British Asians are persons of South Asian descent who reside in the United Kingdom. In British English usage, the term Asian refers to people with roots in South Asia the Indian subcontinent, i.e. modern countries of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Immigration of small numbers of South Asians to England began with the arrival of the East India Company to the Indian subcontinent in the 17th century. Indians came to Britain, for educational or economic reasons, during the British Raj, with most returning to India after a few months or years, in greater numbers as the Indian independence movement led to the partition of 1947 creating the separate countries of India and Bangladesh; the most significant wave of Asian immigration to and settlement in the United Kingdom came following World War II, the breakup of the British Empire and the independence of Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh during the 1950s and 1960s. An influx of Asian immigrants took place following the expulsion or flight of Indian communities from the newly independent Uganda and Tanzania in the early 1970s.
In Britain, the word "Asian" refers to people of South Asian ancestry. This usage contrasts to that in the United States, where it is used to refer to people of East Asian origin; the British Sociological Association's guidelines on equality and diversity suggest that "South Asian" is more precise than "Asian", that the latter should not be used where there is a risk of it conflating South Asians with people from elsewhere in Asia. The United Kingdom Census 1991 was the first to include a question on ethnicity; the question had tick-boxes for "Indian", "Pakistani" and "Bangladeshi". There was a tick box, as well as a general "Any other ethnic group" option for those not wishing to identify with any of the pre-set tick boxes. For the 2001 Census, in England and Wales, "Indian", "Pakistani" and "Bangladeshi" and "Any other Asian background" options were grouped under an "Asian or Asian British" heading, with appearing under a separate heading. In Scotland, all of these tick-boxes were grouped together under an "Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British " heading, in Northern Ireland no broad headings were used, just tick-boxes for each of the Asian groups.
The 2011 Census questionnaire was more consistent with regard to the grouping of Asian ethnicities, such that Indian, Bangladeshi and any other Asian background options appeared under a broad "Asian/Asian British" heading in all parts of the UK. The 2011 UK Census recorded 1,451,862 residents of Indian, 1,174,983 of Pakistani and 451,529 of Bangladeshi ethnicity, making a total South Asian population of 3,078,374, excluding other Asian groups and people of mixed ethnicity. South Asian ethnic groups originate from a few select places in South Asia, these are known as place of origins. British Indians tend to originate from the two Indian States and Gujarat. Evidence from Bradford and Birmingham have shown, Pakistanis originate from the Mirpur District in Azad Kashmir; the second largest ethnic group of British Pakistanis are the Punjabi people from Attock District of Punjab followed by pathans and other ethnic groups from the districts of Nowshera and Ghazi in province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.
In the London Borough of Waltham Forest there are substantial numbers of Pakistani people originating from Jhelum, Punjab. Studies have shown 95 per cent of Bangladeshis originate from the Sylhet region, one of the 8 divisions in Bangladesh, located in the Northeastern part of Bangladesh. Districts include Sylhet, Habiganj and Sunamganj. In Tower Hamlets, people have origins in different zones in the Sylhet region from Jagannathpur and Bishwanath, along with Sylhet Sadar and other cities.. South Asians who marked "Other Asian" as an ethnic group and wrote in their specific ethnic group were of Sri Lankan origin. Due to a growing sense of affiliation with Britain, many third generation South Asians chose to not mark "Asian or British Asian" and instead marked "British Asian" in the "Other Asian" write in section; the language spoken by Indians are, Gujarati, Hindustani, Tamil and Malayalam. People from Pakistan speak Urdu, Mirpuri, Sindhi, Kashmiri and Seraiki. Gujaratis who emigrated from India and East Africa speak Gujarati and Kutchi, while a sizeable number of Gujarati Muslims speak Urdu for religious and cultural reasons.
