The Anti-Racist Action Network was a decentralized network of anti-fascists and anti-racists in North America which existed from 1987 until 2013. ARA activists organize actions, including the self-defense to disrupt neo-Nazi and white supremacist groups, help organize activities against fascist and racist ideologies. ARA groups oppose sexism, heterosexism, anti-immigration, anti-Semitism, the anti-abortion movement. ARA originated from the punk subcultures with influence from anarchist politics. Anti-Racist Action was founded in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the late 1980s by members of the anti-fascist skinhead group Minneapolis Baldies, left-wing punk rock fans, other activists. ARA expanded to several communities in the United States and Canada. Members of Love and Rage, a revolutionary anarchist organization, played a major role in building ARA groups and the ARA Network in the 1990s, the group's structure was formalized in 1994 at the first Midwest Anti-Fascist Network conference, in Columbus, Ohio.
Anti-Racist Action is cited as a precursor to the American movement known as Antifa. On August 24, 2002, a neo-Nazi demonstration was held in Washington, D. C. and several ARA affiliates held a counter-demonstration. A melee resulted and 28 ARA activists were arrested. Within about 36 hours, most had been released from jail, many claimed that they were not properly informed about any crime they had committed until their release, if informed at all; the group became known as the Baltimore Anti-Racist 28. The charges were dropped, one of the 28 was not charged with any crime due to her status as a minor. On October 15, 2005, ARA members participated in a protest in Toledo, Ohio against the National Socialist Movement, in an incident that became known as the 2005 Toledo Riot. On March 21, 2010, ARA members scouted downtown Chicago waiting for the "White Pride World Wide" march, advertised months prior by the Illinois National Socialist Front; the INSF had backed out of the march several weeks prior, but four Neo-Nazis were spotted and confronted by anti-fascists.
Two members of racist groups were arrested, a pro-diversity rally was held nearby. On April 15, 2011, ARA members confronted the National Socialist Movement's annual conference in Pemberton, New Jersey. A melee ensued with reports indicating that four members of the NSM being hospitalized and the conference being shut down; the following day in Trenton, NJ, the NSM Held a 90-minute rally at the Statehouse, outnumbered fourfold by anti-racist counter-protesters. On May 19, 2012, up to 20 people wearing masks and black clothes entered the Ashford House Restaurant in Tinley Park and attacked white supremacists who were attending the "fifth annual White Nationalist Economic Summit and Illinois White Nationalist Meet-and-Greet", organized by the Wood River-based Illinois European Heritage Association, which claims associations with White News Now and Stormfront, an Internet forum for white nationalists. Five members of Hoosier Anti-Racist Movement, part of the Anti-Racist Action Network, were subsequently charged with felony counts of mob action, aggravated battery and criminal damage to property, pleading guilty in 2013 and sentenced to terms ranging from 3 ½ to 6 years in prison.
Anti-fascism Anti-Fascist Action Lin Newborn Red and Anarchist Skinheads Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice Mark Bray,Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook. 2017. Official website A Communiqué on Tactics and Organization to the Black Bloc, from within the Black Bloc, by Columbus ARA & The Green Mountain Anarchist Collective, 2001
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism. Neo-Nazis seek to employ their ideology to promote hatred and attack minorities, or in some cases to create a fascist political state, it is a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries and international networks. It borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, xenophobia, homophobia, anti-Romanyism, anti-communism and initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is the incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler. In some European and Latin American countries, laws prohibit the expression of pro-Nazi, anti-Semitic, or homophobic views. Many Nazi-related symbols are banned in European countries in an effort to curtail neo-Nazism; the term neo-Nazism describes any post-World War II militant, social or political movements seeking to revive the ideology of Nazism in whole or in part.
