A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Fingerprints are deposited on suitable surfaces by the natural secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands that are present in epidermal ridges; these are sometimes referred to as "Chanced Impressions". In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human or other primate hand. A print from the sole of the foot can leave an impression of friction ridges. Deliberate impressions of fingerprints may be formed by ink or other substances transferred from the peaks of friction ridges on the skin to a smooth surface such as a fingerprint card. Fingerprint records contain impressions from the pad on the last joint of fingers and thumbs, although fingerprint cards typically record portions of lower joint areas of the fingers. Human fingerprints are detailed, nearly unique, difficult to alter, durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as long-term markers of human identity.
They may be employed by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased and thus unable to identify themselves, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Fingerprint analysis, in use since the early 20th century, has led to many crimes being solved; this means. In 2015, the identification of sex by testing the fingerprint biochemical content has been reported. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the digits, the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot, consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin; these are sometimes known as "epidermal ridges" which are caused by the underlying interface between the dermal papillae of the dermis and the interpapillary pegs of the epidermis. These epidermal ridges serve to amplify vibrations triggered, for example, when fingertips brush across an uneven surface, better transmitting the signals to sensory nerves involved in fine texture perception.
These ridges may assist in gripping rough surfaces and may improve surface contact in wet conditions. Before computerization, manual filing systems were used in large fingerprint repositories. Manual classification systems were based on the general ridge patterns of all fingers; this allowed the filing and retrieval of paper records in large collections based on friction ridge patterns alone. The most popular systems used the pattern class of each finger to form a key to assist lookup in a filing system. Classification systems include the Roscher system, the Juan Vucetich system, the Henry Classification System; the Roscher system was developed in Germany and implemented in both Germany and Japan, the Vucetich system was developed in Argentina and implemented throughout South America, the Henry system was developed in India and implemented in most English-speaking countries. In the Henry system of classification, there are three basic fingerprint patterns: loop and arch, which constitute 60–65%, 30–35%, 5% of all fingerprints respectively.
There are more complex classification systems that break down patterns further, into plain arches or tented arches, into loops that may be radial or ulnar, depending on the side of the hand toward which the tail points. Ulnar loops start on the pinky-side of the finger, the side closer to the lower arm bone. Radial loops start on the thumb-side of the finger, the side closer to the radius. Whorls may have sub-group classifications including plain whorls, accidental whorls, double loop whorls, peacock's eye and central pocket loop whorls. Other common fingerprint patterns include the tented arch, the plain arch, the central pocket loop; the system used by most experts, is similar to the Henry System of Classification. It consists of five fractions, in which R stands for right, L for left, i for index finger, m for middle finger, t for thumb, r for ring finger and p for little finger; the fractions are as follows: Ri/Rt + Rr/Rm + Lt/Rp + Lm/Li + Lp/Lr. The numbers assigned to each print are based on.
A whorl in the first fraction is given a 16, the second an 8, the third a 4, the fourth a 2, 0 to the last fraction. Arches and loops are assigned values of 0. Lastly, the numbers in the numerator and denominator are added up, using the scheme: /and a 1 is added to both top and bottom, to exclude any possibility of division by zero. For example, if the right ring finger and the left index finger have whorls, the fractions would look like this: 0/0 + 8/0 + 0/0 + 0/2 + 0/0 + 1/1, the calculation: / = 9/3 = 3. Using this system reduces the number of prints that the print in question needs to be compared to. For example, the above set of prints would only need to be compared to other sets of fingerprints with a value of 3. Fingerprint identification, known as dactyloscopy, or hand print identification, is the process of comparing two instances of friction ridge skin impressions, from human fingers or toes, or the palm of the hand or sole of the foot, to determine whether these impressions could have come from the same individual.
The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are exactly alike in every detail.
Central railway station, Brisbane
Central railway station is located on the North Coast line in Queensland, Australia. It is the principal station on the City network and is located in the Brisbane central business district; the first building for Central railway station was a structure of wood and corrugated galvanised iron, opened on 18 August 1889 as the terminus of the line when it was extended from Roma Street railway station. In 1891, the tunnel to Brunswick Street station was opened so trains could run directly from Central to northern destinations. An elegant new station was constructed and opened in 1899 with arches of corrugated galvanised iron over the platforms and a portico on Ann Street. A new entrance with its distinctive row of clocks was constructed in 1901 in sandstone from nearby quarries. In 1904, Central had the only electro-pneumatic system in Australia for changing signals; the station had two through and two bay platforms. In 1909, the bay platforms were converted to through platforms. Ann Street was widened in 1954 for the construction of government offices which required the portico to be demolished.
