The 1500 metres or 1,500-metre run is the foremost middle distance track event in athletics. The distance has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 and the World Championships in Athletics since 1983, it is equivalent to 1.5 kilometers or 15⁄16 miles. The demands of the race are similar to that of the 800 metres, but with a higher emphasis on aerobic endurance and a lower sprint speed requirement; the 1500 metre race is predominantly aerobic, but anaerobic conditioning is required. Each lap run during the world-record race run by Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco in 1998 in Rome, Italy averaged just under 55 seconds. 1,500 metres is three-quarter laps around a 400-metre track. During the 1970s and 1980s this race was dominated by British runners, along with an occasional Finn, American, or New Zealander, but through the 1990s a large number of African runners began to take over in being the masters of this race, with runners from Kenya and Algeria winning the Olympic gold medals. In the Modern Olympic Games, the men's 1,500-metre race has been contested from the beginning, at every Olympic Games since.
The first winner, in 1896, was Edwin Flack of Australia, who won the first gold medal in the 800-metre race. The women's 1,500-metre race was first added to the Summer Olympics in 1972, the winner of the first gold medal was Lyudmila Bragina of the Soviet Union. During the Olympic Games of 1972 through 2008, the women's 1,500-metre race has been won by three Soviets plus one Russian, one Italian, one Romanian, one Briton, one Kenyan, two Algerians; the 2012 Olympic results are still undecided as a result of multiple doping cases. The best women's times for the race were controversially set by Chinese runners, all set in the same race on just two dates 4 years apart at the Chinese National Games. At least one of those top Chinese athletes has admitted to being part of a doping program; the women's record was surpassed by Genzebe Dibaba of Ethiopia in 2015. In American high schools, the mile run and the 1,600-metre run colloquially referred to as "metric mile", are more run than the 1,500-metre run, since US customary units are better-known in America.
Which distance is used depends on which state the high school is in, for convenience, national rankings are standardized by converting all 1,600-metre run times to their mile run equivalents. Many 1500 metres events at the championship level, turn into slow, strategic races, with the pace quickening and competitors jockeying for position in the final lap to settle the race in a final sprint; such is the difficulty of maintaining the pace throughout the duration of the event, most records are set in planned races led by pacemakers who sacrifice their opportunity to win by leading the early laps at a fast pace before dropping out. "The person who wins the race is behind watching" Correct as of September 2018. Below is a list of other times superior to 3:28.00: Hicham El Guerrouj ran 3:26.12, 3:26.89, 3:27.21, 3:27.64, 3:27.65. Bernard Lagat ran 3:27.40, 3:27.91. Asbel Kiprop ran 3:27.72. Correct as of September 2018. Below is a list of other times superior to 3:55.50: Genzebe Dibaba ran 3:54.11, 3:55.17i.
Tatyana Kazankina ran 3:55.0. Lixin Lan ran 3:55.01. Yunxia Qu ran 3:55.38. Zhang Ling ran 3:55.47. The following athlete had their performance annulled due to a doping violation: Mariem Selsouli 3:56.15 A Known as the World Indoor Games "i" indicates performance on 200m indoor track 1,500 metres is an event in swimming and speed skating. The world records for the distance in swimming for men are 14:31.02 by Sun Yang, 14:08.06 by Gregorio Paltrinieri. The world records for the distance in speed skating are 1:41.04 by Shani Davis and 1:50.85 by Heather Richardson-Bergsma. IAAF list of 1500-metres records in XML Statistics
The 5000 metres or 5000-meter run is a common long-distance running event in track and field. It is one of the track events in the Olympic Games and the World Championships in Athletics, run over 12.5 laps of a standard track. The same distance in road running is called a 5K run; the 5000 m has been present on the Olympic programme since 1912 since 1996 for women. Prior to 1996, women had competed in an Olympic 3000 metres race since 1984; the 5000 m has been held at each of the World Championships in Athletics in men's competition and since 1995 in women's. The event is the same length as the dolichos race held at the Ancient Olympic Games, introduced in 720 BCE. While run as an outdoor event, the 5000 m is sometimes run on an indoor track; the IAAF keeps official records for both indoor 5000 m track events. 5000 metres is the longer metric derivative of the 3 mile run, an event common in countries when they were using the imperial measurement system. 3 miles was used in the Commonwealth Games until 1966 and was a championship in the United States in non-Olympic years from 1953 to 1973.