The term neo-Nazism can refer to the ideology of these movements, which may borrow elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, anti-communism, ableism, homophobia, anti-Romanyism, antisemitism, up to initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is the incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler. Neo-Nazism is considered a particular form of right-wing extremism. Neo-Nazi writers have posited a spiritual, esoteric doctrine of race, which moves beyond the Darwinian-inspired materialist scientific racism popular in the Anglosphere during the 20th century. Figures influential in the development of neo-Nazi racism, such as Miguel Serrano and Julius Evola, claim that the Hyperborean ancestors of the Aryans were in the distant past, far higher beings than their current state, having suffered from "involution" due to mixing with the "Telluric" peoples. Within this theory, if the "Aryans" are to return to the Golden Age of the distant past, they need to awaken the memory of the blood.
An extraterrestrial origin of the Hyperboreans is claimed. These theories draw influence from Tantrism, building on the work of the Ahnenerbe. Within this racist theory, Jews are held up as the antithesis of nobility and beauty. Neo-Nazism aligns itself with a blood and soil variation of environmentalism, which has themes in common with deep ecology, the organic movement and animal protectionism; this tendency, sometimes called "ecofascism", was represented in the original German National Socialism by Richard Walther Darré, the Reichsminister of Food from 1933 until 1942. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany, the political ideology of the ruling party, was in complete disarray; the final leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party was Martin Bormann. He died on 2 May 1945 during the Battle of Berlin, but the Soviet Union did not reveal his death to the rest of the world, his ultimate fate remained a mystery for many years. Conspiracy theories emerged about Hitler himself, that he had secretly survived the war and fled to South America or elsewhere.
The Allied Control Council dissolved the NSDAP on 10 October 1945, marking the end of "Old" National Socialism. A process of denazification began, the Nuremberg trials took place, where many major leaders and ideologues were condemned to death by October 1946, others committed suicide. In both the East and West, surviving ex-party members and military veterans assimilated to the new reality and had no interest in constructing a "neo-Nazism." However, during the 1949 elections a number of National Socialist advocates such as Fritz Rössler had infiltrated the national conservative Deutsche Rechtspartei, which had 5 members elected. Rössler and others left to found the more radical Socialist Reich Party under Otto Ernst Remer. At the onset of the Cold War, the SRP favoured the Soviet Union over the United States. In Austria national independence had been restored, the Verbotsgesetz 1947 explicitly criminalised the NSDAP and any attempt at restoration. West Germany adopted a similar law to target parties.
As a consequence some members of the nascent movement of German neo-Nazism joined the Deutsche Reichspartei of which Hans-Ulrich Rudel was the most prominent figure. Younger members founded the Wiking-Jugend modeled after the Hitler Youth; the Deutsche Reichspartei stood for elections from 1953 until 1961 fetching around 1% of the vote each time. Rudel befriended French-born Savitri Devi, a proponent of Esoteric Nazism. In the 1950s she wrote a number of books, such as Pilgrimage, which concerns prominent Third Reich sites, The Lightning and the Sun, in which she claims that Adolf Hitler was an avatar of the God Vishnu, she was not alone in this reorientation of National Socialism towards its Thulean-roots. In the German Democratic Republic a former member of SA, Wilhelm Adam, founded the National Democratic Party of Germany, it reached out to those attracted by the Nazi Party before 1945 and provide them with a political outlet, so that they would not be tempted to support the far-right again or turn to the anti-communist Western Allies.
Stalin wanted to use them to create a new pro-Soviet and anti-West
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public, as seen in multiple countries listed below; such incidents may occur after a coup d'état. Martial law may be declared in cases of major natural disasters. Martial law has been imposed during conflicts, in cases of occupations, where the absence of any other civil government provides for an unstable population. Examples of this form of military rule include post World War II reconstruction in Germany and Japan, the recovery and reconstruction of the former Confederate States of America during Reconstruction Era in the United States of America following the American Civil War, German occupation of northern France between 1871 and 1873 after the Treaty of Frankfurt ended the Franco-Prussian War; the imposition of martial law accompanies curfews.