Bangladeshis from Sylhet speak Bengali. People from Sri Lanka speak Sinhala; those who speak dialects refer their language to the main language, for example Sylheti speakers say they speak Bengali or Mirpuri speakers say they speak Punjabi. The reason for this is; the unemployment rate among Indian men was only higher than that for White British or White Irish men, 7 per cent compared with 5 per cent for the other two groups. On the other hand, Pakistanis have higher unemployment rates of 13-14%, Bangladeshis have one of the highest rates, around 23%; some surveys revealed the Indian unemployment rate to be 6-7% Persons of Indian or mixed Indian origin are more than White Briti
Birmingham is the second-most populous city in the United Kingdom, after London, the most populous city in the English Midlands. It is the most populous metropolitan district in the United Kingdom, with an estimated 1,137,123 inhabitants, is considered the social, cultural and commercial centre of the Midlands, it is the main local government of the West Midlands conurbation, the third most populated urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,897,303 in 2017. The wider Birmingham metropolitan area is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a population of over 4.3 million. It is referred to as the United Kingdom's "second city". A market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew in the 18th-century Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw advances in science and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society. By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world".
Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided an economic base for prosperity, to last into the final quarter of the 20th century. The Watt steam engine was invented in Birmingham; the resulting high level of social mobility fostered a culture of political radicalism which, under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain, was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, a pivotal role in the development of British democracy. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz; the damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive urban regeneration in subsequent decades. Birmingham's economy is now dominated by the service sector.
The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121.1bn, its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham's major cultural institutions – the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations, the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music and culinary scenes. Birmingham is the fourth-most. People from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the city's nickname of "Brum", which originates from the city's old name, which in turn is thought to have derived from "Bromwich-ham"; the Brummie accent and dialect are distinctive. Birmingham's early history is that of a marginal area; the main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. There is evidence of early human activity in the Birmingham area dating back to around 8000 BC, with stone age artefacts suggesting seasonal settlements, overnight hunting parties and woodland activities such as tree felling; the many burnt mounds that can still be seen around the city indicate that modern humans first intensively settled and cultivated the area during the bronze age, when a substantial but short-lived influx of population occurred between 1700 BC and 1000 BC caused by conflict or immigration in the surrounding area. During the 1st-century Roman conquest of Britain, the forested country of the Birmingham Plateau formed a barrier to the advancing Roman legions, who built the large Metchley Fort in the area of modern-day Edgbaston in AD 48, made it the focus of a network of Roman roads. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era.
The city's name comes from the Old English Beormingahām, meaning the home or settlement of the Beormingas – indicating that Birmingham was established in the 6th or early 7th century as the primary settlement of an Anglian tribal grouping and regio of that name. Despite this early importance, by the time of the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor of Birmingham was one of the poorest and least populated in Warwickshire, valued at only 20 shillings, with the area of the modern city divided between the counties of Warwickshire and Worcestershire; the development of Birmingham into a significant urban and commercial centre began in 1166, when the Lord of the Manor Peter de Bermingham obtained a charter to hold a market at his castle, followed this with the creation of a planned market town and seigneurial borough within his demesne or manorial estate, around the site that became the Bull Ring. This established Birmingham as the primary commercial centre for the Birmingham Plateau at a time when the area's economy was expanding with population growth nationally leading to the clearance and settlement of marginal land.
Within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years; the principal governing institutions of medieval Birmingham – including the Guild of the Ho
The Swing Riots were a widespread uprising in 1830 by agricultural workers in southern and eastern England, in protest of agricultural mechanisation and other harsh conditions. It began with their destruction of threshing machines in the Elham Valley area of East Kent in the summer of 1830, by early December had spread throughout the whole of southern England and East Anglia; the first threshing machine was destroyed on Saturday night, 28 August 1830 and, by the third week of October, more than 100 threshing machines had been destroyed in East Kent. As well as attacking the popularly hated threshing machines, which displaced workers, the protesters rioted over low wages and required tithes, destroying workhouses and tithe barns associated with their oppression, they burned ricks and maimed cows. The rioters directed their anger at the three targets identified as causing their misery: the tithe system, requiring payments to support the established Anglican Church. If captured, the protesters faced charges of arson, riot, machine breaking and assault.