It is 12 laps around a quarter mile 1320 ft 0 in track. Correct as of September 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 12:49.60: Kenenisa Bekele ran 12:40.18, 12:48.09, 12:48.25, 12:49.53, 12:49.60i. Haile Gebrselassie ran 12:41.86, 12:44.39. Daniel Komen ran 12:44.90, 12:45.09, 12:48.98. Hagos Gebrhiwet ran 12:47.53 Correct as of July 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 14:31.91: Almaz Ayana ran 14:14.32, 14:18.89, 14:25.84, 14:29.19. Tirunesh Dibaba ran 14:23.68, 14:30.40, 14:30.88. Genzebe Dibaba ran 14:19.76, 14:25.22, 14:26.89. Vivian Cheruiyot ran 14:26.17. Hellen Obiri ran 14:21.75, 14:22.37, 14:25.78, 14:25.88, 14:29.77. Senbere Teferi ran 14:29.82, 14:31.76. Letesenbet Gidey ran 14:30.29. Paula Radcliffe ran 14:31.42. "i" indicates indoor performance. National champions 5000 metres National champions 5000 metres IAAF list of 5000-metres records in XML ARRS: Yearly Rankings – 5000 metres Outdoor Track All-time Masters men's 5000 m list All-time Masters women's 5000 m list
The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about 2.5 m in length, is thrown. The javelin thrower gains momentum by running within a predetermined area. Javelin throwing is an event of both the women's heptathlon; the javelin was part of the pentathlon of the Ancient Olympic Games beginning in 708 BC in two disciplines and target throw. The javelin was thrown with the aid of a thong, called ankyle wound around the middle of the shaft. Athletes would hold the javelin by the thong and when the javelin was released this thong unwound giving the javelin a spiraled flight. Throwing javelin-like poles into targets was revived in Germany and Sweden in the early 1870s. In Sweden, these poles developed into the modern javelin, throwing them for distance became a common event there and in Finland in the 1880s; the rules continued to evolve over the next decades. Limited run-ups were introduced in the late 1890s, soon developed into the modern unlimited run-up. Sweden's Eric Lemming, who threw his first world best in 1899 and ruled the event from 1902 to 1912, was the first dominant javelin thrower.
When the men's javelin was introduced as an Olympic discipline at the 1906 Intercalated Games, Lemming won by nine metres and broke his own world record. Though challenged by younger talents, Lemming repeated as Olympic champion in 1908 and 1912. In the late 19th and early 20th century, most javelin competitions were two-handed. Competitions for the better hand only were less common, though not unknown. At the Olympics a both-hands contest was held only once, in 1912. After that, this version of the javelin faded into obscurity, together with similar variations of the shot and the discus. Another early variant was the freestyle javelin, in which holding the javelin by the grip at the center of gravity was not mandatory. Hungary's Mór Kóczán used a freestyle end grip to break the 60-meter barrier in 1911, a year before Lemming and Julius Saaristo first did so with a regular grip; the first known women's javelin marks were recorded in Finland in 1909. Women threw the same implement as men. Women's javelin throw was added to the Olympic program in 1932.
For a long time, javelins were made of solid wood birch, with a steel tip. The hollow aerodynamic Held javelin, invented by American thrower Bud Held and developed and manufactured by his brother Dick, was introduced in the 1950s; these new javelins flew further, but were less to land neatly point first. The resulting designs, which made flat landings much less common and reduced the distances thrown, became official for men starting in April 1986 and for women in April 1999, the world records were reset; the current men's world record is held by Jan Železný at 98.48 m. Of the 69 Olympic medals that have been awarded in the men's javelin, 32 have gone to competitors from Norway, Sweden or Finland. Finland is the only nation to have swept the medals at a recognized official Olympics, has done so twice, in 1920 and 1932, in addition to its 1912 sweep in the two-handed javelin. Finland has, never been nearly as successful in the women's javelin; the javelin throw has been part of the decathlon since the decathlon was introduced in the early 1910s.
