2011 Cricket World Cup
The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup was the tenth Cricket World Cup. It was played in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh. India won the tournament, defeating Sri Lanka by 6 wickets in the final at Wankhede Stadium in Mumbai, thus becoming the first country to win the Cricket World Cup final on home soil. India's Yuvraj Singh was declared the man of the tournament; this was the first time in World Cup history. It was the first time since the 1992 World Cup that the final match did not feature Australia. All the matches were One Day Internationals, all were played over 50 overs. Fourteen national cricket teams took part, including 10 full members and four associate members of the ICC; the opening ceremony was held on 17 February 2011 at Bangabandhu National Stadium and the tournament was played between 19 February and 2 April. The first match was played between India and Bangladesh at the Sher-e-Bangla National Stadium in Mirpur, Dhaka, it is the most viewed World Cup edition with 2.2 billion worldwide viewers.
Pakistan was scheduled to be a co-host, but after the 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team in Lahore, the International Cricket Council cancelled that, the headquarters of the organising committee in Lahore, was transferred to Mumbai. Pakistan was to have held 14 matches, including one semi-final. Eight of the games were awarded to India, four to Sri Lanka, two to Bangladesh; the ICC announced on 30 April 2006. Australia and New Zealand had bid for the tournament; the Trans–Tasman bid, Beyond Boundaries, was the only one delivered to the ICC headquarters in Dubai before the 1 March deadline, but the Asian bidders were granted an extension by the ICC. The New Zealand government had given assurance that Zimbabwe would be allowed to compete in the tournament, following political discussions in the country over whether their cricket team should be allowed to tour Zimbabwe in 2005; the extra time needed for the Asian bid had weakened its prospects, but when the time came to vote, Asia won the hosting rights by ten votes to three.
The Pakistan Cricket Board has revealed that the vote of the West Indies Cricket Board was decisive, as the Asian bid had the support of South Africa and Zimbabwe as well as the four bidding countries. The Pakistani newspaper Dawn reported that the Asian countries had promised to hold fund-raising events for West Indian cricket during the 2007 World Cup, which may have influenced the vote. However, I. S. Bindra, chairman of the Monitoring Committee of the Asian bid, said that their promise of extra profits of around US$400 million had been decisive, that there "was no quid pro quo for their support", that playing the West Indies had "nothing to do with the World Cup bid". Late in 2007, the four host nations agreed on a revised format for the 2011 World Cup, identical to that of the 1996 World Cup, except that there would be 14 teams instead of 12; the first round of the tournament would consist of two groups of seven teams. Each team in a group would play all the others once, the top four from each group would qualify for the quarter-finals.
This ensured. As per ICC regulations, all 10 full members automatically qualify for the World Cup, including Zimbabwe who have given up their Test playing status until the standard of their team improves; the ICC organised a qualifying tournament in South Africa to determine the four Associate teams who would participate in the 2011 event. Ireland, the best performing Associate nation since the last World Cup, won the tournament, beating Canada in the final; the Netherlands and Kenya qualified by virtue of finishing third and fourth respectively. All 4 associates kept their ODI status as well as Scotland who this time failed to qualify for the World Cup; the following 14 teams qualified for the final tournament. In April 2009 the ICC announced that Pakistan had lost its right to co-host the 2011 World Cup because of concerns about the "uncertain security situation" in the country in the aftermath of the 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team in Lahore; the PCB estimated. This figure took account only of the fees of $750,000 per match guaranteed by the ICC.
The overall loss to the PCB and the Pakistani economy were expected to be much greater. On 9 April 2009 PCB chairman Ijaz Butt revealed that they had issued a legal notice to oppose ICC's decision; the ICC, claimed that the PCB was still a co-host, that they had only relocated the matches out of Pakistan. Pakistan proposed that South Asia host the 2015 World Cup and that Australia and New Zealand host the 2011 event, but this option did not find favour with their co-hosts and was not implemented. On 11 April 2005 PCB chairman Shaharyar Khan announced an agreement on the allocation of games, under which India would host the final and Sri Lanka the semi-finals, Bangladesh the opening ceremony. After being stripped of its status as a co-host, Pakistan proposed to host its allocated games in the United Arab Emirates as a neutral venue, they had played matches in Abu Dhabi and Sharjah in the preceding months. On 28 April 2009, the ICC announced that matches intended to be played in Pakistan would be reallocated.
As a result, India hosted 29 matches across eight venues, including one semi-final.
