The 5000 metres or 5000-meter run is a common long-distance running event in track and field. It is one of the track events in the Olympic Games and the World Championships in Athletics, run over 12.5 laps of a standard track. The same distance in road running is called a 5K run; the 5000 m has been present on the Olympic programme since 1912 since 1996 for women. Prior to 1996, women had competed in an Olympic 3000 metres race since 1984; the 5000 m has been held at each of the World Championships in Athletics in men's competition and since 1995 in women's. The event is the same length as the dolichos race held at the Ancient Olympic Games, introduced in 720 BCE. While run as an outdoor event, the 5000 m is sometimes run on an indoor track; the IAAF keeps official records for both indoor 5000 m track events. 5000 metres is the longer metric derivative of the 3 mile run, an event common in countries when they were using the imperial measurement system. 3 miles was used in the Commonwealth Games until 1966 and was a championship in the United States in non-Olympic years from 1953 to 1973.
It is 12 laps around a quarter mile 1320 ft 0 in track. Correct as of September 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 12:49.60: Kenenisa Bekele ran 12:40.18, 12:48.09, 12:48.25, 12:49.53, 12:49.60i. Haile Gebrselassie ran 12:41.86, 12:44.39. Daniel Komen ran 12:44.90, 12:45.09, 12:48.98. Hagos Gebrhiwet ran 12:47.53 Correct as of July 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 14:31.91: Almaz Ayana ran 14:14.32, 14:18.89, 14:25.84, 14:29.19. Tirunesh Dibaba ran 14:23.68, 14:30.40, 14:30.88. Genzebe Dibaba ran 14:19.76, 14:25.22, 14:26.89. Vivian Cheruiyot ran 14:26.17. Hellen Obiri ran 14:21.75, 14:22.37, 14:25.78, 14:25.88, 14:29.77. Senbere Teferi ran 14:29.82, 14:31.76. Letesenbet Gidey ran 14:30.29. Paula Radcliffe ran 14:31.42. "i" indicates indoor performance. National champions 5000 metres National champions 5000 metres IAAF list of 5000-metres records in XML ARRS: Yearly Rankings – 5000 metres Outdoor Track All-time Masters men's 5000 m list All-time Masters women's 5000 m list
The 100 metres, or 100 metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics, it has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 since 1928 for women. The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is named "the fastest man in the world"; the World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983. Justin Gatlin and Tori Bowie are the reigning world champions. On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters reach top speed after somewhere between 50 and 60 m, their speed slows towards the finish line. The 10-second barrier has been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race; the current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2009, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.
The 100 m emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards, a now defunct distance contested in English-speaking countries. The event is held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight. US athletes have won the men's Olympic 100 metres title more times than any other country, 16 out of the 28 times that it has been run. US women have dominated the event winning 9 out of 21 times. At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks. At high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1. The 0.2-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, the time they take to react to it. For many years a sprinter was disqualified. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus.
The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified. This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification; this proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work." The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 World Championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.
Runners reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m. Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique; the winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso over the nearer edge of the finish line. There is therefore no requirement for the entire body to cross the finish line; when the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line. Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal".
Furthermore, sprint athletes perform a better run at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would make breathing more difficult, but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A". Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background. In 2010, French sprinter Christophe Lemaitre became the first Caucasian to break the 10-second barrier, in 2017, Azerbaijani-born naturalized Turkish Ramil Guliyev followed. In the Prefontaine Classic 2015 Diamond League meet at Eugene, Su Bingtian of China ran a time of 9.99 seconds, becoming the first East Asian athlete to break the 10-second barrier.