Civilians defying martial law may be subjected to military tribunal. The Black War was a period of violent conflict between British colonists and Aboriginal Australians in Tasmania from the mid-1820s to 1832. With an escalation of violence in the late 1820s, Lieutenant-Governor George Arthur declared martial law in November 1828—effectively providing legal immunity for killing Aboriginal people, it would remain in force for more than three years, the longest period of martial law in Australian history. Brunei has been under a martial law since a rebellion occurred on 8 December 1962 known as the Brunei Revolt and was put down by British troops from Singapore; the Sultan of Brunei, Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah, is presently the head of state and the Minister of Defense and Commander in Chief of Royal Brunei Armed Forces The War Measures Act was a Government of Canada statute that allowed the government to assume sweeping emergency powers, stopping short of martial law, i.e. the military does not administer justice, which remains in the hands of the courts.
The Act has been invoked three times: During World War I, World War II, the October Crisis of 1970. In 1988, the War Measures Act was replaced by the Emergencies Act. During the colonial era, martial law was proclaimed and applied in the territory of the Province of Quebec during the invasion of Canada by the army of the American Continental Congress in 1775–1776, it was applied twice in the territory of Lower Canada during the 1837–1838 insurrections. On December 5, following the events of November 1837, martial law was proclaimed in the district of Montréal by Governor Gosford, without the support of the Legislative Assembly in the Parliament of Lower Canada, it was imposed until April 27, 1838. Martial law was proclaimed a second time on November 4, 1838, this time by acting Governor John Colborne, was applied in the district of Montreal until August 24, 1839. In Egypt, a State of Emergency has been in effect continuously since 1967. Following the assassination of President Anwar el-Sadat in 1981, a state of emergency was declared.
Egypt has been under state of emergency since. The legislation was extended in 2003 and were due to expire at the end of May 2006, but after the Dahab bombings in April of that year, state of emergency was renewed for another two years. In May 2008 there was a further extension to June 2010. In May 2010, the state of emergency was further extended, albeit with a promise from the government to be applied only to'Terrorism and Drugs' suspects. A State of Emergency gives military courts the power to try civilians and allows the government to detain for renewable 45-day periods and without court orders anyone deemed to be threatening state security. Public demonstrations are banned under the legislation. On 10 February 2011, the ex-president of Egypt, Hosni Mubarak, promised the deletion of the relevant constitutional article that gives legitimacy to State of Emergency in an attempt to please the mass number of protesters that demanded him to resign. On 11 February 2011, the president stepped down and the vice president Omar Suleiman de facto introduced the country to martial law when transferring all civilian powers from the presidential institution to the military institution.
It meant that the presidential executive powers, the parliamentary legislative powers and the judicial powers all transferred directly into the military system which may delegate powers back and forth to any civilian institution within its territory. The military issued in its third announcement the "end of the State of Emergency as soon as order is restored in Egypt". Before martial law, the Egyptian parliament under the constitution had the civilian power to declare a State of Emergency; when in martial law, the military gained all powers of the state, including to dissolve the parliament and suspend the constitution as it did in its fifth announcement. Under martial law, the only legal framework within the Egyptian territory is the numbered announcements from the military; these announcements c
National Socialist Movement (United States)
The National Socialist Movement is a neo-Nazi organization based in Detroit, Michigan. It is a part of the Nationalist Front; the Party claimed to be the "largest and most active" National Socialist organization in the United States. Although classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center, it refers to itself as a "white civil rights organization", compares itself to the NAACP; the party objects to being referred to as "racist", "Neo-Nazi", stating that such descriptions of their goals are unflattering and inaccurate. Each state has members in smaller groups within areas known as "regions"; the NSM holds smaller regional and unit meetings. In January 2019, the leadership of the group was turned over to James Hart Stern, a black activist, who announced his intention to undermine the group and "eradicate" it; the NSM was founded in 1974 in St. Paul, Minnesota, as the "National Socialist American Workers Freedom Movement" by Robert Brannen and Cliff Herrington, former members of the American Nazi Party before the decline of the ANP.
