A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new law. In some countries, it is synonymous with a vote on a ballot question; some definitions of'plebiscite' suggest that it is a type of vote to change the constitution or government of a country. However, some other countries define it differently. For example, Australia defines'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution, and'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In Ireland, the vote to adopt its constitution was called a "plebiscite", but a subsequent vote to amend the constitution is called a'referendum', so is a poll of the electorate on a non-constitutional bill; the word referendum is a general word used for both legislative referrals and initiatives.'Referendum' is the gerundive form of the Latin verb refero "to carry back". As a gerundive is an adjective, not a noun, it cannot be used alone in Latin and must be contained within a context attached to a noun such as Propositum quod referendum est populo, "A proposal which must be carried back to the people".
The addition of the verb sum to a gerundive, denotes the idea of necessity or compulsion, that which "must" be done, rather than that, "fit for" doing. Its use as a noun in English is thus not a grammatical usage of a foreign word, but is rather a freshly coined English noun, which therefore follows English grammatical usage, not Latin grammatical usage; this determines the form of the plural in English, which according to English grammar should be "referendums". The use of "referenda" as a plural form in English is thus insupportable according to the rules of both Latin and English grammar alike; the use of "referenda" as a plural form is posited hypothetically as either a gerund or a gerundive by the Oxford English Dictionary, which rules out such usage in both cases as follows: Referendums is logically preferable as a plural form meaning'ballots on one issue'. The Latin plural gerundive'referenda', meaning'things to be referred' connotes a plurality of issues, it is related to the political agenda, "those matters which must be driven forward", from ago, to drive.
The name and use of the'referendum' is thought to have originated in the Swiss canton of Graubünden as early as the 16th century. The term'plebiscite' has a similar meaning in modern usage, comes from the Latin plebiscita, which meant a decree of the Concilium Plebis, the popular assembly of the Roman Republic. Today, a referendum can often be referred to as a plebiscite, but in some countries the two terms are used differently to refer to votes with differing types of legal consequences. For example, Australia defines'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution, and'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In contrast, Ireland has only held one plebiscite, the vote to adopt its constitution, every other vote has been called a referendum. Plebiscite has been used to denote a non-binding vote count such as the one held by Nazi Germany to'approve' in retrospect the so-called Anschluss with Austria, the question being not'Do you permit?' but rather'Do you approve?' of that which has most already occurred.
The term referendum covers a variety of different meanings. A referendum can be advisory. In some countries, different names are used for these two types of referendum. Referendums can be further classified by who initiates them: mandatory referendums prescribed by law, voluntary referendums initiated by the legislature or government, referendums initiated by citizens. A deliberative referendum is a referendum designed to improve the deliberative qualities of the campaign preceding the referendum vote, and/or of the act of voting itself. From a political-philosophical perspective, referendums are an expression of direct democracy. However, in the modern world, most referendums need to be understood within the context of representative democracy. Therefore, they tend to be used quite selectively, covering issues such as changes in voting systems, where elected officials may not have the legitimacy or inclination to implement such changes. Since the end of the 18th century, hundreds of national referendums have been organised in the world.
Italy ranked second with 72 national referendums: 67 popular referendums, 3 constitutional referendums, one institutional referendum and one advisory referendum. A referendum offers the electorate a choice of accepting or rejecting a proposal, but not always; some referendums give voters the choice among multiple choices and some use Transferable voting even. In Switzerland, for example, multiple choice referendums are common. Two multiple choice referendums were held in Sweden, in 1957 and in 1980, in which voters were offered three options. In 1977, a referendum held in Australia to determine a new national anthem was held in which voters had four choices. In 1992, New Zealand held a five-option referendum on their electoral system. In 1982, Guam had referendum that used six options, with an additional blank option for anyone wishing to vote for their own seventh option. A multiple choice referendum pose
State Senator (Brazil)
Established by the Constitution of Brazil, the State Senate is the State's representative body. The members are elected through the proportional system, by taking into account the joining affiliation, as a way to define the number of elected candidates that are filling the vacancies reserved for specific groups. State Representative is the name given to the political agent while the corresponding body is the State Legislative Assembly, the highest legislative authority of each state; the term for a Representative is 4 years. The term for the President of the Legislature is a 4 or 5-year period, beginning 6 months after the start of the session; the Constitution gives state legislators the task of legislating in the field of state legislative powers defined by the Constitution, including being able to propose, modify and repeal state laws, both common and complementary and amend the state constitution, annually evaluating the accounts rendered by the State Governor, creating Parliamentary Committees of Inquiry, as well as other powers established in the Constitution and the State Constitution.
