Romania is a sovereign state located in Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea, Ukraine, Serbia and it has an area of 238,391 square kilometres and a temperate-continental climate. With over 19 million inhabitants, the country is the member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth-largest city in the EU, the River Danube, Europes second-longest river, rises in Germany and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romanias Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest are marked by one of their tallest peaks, modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877, at the end of World War I, Transylvania and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. Romania lost several territories, of which Northern Transylvania was regained after the war, following the war, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact.
After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards democracy and it has been a member of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. A strong majority of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are speakers of Romanian. The cultural history of Romania is often referred to when dealing with artists, inventors. For similar reasons, Romania has been the subject of notable tourist attractions, Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning citizen of Rome. The first known use of the appellation was attested in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, after the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a leader of the early 19th century. The use of the name Romania to refer to the homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861, in English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania.
Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975, Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. The Neolithic-Age Cucuteni area in northeastern Romania was the region of the earliest European civilization. Evidence from this and other sites indicates that the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture extracted salt from salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetage
FC Bihor Oradea
Fotbal Club Bihor Oradea is a Romanian football club based in Oradea, founded in 1958 and refounded in 2016. FC Bihor Oradea continued the tradition in Oradea after the dissolution of a much greater club. The club was founded under the name Crişul Oradea in 1958 and it has a short activity in the city championship and in the regional championship. In 1960 the team merged with the footwear factory Solidarity and, finishing first in the 1960–1961 regional championship, in 1961–1962 the team was renamed ASA Crişul, and finishes eleventh in the third series of the Divizia B, barely escaping relegation. The following season, 1962–1963, the finished first in the series. Coach L. Zilahi used the players, Bucur, Boros, Şchiopu, Donciu. Georgescu, Kuti, Osan, Podaru, Crişul played for three seasons in the first league, 1963–1964, 1964–1965 and 1965–1966, it relegated to the Divizia B where it played for two seasons, 1966–1967 and 1967–1968. In the summer of 1968 it qualified for the play-off, in Timișoara, after another two seasons in Divizia A, 1968–1969 and 1969–1970 it relegates, but returns the following season, 1970–1971, this time under the leadership of coach Ladislau Vlad.
The core team, Catona – Popovici, Bulc, Balogh, Dărăban, Neşu, substitutes, Cocoş, Ceauşu, Cociş, Ungur, Moţ. But again, after only one championship 1971–1972, 16th place relegation to the Divizia B comes, the clubs highly oscillating behavior imposed a series of organizational measures. It was organized as a club, new renamed Fotbal Club Bihor began in 1972 fighting for the return in the first league. It succeeds to do so at the end of the 1974–1975 season, coaches L. Vlad, R. Cosmoc and Gh. Staicu have led to the victory with the next 11, Albu – E. Naghi, Lucaci, Sărac, Popovici – Dărăban, A. Kun II, Florescu – Szucs, Aguda. Next, the remained at an average level of behavior in the Divizia A, finishing 9th 1975–76 and 1976–1977, 14th 1977–1978. The club management during this period, was provided by engineer Horea Cosma, coaches, V. Blujdea, by mid-season 1977–1978, replaced by I. Players used, Albu – Z. Naghi, Gh, Lucaci, Popovici, M. Marian, Dragoş, Naom, C. Georgescu, Petrovici, Lupău, V. Stoica, A.
Kun II, Ioan Naom, Organizer of Competitions, Romeo Paşcu, coaches, Gh. Dărăban and Attila Kun, Attila Kun and Alex, dumitrescu, Niţu, Tămaş, Mureşan, Doru Nicolae, Georgescu, Ion Gheorghe, Nedelcu, Kiss, Lazăr, Roateş
The city is nestled between the hills that separate and unify in a harmonious way with plain Crișana. Located on the banks of Crișul Repede River, that divides the city into almost equal halves, it is the gateway to Central, the city is located in the north-west of Romania. Located about 10 km from Borș, the most important crossing point on the west border, Oradea ranks tenth in size among Romanian cities and it lies as the area of transition from relief hills, to the Pannonian plain. City topoclimatic action is determined by the prevailing Western winds, climate is Temperate Continental, with some oceanic influences. The city lies at the point of the Crișana plain. It is situated 126 meters above sea level, surrounded on the part by the hills of Oradea. The main part of the settlement is situated on the floodplain, Oradea is famous for its thermal springs. The river Crişul Repede crosses the city right through the center and its flow depends on the season, the dykes near Tileagd have partly controlled it since they were built in the early 1980s.