Those convicted faced imprisonment and execution. The Swing Riots had many immediate causes. Prof. J. F. C. Harrison believed that they were overwhelmingly the result of the progressive impoverishment and dispossession of the English agricultural workforce over the previous fifty years, leading up to 1830. In parliament Lord Carnarvon had said that the English labourer was reduced to a plight more abject than that of any race in Europe, with their employers no longer able to feed and employ them; the name "Swing Riots" was derived from Captain Swing, the fictitious name signed to the threatening letters sent to farmers, magistrates and others. He was regarded as the mythical figurehead of the movement.. The Swing letters were first mentioned by The Times newspaper on 21 October 1830. Early 19th-century England was unique among major nations in having no class of landed smallholding peasantry; the Enclosure Acts of rural England contributed to the plight of rural farmworkers. Between 1770 and 1830 about 6 million acres of common land were enclosed.
The common land had been used for centuries by the poor of the countryside to graze their animals and grow their own produce. This land was now divided up among the large local landowners, leaving the landless farmworkers dependent upon working for their richer neighbours for a cash wage. Whilst this may have offered a tolerable living during the boom years of the Napoleonic wars, when labour had been in short supply and corn prices high, the return of peace in 1815 resulted in plummeting grain prices and an oversupply of labour. According to social historians John and Barbara Hammond, enclosure was fatal to three classes: the small farmer, the cottager and the squatter. Before enclosure the cottager was a labourer with land. In contrast to the Hammond's 1911 analysis of the events, the historian G. E. Mingay noted in his 1997 book that when the Swing riots broke out in 1830, the heavily-enclosed Midlands remained entirely quiet, but the riots were concentrated in the southern and south-eastern counties, little affected by enclosure.
According to J. D. Chambers and G. E. Mingay, the Hammonds exaggerated the costs of change when in reality enclosure meant more food for the growing population, more land under cultivation and on balance, more employment in the countryside; the modern historians of the Swing riots, Eric Hobsbawm and George Rudé, cited only three of a total of 1,475 incidents as being directly caused by enclosure. Since the late 20th century, those contentions have been challenged by a new class of recent historians; the Enclosure movement has been seen by some as causing the destruction of the traditional peasant way of life, with surplus peasant labour moving into the towns to become industrial workers. In the 1780s, workers would be employed at annual hiring fairs. During this period the worker would receive payment in kind and in cash from his employer, would work at his side, would share meals at the employer's table; as time passed the gulf between farmer and employee widened. Workers were hired on stricter cash-only contracts, which ran for shorter periods.
First, monthly terms became the norm. Between 1750 and 1850 the farm labourer faced the loss of his land, the transformation of his contract and the sharp deterioration of his economic situation; the monasteries had taken responsibility for the impotent poor, but after their dissolution in 1536-9, responsibility passed to the parishes. The Act of Settlement in 1662 had confined relief to those who were natives of the parish; the poor law system charged a Parish Rate to landowners and tenants, used to provide relief payments to settled residents of the parish who were ill or out of work. These payments were minimal, at times degrading conditions were required for their receipt; as more and more people became dependent on parish relief, ratepayers rebelled more loudly against the costs, a lower and lower level of relief was offered. Three and a half "one gallon" bread loaves were considered necessary for a man in Berkshire in 1795; however provision had fallen to just two similar-sized loaves b
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
The Priestley Riots took place from 14 July to 17 July 1791 in Birmingham, England. Both local and national issues stirred the passions of the rioters, from disagreements over public library book purchases, to controversies over Dissenters' attempts to gain full civil rights and their support of the French Revolution; the riots started with an attack on the Royal Hotel, Birmingham—the site of a banquet organised in sympathy with the French Revolution. Beginning with Priestley's church and home, the rioters attacked or burned four Dissenting chapels, twenty-seven houses, several businesses. Many of them became intoxicated by liquor that they found while looting, or with which they were bribed to stop burning homes. A small core could not be bribed and remained sober; the rioters burned not only the homes and chapels of Dissenters, but the homes of people they associated with Dissenters, such as members of the scientific Lunar Society. While the riots were not initiated by Prime Minister William Pitt's administration, the national government was slow to respond to the Dissenters' pleas for help.
