2004 Democratic Party presidential primaries
The 2004 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 2004 U. S. presidential election. Senator John Kerry of Massachusetts was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 2004 Democratic National Convention held from July 26 to July 29, 2004, in Boston, Massachusetts. Kerry went on to lose the general election on November 2, 2004, to incumbent Republican President George W. Bush. Ten candidates vied for the nomination, including retired four-star general Wesley Clark, former Vermont Governor Howard Dean, Senators John Edwards and John Kerry. For most of 2003, Howard Dean had been the apparent front-runner for the nomination, performing in most polls and leading the pack in fund-raising. However, Kerry won the Iowa caucuses and New Hampshire primary, which gave him enough momentum to carry the majority of the rest of the states.
According to exit polls taking during the Iowa Caucuses, the top 4 issues were ranked as follows: Economy/Jobs Health Care/Medicine The war in Iraq Education Despite being characterized by many as an election on Iraq, the economy and jobs were cited as voters' top or one of top three concerns during the course of the primary season. In Iowa, of those who cited the economy as their most important issue, 34% supported Kerry, while 33% supported Edwards, with Dean trailing at 16% and Gephardt at 12%. Eventual nominee John Kerry, much like other Democrats adopted policy stances of tax-cuts for the middle class, increased spending for Social Security, assisting small businesses. On the aspect of job creation, Kerry supported the creation and safety of infrastructure-related jobs, like those in the railroad industry. During the course of the primary Kerry continued to advocate positions such as fiscal responsibility and end state fiscal crises by giving states increased fiscal aid. Runner up John Edwards ran a position of support for the middle class as well as budget caps and enforcement.
Opposing Social Security privatization, interested in middle class tax cuts, Edwards's main economic theme was support for the middle class touting his own struggle, growing up the son of a poor mill worker in South Carolina. Another major component of Edwards's message was to be able to reinstate fiscal responsibility. Howard Dean, despite taking many of the same positions of his rivals including Edwards and Kerry, had a starkly different approach on the issue of Social Security and tax cuts. On taxes, Dean favored repealing the Bush Tax cuts not only for the wealthiest of Americans as Senator Edwards and Senator Kerry proposed, but for all, including middle and lower classes. After the 9/11 attacks, the Bush administration argued that the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq had now become urgent. Over the course of several months, Bush presented several premises for war, but the turning point was that Saddam's regime had tried to acquire nuclear material and had not properly accounted for biological and chemical material it was known to have possessed, potential weapons of mass destruction in violation of U.
N. sanctions. This situation escalated to the point that the United States assembled a group of about forty nations, including the United Kingdom, Spain and Poland, which Bush called the "coalition of the willing", to invade Iraq; the coalition invaded Iraq on March 20, 2003. Most contenders for the nomination were supportive of the effort. Only Dean and Kucinich questioned the aims and tactics of the administration, setting themselves apart in the eyes of war protesters. However, speaking before an audience in Peterborough, New Hampshire, John Kerry said, "We need a regime change not just in Iraq. We need a regime change here in the United States." Republicans criticized Kerry for speaking out against a wartime president. The invasion was swift, with the collapse of the Iraq government and the military of Iraq in about three weeks; the oil infrastructure of Iraq was secured with limited damage in that time. On May 1, George W. Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat in the Iraq war.
Visible in the background was a banner stating "Mission Accomplished". Bush's landing was criticized by opponents as being overly expensive; the banner, made by White House personnel and placed there by the U. S. Navy, was criticized as premature. Nonetheless, Bush's approval rating in the month of May rode at 66%, according to a CNN-USA Today-Gallup poll. On May 3, 2003, Democrats met at the University of South Carolina in the first formal debate between the nine challengers for the nomination; the candidates disagreed on the war against Iraq, health insurance, President Bush's tax cuts, but united in criticizing Bush's handling of the economy. On May 31, 2002, Vermont Governor Howard Dean formed a presidential exploratory committee. Though this was two years before the Iowa Caucus, Dean hoped the early start would give him some much needed name recognition; as a governor of a small state, Dean was not well known outside of New England. In December of that year, John F. Kerry, U. S. senator from Massachusetts, announced on NBC's Meet the Press his plans to form an exploratory committee for a possible 2004 presidential run, anticipating a formal announcement "down the road some months".