On 22 June 2018, Su improved his time in Madrid
The 200 metres is a sprint running event. On an outdoor race 400 m track, the race begins on the curve and ends on the home straight, so a combination of techniques are needed to run the race. A shorter race, called the stadion and run on a straight track, was the first recorded event at the ancient Olympic Games; the 200 m places more emphasis on speed endurance than shorter sprint distances as athletes predominantly rely on anaerobic energy system during the 200 m sprint. In the United States and elsewhere, athletes ran the 220-yard dash instead of the 200 m, though the distance is now obsolete; the standard adjustment used for the conversion from times recorded over 220 yards to 200 m times is to subtract 0.1 seconds, but other conversion methods exist. Another obsolete version of this race is the 200 metres straight, run on tracks that contained such a straight; when the International Amateur Athletic Association started to ratify world records in 1912, only records set on a straight track were eligible for consideration.
In 1951, the IAAF started to recognise records set on a curved track. In 1976, the straight record was discarded; the race attracts runners from other events the 100 metres, wishing to double up and claim both titles. This feat has been achieved by men eleven times at the Olympic Games: by Archie Hahn in 1904, Ralph Craig in 1912, Percy Williams in 1928, Eddie Tolan in 1932, Jesse Owens in 1936, Bobby Morrow in 1956, Valeriy Borzov in 1972, Carl Lewis in 1984, most by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2008, 2012, 2016; the double has been accomplished by women seven times: by Fanny Blankers-Koen in 1948, Marjorie Jackson in 1952, Betty Cuthbert in 1956, Wilma Rudolph in 1960, Renate Stecher in 1972, Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988, Elaine Thompson in 2016. Marion Jones finished first in both races in 2000 but was disqualified and stripped of her medals after admitting to taking performance-enhancing drugs. An Olympic double of 200 m and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, by Michael Johnson from the United States and Marie-José Pérec of France both in 1996.
Usain Bolt is the only man to repeat as Olympic champion, Bärbel Wöckel and Veronica Campbell-Brown are the two women who have repeated as Olympic champion. The men's world record holder is Usain Bolt of Jamaica, who ran 19.19s at the 2009 World Championships. The women's world record holder is Florence Griffith-Joyner of the United States, who ran 21.34s at the 1988 Summer Olympics. The reigning Olympic champions are Elaine Thompson; the reigning World Champions are Dafne Schippers. Races run with an aiding wind measured over 2.0 metres per second are not acceptable for record purposes. Updated 12 December 2018. Only the fastest time for each athlete is listed. A = Altitude Correct as of August 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 19.67: Usain Bolt ran 19.30, 19.32, 19.40, 19.55, 19.56, 19.57, 19.58, 19.59, 19.63, 19.66, 19.67. Yohan Blake ran 19.44, 19.54. Tyson Gay ran 19.62. Michael Johnson ran 19.66. Noah Lyles ran 19.67. Correct as of August 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 21.80: Florence Griffith-Joyner ran 21.56, 21.76, 21.77.
Merlene Ottey ran 21.66, 21.77. Marita Koch ran 21.76, 21.78. Marion Jones ran 21.76. Gwen Torrence ran 21.77. Elaine Thompson ran 21.78. Silke Gladisch ran 21.79. Updated February 2019. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 20.22: Frankie Fredericks ran 20.10, 20.18. Wallace Spearmon ran 20.10, 20.19, 20.21. Divine Oduduru ran 20.18, 20.21. Updated 12 December 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 22.45: Irina Privalova ran 22.15, 22.16, 22.26, 22.32, 22.36, 22.41, 22.45. Merlene Ottey ran 22.24, 22.34, 22.37. Veronica Campbell-Brown ran 22.43. A Known as the World Indoor Games IAAF list of 200-metres records in XML All time 200m men records
4 × 400 metres relay
The 4 × 400 metres relay or long relay is an athletics track event in which teams consist of four runners who each complete 400 metres or one lap. It is traditionally the final event of a track meet. At top class events, the first 500 metres is run in lanes. Start lines are thus staggered over a greater distance than in an individual 400 metres race; the longer 4 × 440 yards relay was run British and American meetings, until metrication was completed in the 1970s. Relay race runners carry a relay baton which they must transfer between teammates. Runners have a 20 m box in; the first transfer is made within the staggered lane lines. This prevents confusion and collisions during transfer. Unlike the 4 × 100 m relay, runners in the 4 × 400 look back and grasp the baton from the incoming runner, due to the fatigue of the incoming runner, the wider margins allowed by the longer distance of the race. Disqualification is rare; as runners have a running start, split times cannot be compared to individual 400 m performances.