Local Birmingham officials seem to have been involved in the planning of the riots, they were reluctant to prosecute any ringleaders. Industrialist James Watt wrote that the riots "divided into two parties who hate one another mortally". Those, attacked left, leaving Birmingham a more conservative city than it had been throughout the eighteenth century. Over the course of the eighteenth century, Birmingham became notorious for its riots, which were sparked by a number of causes. In 1714 and 1715, the townspeople, as part of a "Church-and-King" mob, attacked Dissenters in the Sacheverell riots during the London trial of Henry Sacheverell, in 1751 and 1759 Quakers and Methodists were assaulted. During the anti-Catholic Gordon Riots in 1780, large crowds assembled in Birmingham. In 1766, 1782, 1795, 1800 mobs protested about high food prices. One contemporary described Birmingham rioters as the "bunting, brass-making, brazen-faced, brazen-hearted, bustling, booby Birmingham mob". Up until the late 1780s, religious divisions did not affect Birmingham's elite.
Dissenter and Anglican lived side by side harmoniously: they were on the same town promotional committees. They stood united against. After the riots, however and clergyman Joseph Priestley argued in his An Appeal to the Public on the Subject of the Birmingham Riots that this cooperation had not in fact been as amicable as believed. Priestley revealed that disputes over the local library, Sunday Schools, church attendance had divided Dissenters from Anglicans. In his Narrative of the Riots in Birmingham and Birmingham historian William Hutton agreed, arguing that five events stoked the fires of religious friction: disagreements over inclusion of Priestley's books in the local public library. Once Birmingham Dissenters started to agitate for the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, which restricted Dissenters' civil rights, the semblance of unity among the town's elite disappeared. Unitarians such as Priestley were at the forefront of the repeal campaign, orthodox Anglicans grew nervous and angry.
After 1787, the emergence of Dissenting groups formed for the sole purpose of overturning these laws began to divide the community. Priestley's support of the repeal and his heterodox religious views, which were published, inflamed the populace. In February 1790, a group of activists came together not only to oppose the interests of the Dissenters but to counteract what they saw as the undesirable importation of French Revolutionary ideals. Dissenters by and large supported the French Revolution and its efforts to question the role monarchy should play in government. One month before the riots, Priestley attempted to found a reform society, the Warwickshire Constitutional Society, which would have supported universal suffrage and short Parliaments. Although this effort failed, the efforts to establish such a society increased tensions in Birmingham. In addition to these religious and political differences, both the lower-class rioters and their upper-class Anglican leaders had economic complaints against the middle-class Dissenters.
They envied the ever-increasing prosperity of these industrialists as well as the power that came with that economic success. Historian R. B. Rose refers to these industrialists as belonging to "an inner elite of magnates". Priestley himself had written a pamphlet, An Account of a Society for Encouraging the Industrious Poor, on how best to extract the most work for the smallest amount of money from the poor, its emphasis on debt collection did not endear him to the poverty-stricken. The British public debate over the French Revolution, or the Revolution Controversy, lasted from 1789 through 1795. Many on both sides of the Channel thought the French would follow the pattern of the English Glorious Revolution of a century before
Ely and Littleport riots of 1816
The Ely and Littleport riots of 1816 known as the Ely riots or Littleport riots, occurred between 22 and 24 May 1816 in Littleport, Cambridgeshire. The riots were caused by high unemployment and rising grain costs, much like the general unrest which spread throughout England following the Napoleonic Wars; the Littleport riot broke out. Fuelled by alcohol, they left the inn and began intimidating wealthier Littleport residents, demanding money and destroying property; the riot spread to Ely where magistrates attempted to calm the protests by ordering poor relief and fixing a minimum wage. The following day, encouraged by Lord Liverpool's government, a militia of the citizens of Ely, led by Sir Henry Bate Dudley and backed by the 1st The Royal Dragoons, rounded up the rioters. In the ensuing altercation at The George and Dragon in Littleport, a trooper was injured, one rioter was killed, at least one went on the run. Edward Christian, brother of Fletcher Christian, had been appointed Chief Justice of the Isle of Ely in 1800 by the Bishop of Ely.