Kerry's experience as a decorated Vietnam veteran generated some excitement among Democrats tired of being on the defensive about their candidates' suitability in the role of "commander in chief". Two weeks later
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
1844 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 1844 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place between November 1 and December 4, 1844, as part of the 1844 United States presidential election. Voters chose thirteen representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President. Tennessee voted for the Whig candidate, Henry Clay, over Democratic candidate James K. Polk, a former Governor of Tennessee. Clay won Tennessee by a margin of 0.10%
Dennis John Kucinich is an American politician. A former U. S. Representative from Ohio, serving from 1997 to 2013, he was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2004 and 2008 Presidential elections, he was a candidate for Governor of Ohio in the 2018 election, losing in the primary to Richard Cordray. From 1977 to 1979, Kucinich served as the 53rd Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, a tumultuous term in which he survived a recall election and was successful in a battle against selling the municipal electric utility before being defeated for reelection by George Voinovich; because of redistricting following the 2010 state elections, Kucinich was pitted against 9th District incumbent Marcy Kaptur in the 2012 race for the Democratic nomination of Ohio's 9th congressional district absorbed part of Cuyahoga County, which he lost. In January 2013, he became a contributor on the Fox News Channel, appearing on programs such as The O'Reilly Factor. Kucinich was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 8, 1946, as the eldest of the seven children of Virginia and Frank J. Kucinich.
His father, a truck driver, was of Croat ancestry. Growing up, his family moved 21 times and Dennis was charged with the responsibility of finding apartments they could afford, he attended Cleveland State University from 1967 to 1970. In 1973, he graduated from Case Western Reserve University with both a Bachelor and a Master of Arts degree in speech and communication. Kucinich's political career began in 1967. In 1969, Kucinich was elected to the Cleveland City Council at the age of twenty-three. In 1972, Kucinich ran for a House of Representatives seat, losing narrowly to incumbent Republican William E. Minshall Jr. After Minshall's retirement in 1974 Kucinich sought the seat again, this time failing to get the Democratic nomination, which instead went to Ronald M. Mottl. Kucinich ran as an Independent candidate in the general election, placing third with about 30% of the vote. In 1975, Kucinich became clerk of the municipal court in Cleveland and served in that position for two years. Kucinich was elected Mayor of Cleveland in 1977 and served in that position until 1979.
At thirty-one years of age, he was the youngest mayor of a major city in the United States, earning him the nickname "the boy mayor of Cleveland". Kucinich's tenure as mayor is regarded as one of the most tumultuous in Cleveland's history. After Kucinich refused to sell Municipal Light, Cleveland's publicly owned electric utility, the Cleveland mafia put out a hit on Kucinich. A hit man from Maryland planned to shoot him in the head during the Columbus Day Parade, but the plot fell apart when Kucinich was hospitalized and missed the event; when the city fell into default shortly thereafter, the mafia leaders called off the contract killer. It was the Cleveland Trust Company that required all of the city's debts be paid in full, which forced the city into default, after news of Kucinich's refusal to sell the city utility. For years, these debts were rolled over, pending future payment, until Kucinich's announcement was made public. In 1998, the Cleveland City Council honored him for having had the "courage and foresight" to stand up to the banks, which saved the city an estimated $195 million between 1985 and 1995.
After losing his re-election bid for Mayor to George Voinovich in 1979, Kucinich kept a low profile in Cleveland politics. He criticized a tax referendum proposed by Voinovich in 1980, which voters approved, he struggled to find employment and moved to Los Angeles, where he stayed with a friend, actress Shirley MacLaine. During the next three years, Kucinich worked as a radio talk-show host and consultant, it was a difficult period for Kucinich financially. Without a steady paycheck, Kucinich fell behind in his mortgage payments, nearly lost his house in Cleveland, ended up borrowing money from friends, including MacLaine, to keep it. On his 1982 income tax return, Kucinich reported an income of $38; when discussing this period, Kucinich stated, "When I was growing up in Cleveland, my early experience conditioned me to hang in there and not to quit... It's one thing to experience that as a child, but when you have to as an adult, it has a way to remind you how difficult things can be. You understand what people go through."In 1982, Kucinich moved back to Cleveland and ran for Secretary of State.
In 1983, Kucinich won a special election to fill the seat of a Cleveland city councilman who had died. His brother, Gary Kucinich, was a councilman at the time. In 1985, there was some speculation. Instead, his brother Gary ran against the incumbent Voinovich. Kucinich, gave up his council position to run for Governor of Ohio as an independent against Richard Celeste, but withdrew from the race. After this, Kucinich, in his own words "on a quest for meaning," lived in New Mexico until 1994, when he won a seat in the Ohio State Senate. In 1996, Kucinich was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, representing the 10th district of Ohio, he defeated two-term Republican incumbent Martin Hoke by three percentage points. He would never face another general election contest nearly that close, would be re-elected seven times. Committee on Education and the Workforce Subcommittee on Workforce Protections Subcommittee on Health, Employment and Pensions Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs, Stimulus Oversight and Government Spending Kucinich served as chair of the Congress
2008 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 2008 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 4, 2008, was part of the 2008 United States presidential election. Voters chose 11 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Tennessee was won by Republican nominee John McCain by 15.06 percentage points. Prior to the election, 17 news organizations considered Tennessee a win for McCain. Early polling in Tennessee gave a solid edge to McCain over Democrat Barack Obama by up to a 20-point margin; the expected "landslide" by McCain in Tennessee meant. Most news organizations called Tennessee for McCain as soon as all the polls in the state closed. McCain improved upon George W. Bush's performance in 2004, a much better year nationally for the Republicans; this was the first time since 1960 when Tennessee did not back the overall winning candidate in a presidential election and the most recent presidential election as of 2016 in which the Democratic candidate received more than 40% of the vote.