In 1994 Jeff Schoep became the group's chairman, a position he held until January 2019. The NSM was responsible for leading the demonstration. In April 2006, the party held a rally on the capitol steps in Lansing, met by a larger counter-rally and ended in scuffles. In 2007, some members left to join the now-defunct National Socialist Order of America, led by 2008 presidential candidate John Taylor Bowles. In January 2009, the party sponsored a half-mile section of U. S. Highway 160 outside of Springfield, Missouri, as part of the Adopt-A-Highway Trash Cleanup program; the highway was renamed the "Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel Memorial Highway" by the state legislature. In 2009, the NSM had 61 chapters in 35 states, making it the largest neo-Nazi group in the United States according to the Southern Poverty Law Center; as of 2015, the NSM reports having direct organized presences in seven countries around the world, other affiliations beyond that. On April 17, 2010, 70 members of the NSM demonstrated against illegal immigration in front of the Los Angeles City Hall, drawing a counter protest of hundreds of anti-fascist demonstrators.
In May 2011, the NSM was described by The New York Times as being "the largest supremacist group, with about 400 members in 32 states, though much of its prominence followed the decay of Aryan Nation and other neo-Nazi groups". On May 1, 2011, Jeff Hall, a leader of the California branch of the NSM, was killed by his 10-year-old troubled son, who claimed he was tired of Jeff beating him and his stepmother. Hall had run in 2010 for a seat on the board of directors of a Riverside County water board, a race in which he earned 30% of the vote; the NSM held a rally on September 3, 2011 in West Allis, Wisconsin, to protest incidents at the Wisconsin State Fair on August 5, 2011 when a large crowd of young African-Americans targeted and beat white people as they left the fair around 11 p.m. Police claimed the incident began as a fight among African-American youths, not racially motivated. Dan Devine, the mayor of West Allis, stated on September 2, 2011, "I believe I speak for the citizens when I say they are not welcome here."In 2012, two former members of the NSM were arrested and sentenced to prison for drug trafficking, stockpiling weapons, plotting terrorism against a Mexican consulate in the United States.
As of March 2015, the organization had planned a return to Toledo, for a rally focusing on crime in the area. In June 2016, the group helped organize the rally. In November 2016, following the election of Donald Trump, the organization changed its logo, replacing the swastika with an Odal rune in an attempt to enter mainstream politics; the account of its leader, Jeff Schoep, was suspended by Twitter on December 18, 2017. After the August riot and violence rising from the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, two lawsuits targeting 21 racist "alt-right" and hate group leaders, including the NSM and leader Jeff Schoep, were filed in U. S. District Court for the Western District of Virginia and another in Virginia Circuit Court. Organizations named in both suits were the National Socialist Movement. S. chapters. Two Ku Klux Klan groups, the Loyal White Knights and the East Coast Knights of the KKK, were named defendants in the federal suit; the 96 page federal court filing accused the white supremacists of violating the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 and other statutes and seeks compensation and punitive damages.
They asked the courts to intervene with legal orders preventing a repeat of the deadly events that occurred in Charlottesville on August 11 and 12, barring use of private militias at such events. Plaintiffs in the 96-page federal suit were described as "University of Virginia undergraduates, law students and staff, persons of faith, parents and businesspersons – white and black; the City of Charlottesville, along with several businesses and neighborhood associations, were plaintiffs in the 81-page state suit. The lawsuits claimed the August rally in Charlottesville was planned for weeks, with its organizers making extensive use of social media – coordinating everything from telling individuals to buy tiki torches to use of an internet-based communications system designed for gamers; the federal suit said "hundreds of neo-Nazis and white supremacists traveled from near and far to descend upon the college town... in order to terror
A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with and engage enemy targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding the target's detection capabilities. Snipers have specialized training and are equipped with high-precision rifles and high-magnification optics, feed information back to their units or command headquarters. In addition to marksmanship and long range shooting, military snipers are trained in a variety of tactical techniques: detection and target range estimation methods, field craft, special reconnaissance and observation and target acquisition; the verb "to snipe" originated in the 1770s among soldiers in British India in reference to shooting snipes, considered an challenging game bird for hunters. The agent noun "sniper" appears by the 1820s; the term sniper was first attested in 1824 in the sense of the word "sharpshooter". A somewhat older term is "sharp shooter", a calque of 18th-century German Scharfschütze, in use in British newspapers as early as 1801.