As the Chief Justice, Christian was entitled to try the rioters alone. The government, in this case via the Home Secretary, Lord Sidmouth appointed a Special Commission, consisting of Justice Abbott and Justice Burrough; the rioters were tried in the assizes at Ely during the week commencing June 1816. 23 men and one woman were condemned. General unrest and riots such as that at Littleport may have been a factor in the government passing the Vagrancy Act of 1824 and subsequently the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829. In 1815, the government increased taxation on imported wheat and grain to help pay for the costs of the Napoleonic Wars. Poor laws, such as the Speenhamland system, were designed to help alleviate financial distress of the poorer communities, but such systems helped to keep wages artificially low as the farmers knew labourers' wages would be supplemented by the system. Basic commodities, like cereals and bread, became over-priced, creating widespread social unrest; the worst hit were the families of the men returning from the Battle of Waterloo who arrived home at a time when unemployment was high.
One reply to a questionnaire circulated by the Board of Agriculture in February and April 1816 reported that "the state of the labouring poor is deplorable, arises from the want of employment, which they are willing to seek, but the farmer cannot afford to furnish."In early 1816, a quarter of wheat cost 52 shillings, rising through 76 shillings in May to 103 shillings in December. Average wages for the period remained static at 8–9 shillings, per week. In 1815, a pound of bread was predicted to rise to over 5 shillings. There was rioting in the first months of 1816 in West Suffolk and Cambridgeshire. On 16 May riots broke out in Bury St Edmunds and Brandon in West Suffolk and in Hockwold and Norwich in Norfolk. On the morning of 20 May, a meeting was held in Norfolk; the group, including a Thomas Sindall, marched through Denver to Downham Market to meet with the magistrates at their weekly meeting at The Crown public house. Sindall was the only person known to have been at both the riots at Downham Littleport.
He was killed by troopers at Littleport—see below. The mob of 1,500 men but some women, besieged The Crown until the magistrates agreed to allow a deputation of eight rioters inside to make their pleas: to have work and two-shillings per day; the magistrates acceded to these demands, but they had called the yeoman cavalry from Upwell, who arrived at 5 pm. Backed by the troops, the Riot Act was read in the market place by Reverend Dering, causing further tussles, which subsided after arrests started to be made. At the Norfolk and Norwich Assizes in August, nine men and six women were sentenced to death. Thirteen of those sentences were commuted, two of the Downham rioters, Daniel Harwood and Thomas Thody, were hanged on the afternoon of 31 August 1816. Littleport is a large village in Cambridgeshire with a population in 1811 of 1,847, it is just under 11 miles south-south-west of Downham Market and just over 4 miles north-north-east of Ely. On 22 May 1816, a group of 56 residents met at The Globe Inn in Littleport to discuss the lack of work and rising grain costs.
Fuelled by alcohol, the residents directed their anger at local farmer Henry Martin. He was not well liked by the parishioners. One man went to get a horn from Burgess, the lighterman, started blowing it outside The Globe Inn, gathering hundreds of villagers to join the first group, the riot commenced; the rioters began at Mingey's shop, where stones were thrown through the windows, they invaded Mr Clarke's property and threw his belongings into the street. Next, at Josiah Dewey's place, the Reverend John Vachell and his wife arrived to try to calm the rioters. Vachell had been vicar of St George's since 1795 and was a magistrate, he read or tried to read the Riot Act without effect, as the crowd "told him to go home."The rioters next visited the premises of disabled 90-year-old Mr Sindall, throwing his furniture into the street. After stopping at the place of Mr Little, "a nice old gentleman," who gave the mob £2, they continued to Robert Speechly's and demolished his furniture. Next they broke into the house of Rebecca Waddelow looking for Harry Marti
British African-Caribbean people
British African-Caribbean people are residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestors were indigenous to Africa. As immigration to the United Kingdom from Africa increased in the 1990s, the term has sometimes been used to include UK residents of African origin or as a term to define all Black British residents, though the phrase African and Caribbean has more been used to cover such a broader grouping; the most common and traditional use of the term African-Caribbean community is in reference to groups of residents continuing aspects of Caribbean culture and traditions in the UK. The African-Caribbean population in the UK come from the Islands in the British West Indies such as Jamaica and Tobago, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Grenada and Barbuda, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Belize. African-Caribbean communities are present throughout the United Kingdom's major cities, the UK Census identified the largest concentration is in Birmingham followed by London. Manchester, Nottingham, Luton, Leicester, Gloucester, Huddersfield, Sheffield and Cardiff.