The vaulted roof was replaced by awnings over each platform. Between 1968 and 1970, the station was redeveloped with office towers built over the platforms at the Edward Street end, involving the demolition of the 1901 entrance buildings and the construction of a modern pedestrian retail concourse behind the old station buildings. Further redevelopment in the 1980s saw; as part of the quadruplication of the line from Roma Street station to Bowen Hills, Platforms 5 and 6 opened on 11 June 1996. In early 2017 a major upgrade to the station will commence. Central railway station is located at the northern end of the Brisbane central business district on Ann Street, directly opposite Anzac Square. Pedestrian access is available from the main entrance at the corner of Ann and Edward Streets, the pedestrian subway connecting Anzac Square with Upper Edward Street and from the corner of Ann Street and Creek Street. Lesser used access points are located off Wickham Terrace and from Edward Street via the courtyard of the Railway Centre.
There is elevator access to Central Station from Ann Street opposite the Shrine of Remembrance, from Wickham Terrace on the northern corner of the complex. There are escalators to Central station from Anzac Square Arcade, next to Anzac Square. Central station is served by all interurban City network lines. See Inner City timetable Central station Queensland Rail Central station Queensland's Railways on the Internet
A payphone is a coin-operated public telephone located in a telephone booth or in high-traffic outdoor areas, with pre-payment by inserting money or by billing a credit or debit card, or a telephone card. Prepaid calling cards facilitate establishing a call by first calling the provided toll-free telephone number, entering the card account number and PIN the desired connection telephone number. An equipment usage fee may be charged as additional units, minutes or tariff fee to the collect/third-party, credit, telephone or prepaid calling card when used at payphones. By agreement with the landlord, either the phone company pays rent for the location and keeps the revenue, or the landlord pays rent for the phone and shares the revenue. Payphones are found in public places to contribute to the notion of universal access to basic communication services. One thesis, written as early as 2003, recognised this as a digital divide problem. In the 20th century, payphones in some countries, such as Spain, used token coins, available for sale at a local retailer, to activate pay phones, instead of legal tender coins.
In some cases these have been upgraded to use magnetic cards or credit card readers. In the past, payphones were ubiquitous around the world, but their prevalence has decreased over the years due to the increasing availability of mobile phones, but cell phone service is not always available in emergencies. Most payphones in Canada are owned and operated by large telecom providers such as Bell and SaskTel. In the last 20 years customer-owned coin-operated telephones have appeared in the market, but their numbers are smaller due to emergence of mobile phones; the cost of most local payphone calls is 50 cents CAD, having increased from 25 cents since 2007. Pay phones in Alberta were 35 cents for a time, but in most jurisdictions the price doubled. Newer phones allow users to use calling cards and credit cards. For coin-paid long distance, COCOTs are less expensive for short calls than incumbent providers. Dialing 0 for operator and 911 calls are still free; the Toronto Transit Commission deploys payphones on all subway platforms as a safety precaution.
As of 2013, there were about 70,000 payphones across the country. In 2013, the CRTC issued a temporary moratorium on the removal of payphones in small communities. In September 2015, the CRTC remarked that "32 per cent of Canadians used a payphone at least once in the past year," and that they are used "as a last resort in times of inconvenience and emergency." The payphone model 23, introduced at Deutsche Bundespost Telekom in 1992, is an electronic software controlled payphone for analog connections. It is equipped with coin, integrated test program setting, it has a remote maintenance, the independent reports of a background system by means of an integrated modem error, operating states or departures to the all public pay telephones of Deutsche Telekom AG are turned on. The Payphone 23 consists of two basic units, the equipment part including all the necessary for the operation modules and the secured below the growing payphone cassettes with the coin box. In Italy public payphones have been maintained over the years by Telecom Italia.
The majority of payphones on the street and in buildings in Japan are installed and maintained by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone. In the Soviet period different types of payphones were produced. There were long-distance call payphones costing 15 kopeks, provided services of paid media such as listening to an anecdote, obtaining legal advice, or finding the address of the subscriber by phone number. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the monetary reform of 1991, this form of payment became irrelevant; some payphones were altered to accept tokens, while others have been designed to use telephone cards. For example, in St Petersburg, payment for payphones can be made with metro tokens. In some regions, calls from public phones are free of charge. Telephones were a monopoly of the national government. Pay phones took a slug or ficha, a piece of metal with two troughs in it, making it hard to counterfeit. Payphones were found in bars and stores, never freestanding. Phones would accept some 5 fichas at a time, showing through a plastic window the number remaining, return unused ones to the customer.