1. Registered Voter 2. Registered Resident of Elected-District 3. Full Political Rights 4. Member of a Political Party 5. At least 21 years old Illiterate individuals are not allowed to hold office
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Tribunal de Contas da União
The Tribunal de Contas da União is the Brazilian federal accountability office. It is an arm of the Legislative Branch of the Brazilian government, to assist Congress in its Constitutional incumbency to exercise external audit over the Executive Branch, its members, called ministers, are appointed by the President of Brazil. The TCU employs a qualified body of civil servants to prevent and sanction corruption and malpractice of public funds, with national jurisdiction; the Tribunal was created in 1891, although its origins are traced back to the Royal Treasury, established in 1808 by King John VI. It is, one of the world's earlier institutions charged with national government accountability. Today, the TCU cooperates with the Comptroller-General of the Union, which centralizes federal executive internal audit; the Tribunal's work is scrutinized by the Public Ministry. In 1959 it hosted III INCOSAI, the third triennial convention of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions; the work executed by the TCU in 2011 produced savings of 14 billion reais to the Brazilian taxpayer.
For each real spent by the court to avert corruption and wasteful spending, 10.5 reais were saved. Official website
Superior Electoral Court
The Superior Electoral Court is the highest body of the Brazilian Electoral Justice, which comprises one Regional Electoral Court in each of the 26 states and the Federal District of the country, as determined by Article 118 of the Constitution of Brazil. The Brazilian Electoral Code of 1932 established the Electoral Justice in Brazil, replacing the political system conducted by the Legislative branch over the electoral proceedings; the new judicial system transferred control over such proceedings to the Judiciary. In the present, duties of the Electoral Justice are regulated by a posterior Electoral Code, approved in 1965, which revoked the 1932 code, but kept the judicial control over the electoral proceedings; the Superior Electoral Court is the highest judicial body of the Brazilian Electoral Justice as per Article 121, §3 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988, which sets that the decisions of the Superior Electoral Court are unappealable, except those contrary to the Constitution, or that deny habeas corpus or writs of mandamus.
Therefore, in such exceptions, the Supreme Federal Court judges appeals filed against the Superior Electoral Court’s rulings. The composition of the court is ruled by Article 119 of the Constitution of Brazil, which sets that the court shall be composed by seven members. Three of them shall be elected by secret vote from among the Justices of the Supreme Federal Court and two other judges shall be elected by secret vote from among the Justices of the Superior Court of Justice; the remaining two shall be appointed by the President of Brazil from among six lawyers of notable juridical knowledge and good moral reputation nominated by the Supreme Federal Court. Official website
Visa policy of Brazil
Visitors to Brazil must obtain a visa from one of the Brazilian diplomatic missions, unless they come from one of the visa-exempt countries or countries eligible for an electronic visa. Holders of passports of the following jurisdictions do not require a visa to visit Brazil for up to 90 days for tourism or business purposes. An identity document is accepted instead of a passport in some cases. 1 - For nationals of Croatia, Poland and the United Kingdom, a stay of up to 90 days. For other European Union citizens, a stay of up to 3 months during a 6-month period. 2 - For a stay of up to 90 days during a 180-day period. 3 - For tourism, a stay of up to 90 days. For business, a stay of up to 14 days, extendable for up to 90 days every 12 months. 4 - For a stay of up to 60 days. 5 - For a stay of up to 30 days. ID - May enter with an ID card. T - Visa-free for tourism purposes only. Nationals of Spain are required to hold proof of sufficient funds of at least R$170 per day, proof of confirmed hotel accommodation or a notary certified invitation letter from a resident of Brazil, documents required for their next destination.
Those traveling on business are exempt from these requirements when holding an original letter from their company, stating the purpose of the visit. Brazilian citizens who have another nationality are allowed to enter and leave Brazil with the passport of the other country in combination with any document attesting Brazilian nationality such as a Brazilian identity card or an expired Brazilian passport. If they do not provide such document, they may still enter Brazil as foreigners, subject to the regular requirements and limitations as such; however this case is only possible if Brazil does not require a visa from the other nationality. Brazil only issues visas to dual citizens in exceptional circumstances, such as for those who work in foreign government jobs that prohibit the use of a Brazilian passport. Holders of diplomatic or service passports of countries exempt from tourist visas do not require a visa, except those of Andorra, Liechtenstein and New Zealand. In addition, holders of diplomatic or service passports of Algeria, Azerbaijan, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Congo, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Mali, Moldova, Myanmar, Nigeria, Qatar, Saint Lucia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Togo and Zambia and of diplomatic passports of Cuba, Iran and Uzbekistan do not require a visa.