Annual average temperature is 10.4 °C, in July the average is about 21 °C, while in January the average is 1.4 °C. Rainfall is enough to support the woods and vegetation of the zone, rainfall is variably distributed throughout the year, with a maximum in June and a minimum in the late Autumn and Winter months of the year. The Dacians and Celts inhabited the region, after the conquest of Dacia the Romans established a presence in the area, most notably in the Salca district of the city and modern day Băile Felix. The city flourished both economically and culturally during the 13th century as part of the Kingdom of Hungary and it was at this time that the Citadel of Oradea, first mentioned in 1241 during the Mongol invasion, was first built. It would be destroyed and rebuilt several times over the course of following centuries, the 14th and 15th centuries would prove to be of the most prosperous periods in the citys history up to that point. Many works of art would be added to the city, statues of St.
Stephen and Ladislaus, St. Ladislaus fabled statue was the first proto-renaissance public square equestrian in Europe. Bishop Andreas Báthori rebuilt the Cathedral in Gothic style, from that epoch dates the Hermes, now preserved at Győr, which contains the skull of St. Ladislaus, and which is a masterpiece of the Hungarian goldsmiths art. In 1474, the city was captured by the Turks after a protracted siege, after the Ottoman invasion of Hungary, in the 16th century, the city became a constant point of contention between the Principality of Transylvania, the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy. The Peace of Várad was concluded between Emperor Ferdinand I and John Zápolya here on 4 February 1538, in which they recognized each other as legitimate monarchs. Following Michael the Braves conquest of the Principality of Transylvania, the Ottomans sent an expedition that laid siege to the city in 1598
Craiova, Romanias 6th largest city and capital of Dolj County, is situated near the east bank of the river Jiu in central Oltenia. It is a political center, and is located at approximately equal distances from the Southern Carpathians. Craiova is the commercial city west of Bucharest and the most important city of Oltenia. The city prospered as a trading centre despite an earthquake in 1790, a plague in 1795. Eight villages are administered by the city, Făcăi, Popoveni, Șimnicu de Jos, Cernelele de Sus, Izvoru Rece, the last four were a separate commune called Cernele until 1996, when they were merged into the city. There are two etymologies for Craiova, Old Slavonic kral, which has been borrowed in Romania as crai. Since no source prior to 1475 mentions the city, its impossible to tell which of the two words is the real etymology, the name is probably of Bulgarian or Serbian origin, due to historical autochthonous minorities in the area. Craiova, which occupied the site of the Dacian and Roman city Pelendava, was formerly the capital of Oltenia and its ancient bans, the highest ranking boyars of the Wallachian state, were initially those of the Craioveşti family.
The bans had the right of minting coins stamped with their own effigies – the origin of the Romanian word ban as used for coins, the economic power of the Craioveşti family at the end of the 16th century was about 100 villages. This power gave them a statute of political autonomy so big, in 1395 Craiova was probably the scene of a victory won by the Wallachian Prince Mircea I of Wallachia over Bayezid I, Sultan of the Ottomans. Frequently referred to as a city after the first half of the 16th century, in 1761, under Prince Constantine Mavrocordatos, the bans relocated to Bucharest, leaving behind kaymakams to represent them in Craiova. Under Prince Emanuel Giani Ruset, Wallachias seat was moved to Craiova, a large part of the city was burned down by the rebel pasha Osman Pazvantoğlu in 1800. During the Wallachian uprising of 1821, inhabitants of the present-day Dolj County joined Tudor Vladimirescus Pandurs in great numbers, during the first two decades of the 19th century, Craiova witnessed economic prosperity, centered on handicraft trades and public services.
At the time, Craiova exported wheat, leather, live animals, costache Romanescu, a citizen of Craiova, was among the leaders of the Provisional Government during the 1848 Wallachian revolution. Wallachias last two rulers, Gheorghe Bibescu and Barbu Dimitrie Știrbei, came from an important boyar family residing in Craiova – the Bibescu family. Around 1860, there were 4,633 buildings in Craiova, the period following the Independence War was a time of economic and cultural progress. As a result, at the end of the 19th century, on October 26,1896, the Craiova power station entered service, Craiova was the first city in the country to be supplied with electric power by internal combustion engines. In 1900, Craiova had 43. 1% of the units of Oltenia