The javelin was part of some of the many early forms of women's pentathlon, has always been included in the heptathlon after it replaced the pentathlon in 1981. The size, minimum weight, center of gravity of the javelin are all defined by IAAF rules. In international competition, men throw a javelin between 2.6 and 2.7 m in length and 800 g in weight, women throw a javelin between 2.2 and 2.3 m in length and 600 g in weight. The javelin has a grip, about 150 mm wide, made of cord and located at the javelin's center of gravity. Unlike the other throwing events, the technique used to throw the javelin is dictated by IAAF rules and "non-orthodox" techniques are
The long jump is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. Along with the triple jump, the two events that measure jumping for distance as a group are referred to as the "horizontal jumps"; this event has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympic event for men since the first Olympics in 1896 and for women since 1948. At the elite level, competitors run down a runway and jump as far as they can from a wooden board 20 cm or 8 inches wide, built flush with the runway into a pit filled with finely ground gravel or sand. If the competitor starts the leap with any part of the foot past the foul line, the jump is declared a foul and no distance is recorded. A layer of plasticine is placed after the board to detect this occurrence. An official will watch the jump and make the determination; the competitor can initiate the jump from any point behind the foul line. Therefore, it is in the best interest of the competitor to get as close to the foul line as possible.
Competitors are allowed to place two marks along the side of the runway in order to assist them to jump accurately. At a lesser meet and facilities, the plasticine will not exist, the runway might be a different surface or jumpers may initiate their jump from a painted or taped mark on the runway. At a smaller meet, the number of attempts might be limited to four or three; each competitor has a set number of attempts. That would be three trials, with three additional jumps being awarded to the best 8 or 9 competitors. All legal marks will be recorded but only the longest legal jump counts towards the results; the competitor with the longest legal jump at the end of competition is declared the winner. In the event of an exact tie comparing the next best jumps of the tied competitors will be used to determine place. In a large, multi-day elite competition, a set number of competitors will advance to the final round, determined in advance by the meet management. A set of 3 trial round jumps will be held in order to select those finalists.
It is standard practice to allow at a minimum, one more competitor than the number of scoring positions to return to the final round, though 12 plus ties and automatic qualifying distances are potential factors.. For record purposes, the maximum accepted; the long jump is the only known jumping event of Ancient Greece's original Olympics' pentathlon events. All events that occurred at the Olympic Games were supposed to act as a form of training for warfare; the long jump emerged because it mirrored the crossing of obstacles such as streams and ravines. After investigating the surviving depictions of the ancient event it is believed that unlike the modern event, athletes were only allowed a short running start; the athletes carried a weight in each hand. These weights were swung forward, it was believed that the jumper would throw the weights behind him in midair to increase his forward momentum. Swinging them down and back at the end of the jump would change the athlete's center of gravity and allow the athlete to stretch his legs outward, increasing his distance.
The jump itself was made from the bater. It was most a simple board placed on the stadium track, removed after the event; the jumpers would land in. The idea that this was a pit full of sand is wrong. Sand in the jumping pit is a modern invention; the skamma was a temporary area dug up for that occasion and not something that remained over time. The long jump was considered one of the most difficult of the events held at the Games since a great deal of skill was required. Music was played during the jump and Philostratus says that pipes at times would accompany the jump so as to provide a rhythm for the complex movements of the halteres by the athlete. Philostratus is quoted as saying, "The rules regard jumping as the most difficult of the competitions, they allow the jumper to be given advantages in rhythm by the use of the flute, in weight by the use of the halter." Most notable in the ancient sport was a man called Chionis, who in the 656 BC Olympics staged a jump of 7.05 metres. There has been some argument by modern scholars over the long jump.