An older and simpler system was to use a mechanical counter, which automatically counted units of time, called pasos, a "pass" in the sense of "passage of time". The counter was the marcador de pasos; the length of each paso varied depending on the cost of the call. At the conclusion of a call the number of pasos was multiplied by a fixed amount, which could vary by time of day, creating a sum total that the customer would pay to a human attendant; these survived in small hotels at least until the 1970s. Spain had an institution with no equivalent in the United States, the locutorio "place where one talks", they were a type of store, in the main square of a town or close to it, where one booked a phone call by going to a counter, filling out a paper slip, handing it to a human. Sometimes advance payment was required; the recipient of the slip would either directly or indirectly
The People's Daily is the biggest newspaper group in China. The paper is an official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 million. In addition to its main Chinese-language edition, it has editions in English, French, Portuguese, Arabic, Kazakh, Zhuang and other minority languages in China; the newspaper provides direct information on the viewpoints of the Communist Party. The paper was established on 15 June 1948 and was published in Pingshan, until its offices were moved to Beijing in March 1949. Since its founding, the People's Daily has been under direct control of the Party's top leadership. Deng Tuo and Wu Lengxi served as editor-in-chief from 1948–1958 and 1958–1966 but the paper was in fact controlled by Mao's personal secretary Hu Qiaomu. During the Cultural Revolution, the People's Daily was one of the few sources of information from which either foreigners or Chinese could figure out what the Chinese government was doing or planning to do.
During this period, an editorial in the People's Daily would be considered an authoritative statement of government policy, was studied and reproduced nationwide, analyzed globally for insight into the Party's plans. The most important editorials were jointly published by People's Daily, People's Liberation Army Daily and Red Flag, from 1967 to 1978, so called "Two newspapers and one journal", directly representing the highest voice of Chinese Communist Party. Newspaper articles in the People's Daily are not read for content so much as placement. A large number of articles devoted to a political figure or idea is taken as a sign that the mentioned official or subject is rising. With articles on geographical areas foreign or domestic. Editorials in the People's Daily are regarded both by foreign observers and Chinese readers as authoritative statements of official government policy, are therefore studied with care. Distinction is made between editorials and opinions. Although all must be government approved, they differ on the amount of official authoritativeness they contain by design – from the top.
For example, although an opinion piece is unlikely to contain views opposed to those of the government, it may express a viewpoint, or it may contain a debate, under consideration and reflect only the opinions of the writer: an editorial trial balloon to assess internal public opinion. By contrast, an official editorial, rather infrequent, means that the government has reached a final decision on an issue. During the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the People's Daily editorial of 26 April, which condemned "unlawful parades and demonstrations," marked a significant moment in the newspaper's history; the editorial increased tension between the government and protesters, top CPC leaders argued about whether to revise it. An article that compiles the most important editorials was released by the People's Daily during the student movement. Since the mid-1990s, the People's Daily has faced a decline of governmental subsidies combined with increasing competition from international news sources and Chinese tabloids.
As part of its effort to modernize, it began an online edition in 1997, the web bulletin forums, such as the Strengthening Nation Forum in the Chinese edition, has been known for their candid content. An analysis of the wording of all the issues of the People's Daily from 1995 to 2000 was used in the writing of The First Series of Standardized Forms of Words with Non-standardized Variant Forms; the People's Daily is responsible for the publication Global Times, hosts the Strengthening Nation Forum on its website. The People's Daily maintains a multilingual internet presence; the internet website of People's Daily includes pages in Arabic, Russian, Spanish and English. In comparison to the original Chinese version, the foreign language version offer less in-depth discussion of domestic policies and affairs and more editorial about China's foreign policies and motives explaining China's positive intentions. In 2014 the news paper launched a Chinese language application, followed on October 15, 2017 by an English language version.
People's Daily in recent years has been expanding its publicity on the overseas social media platforms. It has tens of millions followers on its Facebook page, Twitter account, Instagram account, YouTube account. However, an unusually high proportion of its followers are inactive and to be fake users, according to the study of Committee to Protect Journalists. There have been calls for the People's Daily to register as a foreign agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act in US. Zhang Panshi Hu Qiaomu Fan Changjiang Deng Tuo Wu Lengxi Chen Boda Hu Jiwei Qin Chuan Qian Liren Gao Di Shao Huaze Bai Keming Xu Zhongtian Wang Chen Zhang Yannong Yang Zhenwu Li Baoshan China News Service Xinwen Lianbo, the news program of China Central Television Global Times Media of the People's Republic of China People's Daily during the 1989 Student Movement Qiushi Reference News Rodong Sinmun, the North Korean counterpart publication Strengthening Nation Forum Xinhua News Agency Yang Gang, deputy chief editor who committed suicide during the Anti-Rightist Movement Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher.
The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers pp 264–72 Wu Guoguang. "Command Communication: The Politics of Editorial Formulation in the People
A truck driver is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck. Truck drivers provide an essential service to industrialized societies by transporting finished goods and raw materials over land to and from manufacturing plants and distribution centers. Truck drivers are responsible for inspecting all their vehicles for mechanical items or issues relating to safe operation. Others, such as driver/sales workers, are responsible for sales, completing additional services such as cleaning and entertaining and customer service. There are three major types of truck driver employment: Owner-operators are individuals who own the trucks they drive and can either lease their trucks by contract with a trucking company to haul freight for that company using their own trucks, or they haul loads for a number of companies and are self-employed independent contractors. There are ones that lease a truck from a company and make payments on it to buy it in two to five years. Company drivers are employees of a particular trucking company and drive trucks provided by their employer.
