studio, which included GameTek Canada, the distribution rights to GameTek's Dark Colony, Jeopardy! and Wheel of Fortune games. Additionally, the company acquired Inventory Management Systems, Creative Alliance Group, Alliance Inventory Management, three video game distribution companies that would help extend Take-Two's reach into the retail market. In March 1998, Take-Two acquired BMG Interactive, the dormant video game publishing division of BMG Entertainment, for 1.85 million shares, worth about US$14.2 million. In the previous year, the United Kingdom-based DMA Design and BMG Entertainment had just released Grand Theft Auto, while it financially performed well but was not a critical success in Europe, it had sparked controversy over the use of violence in video games, with United States Senator Joe Lieberman speaking out against it.
Seeing the opportunity to capture attention on the game, Brant had initiated the acquisition of BMG as to acquire the Grand Theft Auto property, at the same time, contacted BMG's Sam and Dan Houser, Terry Donovan, Jamie King to found a new label within Take-Two, called Rockstar Games for which to develop more titles like it. Electronic Arts' 2008 CEO, John Riccitiello, stated that, with the establishing of Rockstar, Take-Two invented the "label" corporate structure, which EA would follow into in 2008. With the rights to Grand Theft Auto, Take-Two expanded its publication into North America, the game became Take-Two's first finanicial success with over 1.5 million copies sold. Take-Two began taking on distribution capabilities, acquiring various distribution firms such as DirectSoft Australia for the Oceania market. Notably, in August 1998, Take-Two acquired Jack of All Games, an Am