International Cricket Council
The International Cricket Council is the global governing body of cricket. It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in 1909 by representatives from Australia and South Africa, it was renamed as the International Cricket Conference in 1965, took up its current name in 1989. The ICC has 105 members: 12 Full Members that play 93 Associate Members; the ICC is responsible for the organisation and governance of cricket's major international tournaments, most notably the Cricket World Cup. It appoints the umpires and referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One Day International and Twenty20 Internationals, it promulgates the ICC Code of Conduct, which sets professional standards of discipline for international cricket, co-ordinates action against corruption and match-fixing through its Anti-Corruption and Security Unit. The ICC does not control bilateral fixtures between member countries, it does not govern domestic cricket in member countries, it does not make the laws of the game, which remain under the control of the Marylebone Cricket Club.
The Chairman heads the board of directors and on 26 June 2014, N. Srinivasan, the former president of BCCI, was announced as the first chairman of the council; the role of ICC president has become a honorary position since the establishment of the chairman role and other changes were made to the ICC constitution in 2014. It has been claimed that the 2014 changes have handed control to the so-called'Big Three' nations of England and Australia; the last ICC president was Zaheer Abbas, appointed in June 2015 following the resignation of Mustafa Kamal in April 2015. The post of ICC president was abolished in April 2016 and Shashank Manohar who replaced Mr. Srinivasan in October 2015 became the first independent chairman of the ICC since then; the current CEO is Manu Sawhney,the former CEO of Singapore Sports Hub and Managing Director of ESPN Star Sports who succeeded David Richardson. On 30 November 1907, Abe Bailey, the President of South African Cricket Association, wrote a letter to the Marylebone Cricket Club's secretary, F.
E. Lacey. Bailey suggested the formation of an'Imperial Cricket Board'. In the letter, he suggested that the board would be responsible for formulation of rules and regulations which will govern the international matches between the three members: Australia and South Africa. Bailey, wanted to host a Triangular Test series between the participant countries in South Africa. Australia rejected the offer. However, Bailey did not lose hope, he saw an opportunity of getting the three members together during the Australia's tour of England in 1909. After continued lobbying and efforts, Bailey was successful. On 15 June 1909, representatives from England and South Africa met at Lord's and founded the Imperial Cricket Conference. A month a second meeting between the three members was held; the rules were agreed amongst the nations, the first Tri-Test series was decided to be held in England in 1912. In 1926, West Indies, New Zealand and India were elected as Full Members, doubling the number of Test-playing nations to six.
After the formation of Pakistan in 1947, it was given Test status in 1952, becoming the seventh Test-playing nation. In May 1961 South Africa therefore lost membership. In 1964, the ICC agreed upon including the non-Test playing countries; the following year, the ICC changed its name to the International Cricket Conference. Under the new type of membership, the Associate. US, Ceylon and Fiji were admitted. In 1966, Bermuda and East Africa were admitted as Associate. South Africa had still not applied to rejoin the ICC. In 1969, the basic rules of ICC were amended. In 1971 meeting, the idea of organizing a World Cup was introduced. In 1973 meeting, it was decided; the six Test playing nations and East Africa and Sri Lanka were invited to take part. New members were added during this period: In 1974, Argentina and Singapore were admitted as Associate. In 1976, West Africa was admitted as Associate. In 1977, Bangladesh was admitted as Associate. In 1978, Papua-New Guinea was admitted as Associate. South Africa applied to rejoin, however their application was rejected.
In 1981,Sri Lanka was promoted to being a Full Member. They played their first Test in 1982. In 1984, the third type of membership. Italy was the first member, followed by Switzerland in 1985. In 1987, Bahamas and France were admitted, followed by Nepal in 1988. In the July meeting of 1989, the ICC renamed itself to the International Cricket Council and the trend of the MCC President automatically becoming the Chairman of ICC was terminated. In 1990, UAE joined as an associate. In 1991, for the first time in ICC history the meeting was held away from England – in Melbourne. South Africa was re-elected as a Full Member of the ICC after the end of apartheid. In 1992, Zimbabwe was admitted as the ninth Full Member of the International Cricket Council. Namibia joined as Associate member. Austria, Belgium and Spain joined as Affiliates. In 1993, the Chief Executive of ICC was created with David Richards of the Australian Cricket Board the first person appointed to the position. In July, Sir Clyde Walcott, from Barbados, was elected as the first non-British Chairman.