Internationally, the U. S. men's team has dominated the event, but have been challenged by Jamaica in the 1950s and Britain in the 1990s. The current men's Olympic champions are from the United States. According to the IAAF rules, world records in relays can only be set if all team members have the same nationality. Mixed-gendered 4 × 400 metres relays were introduced at the 2017 IAAF World Relays, but the IAAF has yet to recognize any world records in that event. Note: On 12 August 2008, the IAAF rescinded a time of 2:54.20 set by the USA at Uniondale on 22 July 1998 after Pettigrew admitted to using human growth hormone and EPO between 1997 and 2003. Note: A time of 3:00.77 by the USC runners at the 2018 NCAA Division I Championship was rejected as a record as Benjamin was a citizen of Antigua & Barbuda while the others are US citizens. US runners Ilolo Izu, Robert Grant, Devin Dixon, Mylik Kerley recorded a 3:01.39 at the same race also unable for record proposes. Correct as of August 2017.
Correct as of August 2017. Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds and received medals. Note: † Indicates athlete who did not run in any rounds and received medal. Note: Marion Jones was stripped of all her Olympic medals in 2000. Crystal Cox was stripped of her Olympic medal in both being found guilty of doping violations. Dominique Blake was accidentally given her Olympic medal and she returned it in 2017. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Dq1 The United States team won the 1997 World Championships in a time of 2:56.47 minutes, but were disqualified in 2009 after Pettigrew admitted to doping during the period. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Herb McKenley ran a 44.6 split in the 1952 Helsinki Olympic final. Ron Freeman ran a 43.2 split in the 1968 Mexico Olympic final. Julius Sang ran a 43.6 split in the 1972 Munich Olympic final.
Alberto Juantorena ran a 43.7 split in the 1977 IAAF World Cup event as part of the Americas team. Quincy Watts ran Steve Lewis ran a 43.4 split in the 1992 Barcelona Olympic final. Butch Reynolds ran a 43.23 split and Michael Johnson ran a 42.91 split in the 1993 Stuttgart World Championship final. Jeremy Wariner ran a 43.10 split in the 2007 Osaka World Championship final. Jeremy Wariner ran a 43.18 split in the 2008 Beijing Olympic final. Michael Norman ran a 43.06 split in the 2018 NCAA West Preliminaries final. Jarmila Kratochvílová ran a 47.6 split in the 1982 Athens European Championship final, a 47.75 split in the 1983 Helsinki World Championship final, a 47.9 split in the 1983 Europa Cup in London. Marita Koch ran a 47.70 split in Erfurt 1984, a 47.9 split in the 1982 European Championship final, a 47.9 split at the 1985 Canberra World Cup. Allyson Felix ran a 47.72 split in the 2015 Beijing World Championships final, a 48.01 split in the 2007 Osaka World Championships final, a 48.20 split in the 2012 London Olympic final.
Olga Nazarova and Olga Bryzgina both ran a 47.80 split in the 1988 Seoul Olympic final. Florence Griffith-Joyner ran a 48.08 split in the 1988 Seoul Olympic final. IAAF list of 4x400-metres-relay records in XML
2005 World Championships in Athletics
The 10th World Championships in Athletics, under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations, were held in the Olympic Stadium, Finland, the site of the first IAAF World Championships in 1983. One theme of the 2005 championships was paralympic events, some of which were included as exhibition events. Much of the event was played in heavy rainfall; the original winning bid for the competition was for London but the cost to build the required stadium at Picketts Lock and host the event was deemed too expensive by the government. UK Athletics suggested to move the host city to Sheffield, but the IAAF stated that having London as the host city was central to their winning the bid; the championships bidding process was reopened as a result. The United Kingdom's withdrawal as host was the first case for a major sporting event in a developed country since Denver's withdrawal as host of the 1976 Winter Olympics. Helsinki was considered by many to be the outsider in the race to host the games with rival bids being presented by Berlin in Germany.