Some have attempted to recreate it as a triple jump. The images provide the only evidence for the action so it is more well received that it was much like today's long jump; the main reason some want to call it a triple jump is the presence of a source that claims there once was a fifty-five ancient foot jump done by a man named Phayllos. The long jump has been part of modern Olympic competition since the inception of the Games in 1896. In 1914, Dr. Harry Eaton Stewart recommended the "running broad jump" as a standardized track and field event for women. However, it was not until 1948 that the women's long jump was
The high jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump unaided over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it. In its modern most practised format, a bar is placed between two standards with a crash mat for landing. In the modern era, athletes run towards the bar and use the Fosbury Flop method of jumping, leaping head first with their back to the bar. Since ancient times, competitors have introduced effective techniques to arrive at the current form; the discipline is, alongside the pole vault, one of two vertical clearance events to feature on the Olympic athletics programme. It is contested at the World Championships in Athletics and IAAF World Indoor Championships, is a common occurrence at track and field meetings; the high jump was among the first events deemed acceptable for women, having been held at the 1928 Olympic Games. Javier Sotomayor is the current men's record holder with a jump of 2.45 m set in 1993 – the longest standing record in the history of the men's high jump.
Stefka Kostadinova has held the women's world record at 2.09 m since 1987 the longest-held record in the event. The rules for the high jump are set internationally by the International Association of Athletics Federations. Jumpers must take off on one foot. A jump is considered a failure if the bar is dislodged by the action of the jumper whilst jumping or the jumper touches the ground or breaks the plane of the near edge of the bar before clearance; the technique one uses for the jump must be flawless in order to have a chance of clearing a high bar. Competitors may begin jumping at any height announced by the chief judge, or may pass, at their own discretion. Most competitions state that three consecutive missed jumps, at any height or combination of heights, will eliminate the jumper from competition; the victory goes to the jumper. Tie-breakers are used for any place. If two or more jumpers tie for one of these places, the tie-breakers are: 1) the fewest misses at the height at which the tie occurred.
If the event remains tied for first place, the jumpers have a jump-off, beginning at the next greater height. Each jumper has one attempt; the bar is alternately lowered and raised until only one jumper succeeds at a given height. The first recorded high jump event took place in Scotland in the 19th century. Early jumpers used either a scissors technique. In latter years, soon after, the bar was approached diagonally, the jumper threw first the inside leg and the other over the bar in a scissoring motion. Around the turn of the 20th century, techniques began to change, beginning with the Irish-American Michael Sweeney's Eastern cut-off. By taking off like the scissors and extending his spine and flattening out over the bar, Sweeney raised the world record to 1.97 m in 1895. Another American, George Horine, developed an more efficient technique, the Western roll. In this style, the bar again is approached on a diagonal, but the inner leg is used for the take-off, while the outer leg is thrust up to lead the body sideways over the bar.
Horine increased the world standard to 2.01 m in 1912. His technique was predominant through the Berlin Olympics of 1936, in which the event was won by Cornelius Johnson at 2.03 m. American and Soviet jumpers were the most successful for the next four decades, they pioneered the evolution of the straddle technique. Straddle jumpers took off as in the Western roll, but rotated their torso around the bar, obtaining the most efficient and highest clearance up to that time. Straddle-jumper, Charles Dumas, was the first to clear 7 feet, in 1956, American John Thomas pushed the world mark to 2.23 m in 1960. Valeriy Brumel took over the event for the next four years; the elegant Soviet jumper radically sped up his approach run, took the record up to 2.28 m, won the Olympic gold medal in 1964, before a motorcycle accident ended his career. American coaches, including two-time NCAA champion Frank Costello of the University of Maryland, flocked to Russia to learn from Brumel and his coaches. However, it would be a solitary innovator at Oregon State University, Dick Fosbury, who would bring the high jump into the next century.