In these cities, the community is traditionally associated with a particular area, such as Brixton, Stonebridge, Lewisham, Peckham in London, West Bowling and Heaton in Bradford, Chapeltown in Leeds, St. Pauls in Bristol, or Handsworth and Aston in Birmingham or Moss Side in Manchester, St Ann's in Nottingham and Toxteth in Liverpool. According to the 2011 UK Census, the largest number of African-Caribbean people are now found in Croydon, South London. A glossary published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health with the intention of stimulating debate about the development of better and more internationally applicable terms to describe ethnicity and race, suggests a definition of Afro-Caribbean/African Caribbean as, "A person of African ancestral origins whose family settled in the Caribbean before emigrating and who self identifies, or is identified, as Afro-Caribbean". A survey of the use of terms to describe people of African descent in medical research notes that: "The term African Caribbean/Afro-Caribbean when used in Europe and North America refers to people with African ancestral origins who migrated via the Caribbean islands".
It suggests that use of the term in the UK is inconsistent, with some researchers using it to describe people of Black and of Caribbean descent, whereas others use it to refer to those of either West African or Caribbean background. The British Sociological Association's guidelines on ethnicity and race state that "African-Caribbean has replaced the term Afro-Caribbean to refer to Caribbean peoples and those of Caribbean origin who are of African descent. There is now a view that the term should not be hyphenated and that indeed, the differences between such groups mean the people of African and Caribbean origins should be referred to separately"; the Guardian and Observer style guide prescribes the use of "African-Caribbean" for use in the two newspapers noting "not Afro-Caribbean". Sociologist Peter J. Aspinall argues that the term "Black" has been reclaimed by people of African and Caribbean origin in the UK, noting that in a 1992 health survey, 17 per cent of 722 African–Caribbeans surveyed, including 36 percent of those aged 16 to 29, described themselves as "Black British".
This, he suggests, "appears to be a pragmatic and spontaneous response to the wish to describe an allegiance to a'British' identity and the diminishing importance of ties with a homeland in the Caribbean". From the 16th century to the 19th century, enslaved Africans were shipped by European slave traders to British colonies in the Caribbean and British North America, as well as French, Danish and Portuguese colonies. New World slavery was focused on the extraction of gold and other precious raw materials. Africans were later set to work on the vast cotton and sugar plantations in the Americas for the economic benefit of these colonial powers and their plantocracy. One impact of the American Revolution was the differing historical development of African-American and African-Caribbean people. Whereas the American colonies had established slavery by positive laws, slavery did not exist under English common law and was thus prohibited in England; the much lauded British Afro-Caribbean Ignatius Sancho was among the leading British abolitionists in the 18th century, in 1783 an abolitionist movement spread throughout Britain to end slavery throughout the British Empire, with the poet William Cowper writing in 1785: "We have no slaves at home – Then why abroad?
Slaves cannot breathe in England. They touch our country, their shackles fall. That's noble, bespeaks a nation proud, and jealous of the blessing. Spread it And let it circulate through every vein." There are records of small communities in the ports of Cardiff, Liverpool and South Shields dating back to the mid-18th century. These communities were formed by freed slaves following the abolition of slavery. Typical occupations of the early migrants were coachmen. Prominent African-Caribbean people in Britain during the 19th century include: William Davidson, Cato Street Conspirator Rev. George Cousens, a Jamaican who became minister of Cradley Heath Baptist Church in 1837 Mary Seacole