Independent Owner-Operators are those who own their own authority to haul goods and drive their own truck owning a small fleet anywhere from 1-10 trucks, maybe as few as only 2 or 3 trucks. Both owner operators/owner driver and company drivers can be in these categories. Auto haulers work hauling cars on specially built trailers and require specific skills loading and operating this type of specialized trailer. Boat haulers work moving boats ranging in size from 10-foot-long bass boats to full-size yachts up to 60 ft long using a specialized low boy trailer that can be set up for each size of boat. Boats wider than 8 feet 6 inches wide or 13 feet 6 inches high have to have a permit to move and are an oversize load. Dry van drivers haul the majority of goods over highways in large trailers. Contents may non perishable goods. Dry bulk pneumatic drivers haul bulk sand and cement, among other things, they have specialized trailers. - Commonly known as Flow Boys among truckers. Flat bed drivers haul an assortment of large bulky items.
A few examples are steel pipes and lumber. Drivers require the ability to balance the load correctly. LTL drivers or "less than truck load" are more localized delivery jobs where goods are delivered by the driver at multiple locations, sometimes involving the pulling of double or triple trailer combinations. Reefer drivers haul temperature sensitive or frozen goods. Local drivers work only within the limits of their local areas; these areas may include crossing state lines, but drivers return home daily. Household goods drivers, or bedbuggers, haul personal effects for families who are moving from one home to another. Regional drivers may work over several states near their homes, they may be away from home for short periods. Interstate drivers cover distances of thousands of miles and are away from home for days, weeks or months on end. For time critical loads, companies may opt to employ team drivers which can cover more miles than a single driver. Team drivers are two drivers who take turns driving the same truck in shifts, or several people in different states that split up the haul to keep from being away from home for such long periods.
Tanker drivers haul liquids, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, milk, & crude oil, dry bulk materials, such as plastics, flour, & cement in tanks. Liquid tanker drivers need special driving skills due to the load balance changing from the liquid movement; this is true for food grade tankers, which do not contain any baffles and are a single compartment. Fuel oil/petroleum drivers require special certifications. Vocational drivers drive a vocational truck such as a tow truck, dump truck, garbage truck, or cement mixer. Drayage drivers move cargo containers which are lifted on or off the chassis, at special intermodal stations. Bullrack haul livestock locally around their hometowns, or haul regionally all over the USA; the term bullrack comes from a double deck trailer used to haul cattle. In Australia, drivers of trucks and truck and trailer combinations with gross vehicle mass greater than 12 tonnes must rest for 15 minutes every 5.5 hours, 30 minutes every 8 hours and 60 minutes every 11 hours. In any 7 day period, a driver must spend 24 hours away from his/her vehicle.
Truck drivers must complete a logbook documenting kilometres spent driving. In Canada, driver hours of service regulations are enforced for any driver who operates a "truck, trailer or any combination of them that has a gross vehicle weight in excess of 4,500 kg or a bus, designed and constructed to have a designated seating capacity of more than 24 persons, including the driver". However, there are two sets of hours of service rules, one for above 60th parallel north, one for below. Below latitude 60 degrees drivers are limited to 14 hours on duty in any 24-hour period; this 14 hours includes a maximum of 13 hours driving time. Rest periods are 8 consecutive hours in a 24-hour period, as well as an ad
Brisbane Magistrates Court building
The Brisbane Magistrates Court building is located at 363 George Street, Brisbane in Queensland, Australia. The building is one of the many locations in the state that houses the Magistrates Court of Queensland; the building is a modern, purpose-built facility which contains 26 courtrooms. These include a dedicated two Coroners courts and four Small Claims hearing rooms; the building has the capacity to expand to 39 courtrooms. Construction started in September 2002 and the building was opened on 16 November 2004 by the Premier, Peter Beattie; the total budget for the project was A$135.5 million. The building was designed to provide improved support for victims and their families, to vulnerable witnesses, it contains a range of environmentally sustainable design initiatives including economy-cycle air conditioning, energy efficient lighting, rainwater tanks that hold 46 000 litres of water for use on external landscaping, motion sensors that lower air-conditioning and lighting when rooms are unoccupied, extensive use of passive sun control and low energy glass, solar hot water, waste streaming systems.
The Brisbane Magistrates Court building is one of the largest infrastructure projects to incorporate the Queensland Government's Art Built-in policy, which requires two per cent of the capital works budget to be spent on art projects within the development. The building features a range of public artworks including sculptures and paintings. Urban design review of Brisbane Magistrates Court