Taking advantage of the raised, softer landing areas by in use, Fosbury added a new twist to the outmoded Eastern Cut-off. He directed himself over the bar head and shoulders first, sliding over on his back and landing in a fashion which would have broken his neck in the old, sawdust landing pits. After he used this Fosbury flop to win the 1968 Olympic gold medal, the technique began to spread around the world, soon floppers were dominating international high jump competitions; the last straddler to set a world record was Vladimir Yashchenko, who cleared 2.33 m in 1977 and 2.35 m indoors in 1978. Among renowned high jumpers following Fosbury's lead were Americans Dwight Stones and his rival, 1.73 metres tall Franklin Jacobs of Paterson, NJ, who cleared 2.32 m, 0.59 metres over his head. The approach run of the high jump may be more important than the take-off. If
400 metres hurdles
The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event. The event has been on the Olympic athletics programme since 1900 since 1984 for women. On a standard outdoor track, 400 metres is the length of the inside lane, once around the stadium. Runners stay in their lanes the entire way after starting out of the blocks and must clear ten hurdles that are evenly spaced around the track; the hurdles are positioned and weighted so that they fall forward if bumped into with sufficient force, to prevent injury to the runners. Although there is no longer any penalty for knocking hurdles over, runners prefer to clear them cleanly, as touching them during the race slows runners down; the best male athletes can run the 400 m hurdles in a time of around 47 seconds, while the best female athletes achieve a time of around 53 seconds. The current men's and women's world record holders are Kevin Young with 46.78 seconds and Yuliya Pechonkina with 52.34 seconds. Compared to the 400 metres run, the hurdles race takes the men about three seconds longer and the women four seconds longer.
The 400 m hurdles was held for both sexes at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The first championship for women came at the 1980 World Championships in Athletics – being held as a one-off due to the lack of a race at the 1980 Summer Olympics; the first awards in a 400 m hurdles race were given in 1860 when a race was held in Oxford, over a course of 440 yards. While running the course, participants had to clear twelve wooden hurdles, over 100 centimetres tall, spaced in intervals. To reduce the risk of injury, somewhat more lightweight constructions were introduced in 1895 that runners could push over. However, until 1935 runners were disqualified if they pushed over more than three hurdles in a race and records were only accepted if the runner in question had cleared all hurdles clean and left them all standing; the 400 m hurdles became an Olympic event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in France. At the same time, the race was standardized so that identical races could be held and the finish times compared to each other.
As a result, the official distance was fixed to 400 metres, or one lap of the stadium, the number of hurdles was reduced to ten. The official height of the hurdles was set to 76.20 cm for women. The hurdles were now placed on the course with a run-up to the first hurdle of 45 metres, a distance between the hurdles of 35 metres each, a home stretch from the last hurdle to the finish line of 40 metres; the first documented 400 m hurdles race for women took place in 1971. The International Association of Athletics Federations introduced the event as a discipline in 1974, although it was not run at the Olympics until 1984, the first Men's World Champion having been crowned the year before at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics. A special edition of the Women's 400m Hurdles happened in the 1980 IAAF World Championships in Athletics in response to the Women's 400m Hurdles not being included in the boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympics and the Liberty Bell Classic. Many athletic commentators and officials have brought up the idea of lifting the height of the women's 400 m hurdles to incorporate a greater requirement of hurdling skill.
This is a view held by German athletic coach Norbert Stein: "All this means that the women's hurdles for specialists, who are the target group to be dealt with in this discussion, is depreciated in skill demands when compared to the men's hurdles. It should not be possible in the women's hurdles that the winner is an athlete whose performance in the flat sprint is demonstrably excellent but whose technique of hurdling is only moderate and whose anthropometric characteristics are not optimal; this was the case at the World Championships in Seville and the same problem can be seen at international and national meetings." "The 400m hurdle race one of the most demanding of all events in the sprint-hurdle group." It requires speed and hurdling technique all along with unique awareness and special concentration throughout the race. When preparing to hurdle, the blocks should be set so that the athlete arrives at the first hurdle leading on the desired leg without inserting a stutter step. A stutter step is when the runner has to chop his or her stride down to arrive on the "correct" leg for take off.