The emergence of new technology saw the introduction of a third umpire, equipped with video playback facilities. By 1995, TV replays were made available for run outs and stumpings in Test matches with the third umpire required to signal out or not out with red and green lights respectively; the following
Vanuatu the Republic of Vanuatu, is a Pacific island country located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, of volcanic origin, is 1,750 kilometres east of northern Australia, 540 kilometres northeast of New Caledonia, east of New Guinea, southeast of the Solomon Islands, west of Fiji. Vanuatu was first inhabited by Melanesian people; the first Europeans to visit the islands were a Spanish expedition led by Portuguese navigator Fernandes de Queirós, who arrived on the largest island in 1606. Since the Portuguese and Spanish monarchies had been unified under the king of Spain in 1580, Queirós claimed the archipelago for Spain, as part of the colonial Spanish East Indies, named it La Austrialia del Espíritu Santo. In the 1880s, France and the United Kingdom claimed parts of the archipelago, in 1906, they agreed on a framework for jointly managing the archipelago as the New Hebrides through an Anglo–French condominium. An independence movement arose in the 1970s, the Republic of Vanuatu was founded in 1980.
Since independence, the country is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Pacific Islands Forum. Vanuatu's name is derived from the word vanua, which occurs in several Austronesian languages, the word tu. Together the two words indicated the independent status of the new country; the prehistory of Vanuatu is obscure. Pottery fragments have been found dating to 1300–1100 BC; the Vanuatu group of islands first had contact with Europeans in 1606, when the Portuguese explorer Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, sailing for the Spanish Crown, arrived on the largest island and called the group of islands La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo or "The Southern Land of the Holy Spirit", believing he had arrived in Terra Australis. The Spanish established a short-lived settlement at Big Bay on the north side of the island; the name Espiritu Santo remains to this day. Europeans did not return until 1768, when Louis Antoine de Bougainville rediscovered the islands on 22 May, naming them the Great Cyclades.
In 1774, Captain Cook named the islands the New Hebrides, a name that would last until independence in 1980. In 1825, the trader Peter Dillon's discovery of sandalwood on the island of Erromango began a rush of immigrants that ended in 1830 after a clash between immigrant Polynesian workers and indigenous Melanesians. During the 1860s, planters in Australia, New Caledonia, the Samoa Islands, in need of labourers, encouraged a long-term indentured labour trade called "blackbirding". At the height of the labour trade, more than one-half the adult male population of several of the islands worked abroad. Fragmentary evidence indicates that the current population of Vanuatu is reduced compared to pre-contact times. In the 19th century, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, arrived on the islands. Settlers came, looking for land on which to establish cotton plantations; when international cotton prices collapsed, they switched to coffee, bananas, most coconuts. British subjects from Australia made up the majority, but the establishment of the Caledonian Company of the New Hebrides in 1882 soon tipped the balance in favour of French subjects.
By around the start of the 20th century, the French outnumbered the British two to one. The jumbling of French and British interests in the islands brought petitions for one or another of the two powers to annex the territory; the Convention of 16 October 1887 established a joint naval commission for the sole purpose of protecting French and British citizens, with no claim to jurisdiction over internal native affairs. In 1906, however and the United Kingdom agreed to administer the islands jointly. Called the British-French Condominium, it was a unique form of government, with separate governmental systems that came together only in a joint court; the condominium's authority was extended in the Anglo-French Protocol of 1914, although this was not formally ratified until 1922. Melanesians were barred from acquiring the citizenship of either power and were stateless. In the 1920s, indentured workers from French Annam came to work in the plantations in the New Hebrides, they were 437 in 1923, 5,413 in 1930 after the crisis 1,630 in 1937.