Apocalyptica and Nightwish performed at the opening ceremony of the event over a heavy rainfall. Geir Rönning, Finland's Eurovision Song Contest 2005 entrant, sang "Victory" the official song of the 2005 IAAF World Championships. With the addition of the women's 3000 metres steeplechase to the schedule, that year's program of events was closer to parity for women and men. With the exception of the 50 km walk the women competed in the same events as the men. Two differences remaining from before, were the short hurdles race, the multi-event competition. Since the first World Championships in Helsinki 1983, seven new events have been added for women: 10000 metres, introduced in 1987 5000 metres, replaced 3000 metres in 1995 triple jump, introduced in 1993 20 km walk introduced in 1999, replaced 10 km walk that first appeared in 1987 pole vault, introduced in 1999 hammer throw, introduced in 1999 3000 metres steeplechase, introduced in 2005 The IAAF conducted their largest anti-doping program at an athletics event for the championships, with 705 athletes subjected to a total 884 of tests.
There were two athletes who failed drugs tests: Indian discus thrower Neelam Jaswant Singh tested positive for the stimulant pemoline, Vladyslav Piskunov, a Ukrainian hammer thrower, tested positive for the steroid drostanolone. Singh received a two-year ineligibility ban, while Piskunov received a life ban from athletics as this was his second offence. In March 2013, the IAAF announced that re-testing of samples taken during these championships revealed that five medal winners had proved positive for banned substances; the athletes involved were Belarusian Nadzeya Ostapchuk, Belarusian Ivan Tsikhan, Russian Olga Kuzenkova, Russian Tatyana Kotova and Belarus's Vadim Devyatovskiy. Belarusian Andrei Mikhnevich had tested positive and was disqualified. 2001 | 2003 | 2005 | 2007 | 2009 Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds. 2001 | 2003 | 2005 | 2007 | 2009 2001 |2003 |2005 |2007 |2009 | Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds. 2001 |2003 |2005 |2007 |2009 | Paralympic exhibition events at the World Championships: To commemorate the 2005 World Championships in Athletics the Finnish government issued a high value commemorative euro coin, the €20 10th IAAF World Championships in Athletics commemorative coin, minted in 2005.
The obverse of the coin features Helsinki Olympic Stadium and above the stadium random waves express the feeling of the games. 2005 in athletics Results from the IAAF web site
The steeplechase is an obstacle race in athletics, which derives its name from the steeplechase in horse racing. The foremost version of the event is the 3000 metres steeplechase; the 2000 metres steeplechase is the next most common distance. The 1900 Olympics featured a 2500 metres steeplechase and a 4000 metres steeplechase, a 2590 metres steeplechase was held at the 1904 Olympics. A 1000 metres steeplechase is used in youth athletics; the event originated in Ireland. Horses and riders raced from one town's steeple to the next; the steeples were used as markers due to their visibility over long distances. Along the way runners had to jump streams and low stone walls separating estates; the modern athletics event originates from a two-mile cross country steeplechase that formed part of the University of Oxford sports in 1860. It was replaced in 1865 by an event over barriers on a flat field, which became the modern steeplechase, it has been an Olympic event since the inception of the modern Olympics, though with varying lengths.
Since the 1968 Summer Olympics, steeplechase in the Olympics has been dominated by Kenyan athletes, including the current gold medal streak since 1984 and a clean sweep of the medals at the 1992 and 2004 Games. The steeplechase for women is 3,000 metres long, but with lower barriers than for the men. A distance of 2,000 metres, with a shorter water jump, was experimented with before the current race format was established, it made its first major championship appearance at the 2005 World Championships in Helsinki. In 2008, women's 3,000 metres steeplechase appeared for the first time on the Olympic tracks in Beijing. Other divisions including masters athletics and youth athletics run 2,000 metres distances; the format for a 2,000 metre steeplechase removes the first two barriers of the first lap. The steeplechase at the 1932 Olympics was run over 3460 metres due to a lap scoring error. A 3,000 metres steeplechase is defined in the rulebook as having seven water jumps. A 2,000 meters steeplechase has five water jumps.