Throughout the race, any adjustments to stride length stride speed should be made several strides out from the hurdle because a stutter or being too far from the hurdle at take off will result in loss of momentum and speed. At the beginning of the take-off, the knee must be driven toward the hurdle and the foot extended; the leg position when extended must be stretched out, in a position of a split. The knee should be bent when crossing the hurdle. Unless an athlete's body has great flexibility, the knee must be bent to allow a forward body lean. Unlike the 110m hurdles, a significant forward body lean is not that necessary due to the hurdles being lower. However, the trail leg must be kept bent and short to provide a quick lever action allowing a fast hurdle clearance; the knee should not be flat across the top of the hurdle. It is important that the hurdler doesn't reach out on the last stride before the hurdle as this will result in a longer bound being made to clear the hurdle; this will result in a loss of momentum if the foot lands well in front of the center of gravity.
Using a left lead leg on the bends allows the hurdler to run closer to the inside of the lane and cover a shorter distance. Additionally, if the left leg is used for the lead the athlete's upper body can be lean
The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes competed in the 440 yard dash —which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m, though this distance is now obsolete. Maximum sprint speed capability is a significant contributing factor to success in the event, but athletes require substantial speed endurance and the ability to cope well with high amounts of lactic acid to sustain a fast speed over a whole lap. While considered to be predominantly an anaerobic event, there is some aerobic involvement and the degree of aerobic training required for 400 metre athletes is open to debate; the current men's world record is held by Wayde van Niekerk of South Africa, with a time of 43.03 seconds.
The world indoor record holder is Michael Norman, in 44.52 seconds. The current women's world record is held with a time of 47.60 seconds. Phyllis Francis is the reigning women's world champion, while Shaunae Miller holds the women's Olympic title; the men's T43 Paralympic world record of 45.07 seconds is held by Oscar Pistorius. An Olympic double of 200 metres and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, by Marie-José Pérec of France and Michael Johnson from the United States on the same evening in 1996. Alberto Juantorena of Cuba at the 1976 Summer Olympics became the first and so far the only athlete to win both the 400 m and 800 m Olympic titles. Pérec became the first to defend the Olympic title in 1996, Johnson became the first and only man to do so in 2000; the Olympic champion has won a second gold medal in the 4 × 400 metres relay. This has been accomplished 14 times by men. All but Rhoden, Markin and Bryzgina ran on American relay teams. Injured after his double in 1996, Johnson accomplished the feat in 2000 only to have it disqualified when his teammate Antonio Pettigrew admitted to doping.
Updated 21 December 2018. A = affected by altitude Correct as of July 2018. Below is a list of all other times equal or superior to 43.84: Michael Johnson ran 43.39, 43.44, 43.49, 43.65 43.66, 43.66, 43.68, 43.68, 43.74, 43.75, 43.84. Wayde van Niekerk ran 43.48, 43.62, 43.73. Jeremy Wariner ran 43.50, 43.62, 43.82. Quincy Watts ran 43.71, 43.83. LaShawn Merritt ran 43.74, 43.75. Kirani James ran 43.76. Isaac Makwala ran 43.84. Update 21 December 2018. Below is a list of all other times superior to 48.80: Marita Koch ran 48.16, 48.16, 48.22, 48.26, 48.60, 48.77. Jarmila Kratochvílová ran 48.45, 48.61. Olga Vladykina / Bryzgina ran 48.60, 48.65. Taťána Kocembová ran 48.73. Updated 9 March 2019. Updated 21 December 2018. 3 or more 400 metres victories at the Olympic Games and World Championships: 6 wins: Michael Johnson - Olympic Champion in 1996 and 2000, World Champion in 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999. 4 wins: Marie-Jose Perec - Olympic Champion in 1992 and 1996, World Champion in 1991 and 1995. 3 wins: Cathy Freeman - Olympic Champion in 2000, World Champion in 1997 and 1999 3 wins: Jeremy Wariner - Olympic Champion in 2004, World Champion in 2005 and 2007.
3 wins: Christine Ohuruogu - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2007 and 2013. 3 wins: LaShawn Merritt - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2009 and 2013. 3 wins: Wayde van Niekerk - Olympic Champion in 2016, World Champion in 2015 and 2017. A Known as the World Indoor Games IAAF list of 400-metres records in XML All-time Masters men's 400 m list All-time Masters women's 400 m list