Moreover, this was the most recent presidential election as of 2016 where both Jackson and Houston Counties voted for the Democrat. 2008 Tennessee Democratic primary 2008 Tennessee Republican primary There were 16 news organizations who made state-by-state predictions of the election. Here are their last predictions before election day: D. C. Political Report: Republican Cook Political Report: Solid Republican Takeaway: Solid McCain Electoral-vote.com: Strong Republican Washington Post: Solid McCain Politico: Solid McCain Real Clear Politics: Solid McCain FiveThirtyEight.com: Solid McCain CQ Politics: Safe Republican New York Times: Solid Republican CNN: Safe Republican NPR: Solid McCain MSNBC: Solid McCain Fox News: Republican Associated Press: Republican Rasmussen Reports: Safe Republican McCain won every single pre-election poll, each by a double-digit margin of victory. The final 3 polls averaged McCain leading 55% to 40%. John McCain raised a total of $2,941,065 in the state. Barack Obama raised $3,481,341.
Obama spent $518,659. The Republican ticket spent just $3,526. Obama visited the state once. McCain visited the state twice, visiting Blountville. Despite narrowly voting for Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996 when native son Al Gore was on the ticket as Vice President, the state has been trending Republican since then. George W. Bush narrowly carried the state in 2000 over Tennessee native Gore and won in 2004 over John Kerry; the state was one of five states that swung more Republican in 2008 with John McCain soundly defeating Barack Obama in the Volunteer State. 2008 marked the first time since 1960 whereby the state was carried by the losing presidential candidate. McCain won both East Middle Tennessee by landslide margins. East Tennessee, a part of Appalachia, has voted Republican since the party was founded. Middle Tennessee voted for Bill Clinton of neighboring Arkansas, but Middle Tennessee native Al Gore narrowly lost the region in 2000—a loss that cost him Tennessee, the election. In contrast, it was one of the few regions in the country which voted more Republican than in 2004.
This is due to a growing social conservative trend in the region in the Nashville suburbs. On the other hand, Barack Obama did improve well upon John Kerry's performances in the traditionally Democratic cities of Nashville and Memphis. In the former, support amongst progressive whites led to a 3-2 victory for Obama in Davidson County. In Memphis, heavy African American turnout ensured him the largest margin in the state in Shelby County, although far from enough to outweigh his losses everywhere else in the state. McCain, carried the third- and fourth- most populated cities of Chattanooga in Hamilton County as well as Knoxville in Knox County. During the same election, at the state level, Republicans picked up four seats in the Tennessee House of Representatives and three seats in the Tennessee Senate to obtain control of both chambers of the state legislature for the first time since Reconstruction; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Houston County and Jackson County voted for the Democratic candidate or where the Democratic candidate won over a million votes.
John McCain swept the state and carried seven of the state's nine congressional districts, including three districts held by Democrats. Barack Obama carried the state's two congressional districts anchored by the two largest cities of Memphis and Nashville. Technically the voters of Tennessee cast their ballots for electors: representatives to the Electoral College. Tennessee is allocated 11 electors because it has 2 senators. All candidates who appear on the ballot or qualify to receive write-in votes must submit a list of 11 electors, who pledge to vote for their candidate and his or her running mate. Whoever wins the majority of votes in the state is awarded all 11 electoral votes, their chosen electors vote for president and vice president. Although electors are pledged to their candidate and running mate, they are not obligated to vote for them. An elector who votes for someone other than his or her candidate is known as a faithless elector; the electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 15, 2008, to cast their votes for president and vice president.
The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in
1856 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 1856 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 4, 1856, as part of the 1856 United States presidential election. Voters chose twelve representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Tennessee voted for the Democratic candidate, James Buchanan, over American Party candidate Millard Fillmore. Buchanan won Tennessee by a margin of 4.36%. Republican Party candidate John C. Frémont was not on the ballot in the state