Since the water jump is never on the track oval, a steeplechase "course" is never a perfect 400 metres lap. Instead the water jump is placed inside the turn, shortening the lap, or outside the turn, lengthening the lap; the start line moves from conventional starting areas in order to compensate for the different length of lap. When the water jump is inside, the 3,000 metre start line is on the backstretch; when the water jump is outside, the 3,000 metre start line is on the home stretch. The 2,000 metre start line uses 5/7 the amount of compensation. IAAF list of steeplechase records in XML Women's Steeplechase
The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes competed in the 440 yard dash —which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m, though this distance is now obsolete. Maximum sprint speed capability is a significant contributing factor to success in the event, but athletes require substantial speed endurance and the ability to cope well with high amounts of lactic acid to sustain a fast speed over a whole lap. While considered to be predominantly an anaerobic event, there is some aerobic involvement and the degree of aerobic training required for 400 metre athletes is open to debate; the current men's world record is held by Wayde van Niekerk of South Africa, with a time of 43.03 seconds.
The world indoor record holder is Michael Norman, in 44.52 seconds. The current women's world record is held with a time of 47.60 seconds. Phyllis Francis is the reigning women's world champion, while Shaunae Miller holds the women's Olympic title; the men's T43 Paralympic world record of 45.07 seconds is held by Oscar Pistorius. An Olympic double of 200 metres and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, by Marie-José Pérec of France and Michael Johnson from the United States on the same evening in 1996. Alberto Juantorena of Cuba at the 1976 Summer Olympics became the first and so far the only athlete to win both the 400 m and 800 m Olympic titles. Pérec became the first to defend the Olympic title in 1996, Johnson became the first and only man to do so in 2000; the Olympic champion has won a second gold medal in the 4 × 400 metres relay. This has been accomplished 14 times by men. All but Rhoden, Markin and Bryzgina ran on American relay teams. Injured after his double in 1996, Johnson accomplished the feat in 2000 only to have it disqualified when his teammate Antonio Pettigrew admitted to doping.
Updated 21 December 2018. A = affected by altitude Correct as of July 2018. Below is a list of all other times equal or superior to 43.84: Michael Johnson ran 43.39, 43.44, 43.49, 43.65 43.66, 43.66, 43.68, 43.68, 43.74, 43.75, 43.84. Wayde van Niekerk ran 43.48, 43.62, 43.73. Jeremy Wariner ran 43.50, 43.62, 43.82. Quincy Watts ran 43.71, 43.83. LaShawn Merritt ran 43.74, 43.75. Kirani James ran 43.76. Isaac Makwala ran 43.84. Update 21 December 2018. Below is a list of all other times superior to 48.80: Marita Koch ran 48.16, 48.16, 48.22, 48.26, 48.60, 48.77. Jarmila Kratochvílová ran 48.45, 48.61. Olga Vladykina / Bryzgina ran 48.60, 48.65. Taťána Kocembová ran 48.73. Updated 9 March 2019. Updated 21 December 2018. 3 or more 400 metres victories at the Olympic Games and World Championships: 6 wins: Michael Johnson - Olympic Champion in 1996 and 2000, World Champion in 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999. 4 wins: Marie-Jose Perec - Olympic Champion in 1992 and 1996, World Champion in 1991 and 1995. 3 wins: Cathy Freeman - Olympic Champion in 2000, World Champion in 1997 and 1999 3 wins: Jeremy Wariner - Olympic Champion in 2004, World Champion in 2005 and 2007.
3 wins: Christine Ohuruogu - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2007 and 2013. 3 wins: LaShawn Merritt - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2009 and 2013. 3 wins: Wayde van Niekerk - Olympic Champion in 2016, World Champion in 2015 and 2017. A Known as the World Indoor Games IAAF list of 400-metres records in XML All-time Masters men's 400 m list All-time Masters women's 400 m list