Different countries use different military doctrines regarding snipers in military units and tactics. A sniper's primary function in modern warfare is to provide detailed reconnaissance from a concealed position and, if necessary, to reduce the enemy's fighting ability by shooting high-value targets and in the process pinning down and demoralizing the enemy. Typical sniper missions include managing intelligence information they gather during reconnaissance and surveillance, target acquisition for air-strikes and artillery, assist employed combat force with fire support and counter-sniper tactics, killing enemy commanders, selecting targets of opportunity, destruction of military equipment, which tend to require use of anti-materiel rifles in the larger calibers such as the.50 BMG, like the Barrett M82, McMillan Tac-50, Denel NTW-20. Soviet- and Russian-derived military doctrines include squad-level snipers. Snipers have been demonstrated as useful by US and UK forces in the recent Iraq campaign in a fire support role to cover the movement of infantry in urban areas.
Military snipers from the US, UK, other countries that adopt their military doctrine are deployed in two-man sniper teams consisting of a shooter and spotter. A common practice is for a spotter to take turns in order to avoid eye fatigue. In most recent combat operations occurring in large densely populated towns, such as Fallujah, two teams would be deployed together to increase their security and effectiveness in an urban environment. A sniper team would be armed with its long-range weapon and a shorter-ranged weapon in case of close contact combat; the German doctrine of independent snipers and emphasis on concealment, developed during the Second World War, has been most influential on modern sniper tactics, is used throughout Western militaries. Sniper rifles are classified as crew-served. A sniper team consists of a combination of one or more shooters with force protection elements and support personnel: such as a spotter or a flanker. Within the Table of Organization and Equipment for both the United States Army and the U.
S. Marine Corps, the operator of the weapon has an assistant trained to fulfill multiple roles, in addition to being sniper-qualified in the operation of the weapon; the shooter fires the shot while the spotter assists in observation of targets, atmospheric conditions and handles ancillary tasks as immediate security of their location, communication with other parties. A flanker's task is to observe areas not visible to the sniper or spotter and assist with the team's perimeter and rear security, therefore flankers are armed with an assault rifle or battle rifle. Both spotter and flanker carry associated equipment; the spotter detects and assigns targets and watches for the results of the shot. Using a spotting scope or a rangefinder, the spotter will read the wind by using physical indicators and the mirage caused by the heat on the ground. In conjunction with the shooter, the spotter will make calculations for distance, angle shooting, mil dot related calculations, correction for atmospheric conditions and leads for moving targets.
It is not unusual for the spotter to be equipped with a notepad and a laptop computer for performing these calculations. Law enforcement snipers called police snipers, military snipers differ in many ways, including their areas of operation and tactics. A police sharpshooter is part of a police operation and takes part in short missions. Police forces deploy such sharpshooters in hostage scenarios; this differs from a military sniper. Sometimes as part of a SWAT team, police snipers are deployed alongside negotiators and an assault team trained for close quarters combat; as policemen, they are trained to shoot only as a last resort, when there is a direct threat to life. Police snipers operate at much shorter ranges than military snipers under 100 meters and sometimes less than 50 meters. Both types of snipers do make difficult shots under pressure, perform one-shot kills. Police units that are unequipped for tactical operations may rely on
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Armoured personnel carrier
An armoured personnel carrier is a broad type of armoured, military vehicles designed to transport personnel and equipment in combat zones. They are sometimes referred to colloquially as'battle taxis' or'battle buses'. Since World War I, APCs have become a common piece of military equipment around the world. According to the definition in the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, an APC is "an armoured combat vehicle, designed and equipped to transport a combat infantry squad and which, as a rule, is armed with an integral or organic weapon of less than 20 millimetres calibre." APCs have less armament than other Armoured Fighting Vehicles which are designed to participate directly in combat. The American M113 and the Soviet BTR-60 are iconic examples; the genesis of the armoured personnel carrier was on the Western Front of World War I. In the stage of the war, Allied tanks could break through enemy lines, but the infantry following—who were needed to consolidate the gains—still faced small arms and artillery fire.