There was some social and political unrest among them in 1947. Challenges to the condominium government began in the early 1940s; the arrival of Americans during the Second World War, with their informal habits and relative wealth, contributed to the rise of nationalism in the islands. The belief in a mythical messianic figure named John Frum was the basis for an indigenous cargo cult promising Melanesian deliverance. Today, John Frum is a political party with a member in Parliament; the first political party, established in the early 1970s, was called the New Hebrides National Party. One of the founders was Father Walter Lini, who became Prime Minister. Renamed the Vanua'aku Pati in 1974, the party pushed for independence, gained amidst the brief Coconut War; the independent Republic of Vanuatu was established in 1980. During the 1990s, Vanuatu experienced a period of political instability which resulted in a more decentralised government; the Vanu
Port Vila VEE-lə is the capital and largest city of Vanuatu and is on the island of Efate. Its population in the last census was an increase of 35 % on the previous census result. In 2009, the population of Port Vila formed 18.8% of the country's population, 66.9% of the population of Efate. On the south coast of the island of Efate, in Shefa Province, Port Vila is the economic and commercial centre of Vanuatu; the mayor is Mambo Albert Sandy Daniel, of the Vanua'aku Pati, elected in January 2018. On March 13, 2015, Port Vila bore extensive damage from Cyclone Pam. Locally the town is most referred to as "Vila"; the name of the area is Efil in the native South Efate language and Ifira in neighbouring Mele-Fila language. Vila is a variant of these names. Ifira is a small island in Vila harbour; the area occupied by Port Vila has been inhabited by Melanesian people for thousands of years. In Autumn of 2004, an archaeological expedition known as Teouma discovered a burial site of 25 tombs containing three dozen skeletons of members of the Lapita culture.
Pieces of ceramics found at the site were dated to the 13th century BC. In May 1606, the first Europeans arrived at the island, led by the Portuguese explorers Pedro Fernandes de Queirós and Luis Vaz de Torres. In the 19th century when the islands were known as the New Hebrides, the British possessed economic control of the zone, though by the end of 1880, the economic balance began to favour the French. French citizen Ferdinand Chevillard began buying and clearing land around Port Vila to be converted into the largest French plantation on the island. Instead, it was converted into the municipality of Franceville, which declared independence on August 9, 1889, though this only lasted until June of the following year, it was the first self-governing nation to practice universal suffrage without distinction of sex or race. Although the population at the time consisted of about 500 native islanders and fewer than fifty whites, only the latter were permitted to hold office. One of the elected presidents was a US citizen by birth, R. D. Polk, a relative of American president James K. Polk.
After 1887, the territory was jointly administered by the British. This was formalized in 1906 as an Anglo-French Condominium. During World War II, Port Vila was an Australian airbase. In 1987, Cyclone Uma damaged the city. A powerful earthquake in January 2002 caused minor damage in surrounding areas; the city suffered massive damage from a category 5 cyclone named Cyclone Pam in March 2015, whose eye wall passed just to the east of Port Vila. Port Vila is the center of the country's trade; the international airport, Bauerfield International is located in the city. Air Vanuatu has its head office in Vanuatu House in Port Vila. Major industries in the city remain fishing. Tourism is becoming important from Australia and New Zealand. There were over 50,000 visitors in 1997. Vanuatu is a tax haven, offshore financing in Port Vila is an important part of the economy. Vanuatu is still dependent on foreign aid, most of which comes from Australia and New Zealand, although in recent years aid has come from the People's Republic of China.
One example was New Zealand paying to train doctors selected from the local community paying part of their wages during the first year after qualification. Australia has paid consultants to work in Port Vila Central Hospital. 35.7% of exports leave from Port Vila and 86.9% of imports arrive in Port Vila. The population is around 45,000. Bislama is spoken by everyone as the day-to-day language. In addition and French are widespread. Other indigenous languages are spoken in the city. Christianity is the predominant religion across Vanuatu, followed by more than 90% of the population; the largest denomination is the Presbyterian Church in Vanuatu, followed by one third of the population. Roman Catholicism and the Church of Melanesia are common, each about 15%. Cathédrale du Sacré-Cœur is a modern Roman Catholic cathedral in Port Vila; the seat of the Diocese of Port Vila, the church is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Port Vila has a tropical climate, more a tropical rainforest climate, with noticeably wetter and drier months.
As the trade winds are permanent and cyclones are not rare in Port Vila, the climate is not equatorial but maritime trade-wind tropical climate. Rainfall averages about 2,360 millimetres per year, the wettest month is April; the driest month is September. There are 113 wet days in an average year; the area has south-east trade winds. Temperatures do not vary much at all throughout the year, the record high is 34 C; the coldest month, has an average high of 24 C, an average low of 18 C. The hottest month, has an average high of 29 C and an average low of 23 C; the record low for Port Vila is 12 C. Humidity is high; the capital of Vanuatu has various sights to offer. There are several memorials, e.g. opposite the Parliament where two traditional totem poles and a monument representing a pig's tusk can be seen. The Presbyterian Church of Port Vila is an impressive and sightworthy building opposite the Independence Park. A colourful wall painting can be seen on the administration building opposite the market ha