Brazil has signed visa waiver agreements with the following countries, but they are pending ratification or implementation: Dominican Republic – 60 days, renewable for up to 120 days per 12-month period, for tourism and business purposes for ordinary passports Moldova – 90 days within any 6-month period for tourism and business purposes for ordinary passports Sierra Leone - 90 days, or the entire period of a mission if accredited to Brazil, for holders of diplomatic, official or service passportsThe Brazilian government has decided to unilaterally waive the visitor visa requirement for nationals of the following countries, from 17 June 2019: These are the same countries that were granted a visa waiver during the 2016 Summer Olympics and which are eligible for electronic visas. The conditions of stay with this visa waiver are the same as with the visitor visa; the visit visa allows stays of up to 90 days, for the following purposes: Tourism, including cultural and recreational activities, family visits, attending conferences, volunteer work, research and teaching.
Holders of visit visas are not allowed to receive payment from Brazilian sources for the activities during their stay, except for compensation for travel and living expenses and competition prizes. The visit visa is valid for multiple entries during the visa validity period, one year but may be longer for some nationalities; each stay is limited to 90 days, but an extension may be requested from the Federal Police after arrival. The combined stays must not exceed 180 days per any one-year period. Nationals of the following countries may apply online for electronic visit visas, which are valid for up to two years and allow stays of up to 90 days per year: Many types of temporary visas are available, for stays longer than 90 days. Certain types of visas allow paid activity, some with restrictions. For some visas based on work or investment, the applicant must obtain authorization from the General Coordination of Immigration before requesting the visa. All holders of temporary visas intending to stay for more than 90 days are required to register with the Federal Police within 90 days after arrival.
After registration, they receive a migration registration card and are granted residency for a certain period. In some cases this period may be "indeterminate". Temporary residents may apply to renew their residency period, in some cases to convert it to permanent residency. Only the time spent; those who will be employed in Brazil must obtain a Labor and Social Security Booklet from a Regional Superintendency of Labor. A taxpayer number, obtained from the Department of Federal Reve
Superior Court of Justice (Brazil)
The Superior Court of Justice is the highest appellate court in Brazil for non-constitutional questions of federal law. The STJ has original jurisdiction over some cases, its competence is described in Article 105 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988. A Special Appeal can be made to this court when a judgement of a court of second instance offends a federal statutory provision or when second instance courts have issued different interpretations of the same federal statute. By rule, the STJ decides only questions of law, not any questions of fact and the probatory elements on the case, about which the Second Instance Courts give the last word; as in other superior courts in Brazil, STJ's justices are called "ministers", not to be confused with ministers from the executive branch. Prior to late 1988, Brazil had only the Supreme Federal Court as the Court of last resort, which would hear all highest appeals of any matters, including other Higher, National Courts; as demand on the Judiciary was becoming intense, with a growing number of suits and cases the result of the accessibility generated by the multiplication of first instance Courts, the STF found itself in a critical situation of unmanageable volume of service, urging for a correcting measure.
As the National Constitution Assembly started in 1987, one of the earliest projects to be included and approved was the creation of a new National Court, to parallel with the existing Superior Labour and Electoral Tribunals, placing the STF on a higher degree. It was the beginning of the Superior Court of Justice, to which were transferred most of the issues heard by the STF; the STJ was physically placed on the building occupied by the Federal Court of Appeals. The TFR was a stand-alone Tribunal designed to hear all ordinary appeals from decisions by Federal Judges. Although having a parallel jurisdiction to second-instance State Courts, its judges were called "Ministers", denomination given to Justices from higher Courts, it was extinguished by the 1988 Constitution, which distributed all its competence to the new Federal Regional Courts, with the Ministers from the TFR becoming the initial Justices of the STJ. The Superior Court of Justice had its competence altered by Amendment 45/2004, which transferred to the Court cases like the homologation of foreign court orders.
Http://www.stj.jus.br/ Official website Brazil federal courts