Without infantry support, the tanks were isolated and more destroyed. In response, the British experimented with carrying machine-gun crews in the Mark V* tank, but it was found that the conditions inside the tanks rendered the men unfit for combat. Britain therefore designed the first purpose-built armoured troop transport, the Mark IX, but the war ended before it could be put to use. During World War II, half-tracks like the American German Sd. Kfz. 251 played a role similar to post-war APCs. British Commonwealth forces relied on the full-tracked Universal Carrier. Over the course of the war, APCs evolved from simple armoured cars with transport capacity, to purpose-built vehicles. Obsolete armoured vehicles were repurposed as APCs, such as the various "Kangaroos" converted from M7 Priest self-propelled guns and from Churchill, M3 Stuart and Ram tanks. During the Cold War, more specialized APCs were developed; the United States introduced a series of them, including successors to the wartime Landing Vehicle Tracked.
Western nations have since retired most M113s, replacing them with newer APCs, many of these wheeled. The Soviet Union produced the BTR-152, BTR-60, BTR-70, BTR-80 in large numbers. Czechoslovakia and Poland together developed the universal amphibious OT-64 SKOT. A cold war example of a "Kangaroo" is the armoured Israeli Achzarit, converted from captured T-55s tanks. By convention, they are not intended to take part in direct-fire battle, but are armed for self-defence and armoured to provide protection from shrapnel and small arms fire. An APC is either wheeled or tracked, or a combination of the two, as in a half-track. Wheeled vehicles are faster on road and less expensive, however have higher ground pressure which decreases mobility offroad and makes them more to become stuck in soft terrains such as mud, snow or sand. Tracked vehicles have lower ground pressure and more maneuverability off road. Due to the limited service life of their treads, the wear they cause on roads, tracked vehicles are transported over long distances by rail or trucks.
Many APCs are amphibious. To move in water they will have propellers or water jets, or be propelled by their tracks. Preparing the APC to operate amphibiously comprises checking the integrity of the hull and folding down a trim vane in front. Water traverse speed varies between vehicles and is much less than ground speed; the maximum swim speed of the M113 is 3.8 mph, about 10% its road speed, the AAVP-7 can swim at 8.2 mph. Armoured personnel carriers are designed to protect against small arms and artillery fire; some designs have more protection. Armour is composed of steel or aluminium, they will use bulletproof glass. Many APCs are equipped with CBRN protection, intended to provide protection from weapons of mass destruction like poison gas and radioactive/nuclear weapons. APCs will be lighter and less armoured than tanks or IFVs being open topped and featuring doors and windows, as seen in the French VAB. Armoured personnel carriers are designed for transport and are armed, they may be unarmed, or armed with some combination of light, heavy machine guns, or automatic grenade launchers.
In Western nations, APCs are armed with the 50 calibre M2 Browning machine gun, 7.62mm FN MAG, or 40mm Mk 19 grenade launcher. In former Eastern bloc nations, the KPV, PKT and NSV machine guns are common options. In'open top' mounts the gunner sticks out of the vehicle and operates a gun on a pintle or ring mount. A ring mount allows the gun to traverse 360 degrees, a pintle mount, it can be preferable to an enclosed gunner because it allows a greater field of view and communication using shouts and hand signals. However, the gunner is poorly at risk of injury in the event of vehicle rollover. During the Vietnam War, M113 gunners suffered heavy casualties. Enclosed vehicles are equipped with turrets that allow the crew to operate the weapons system while protected by the vehicle's armour; the Soviet BTR-60 has an enclosed turret mounted with a KPV heavy machine gun with a PKT coaxial machine gun. The American AAVP machine gun in a enclosed turrets; the AAVP7 mounts a Mk 19 grenade launcher in a turret.
Turrets have optics which make them more accurate. More APCs have been equipped remote weapon systems; the baseline Stryker carries an M2 on a Protector remote weapons