Pole vaulting is a track and field event in which a person uses a long flexible pole as an aid to jump over a bar. Pole jumping competitions were known to the ancient Greeks and Celts, it has been a full medal event at the Olympic Games since 2000 for women. It is classified as one of the four major jumping events in athletics, alongside the high jump, long jump and triple jump, it is unusual among track and field sports in that it requires a significant amount of specialised equipment in order to participate at a basic level. A number of elite pole vaulters have had backgrounds in gymnastics, including world record breakers Yelena Isinbayeva and Brian Sternberg, reflecting the similar physical attributes required for the sports. Running speed, may be the most dominant factor. Poles were used as a practical means of passing over natural obstacles in marshy places such as provinces of Friesland in the Netherlands, along the North Sea, the great level of the Fens across Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire and Norfolk.
Artificial draining of these marshes created a network of open drains or canals intersecting each other. To cross these without getting wet, while avoiding tedious roundabout journeys over bridges, a stack of jumping poles was kept at every house and used for vaulting over the canals. Venetian gondoliers have traditionally used punting poles for moving to the shore from their boat. Distance pole vaulting competitions continue to be held annually in the lowlands around the North Sea; these far-jumping competitions are not based on height. In his book The Mechanics of the Pole Vault, Richard Ganslen reports that the London Gymnastic Society under Professor Voelker held measured pole vaulting events in 1826, involving 1,300 participants and recording heights up to 10 ft 10 in. Other early pole vaulting competitions where height was measured took place at the Ulverston Football and Cricket Club, north of the sands in 1843. Modern competition began around 1850 in Germany, when pole vaulting was added to the exercises of the Turner gymnastic clubs by Johann C. F. GutsMuths and Friedrich L. Jahn.
In Great Britain, it was first practiced at the Caledonian Games. Vaulting poles were made from stiff materials such as bamboo or aluminum; the introduction of flexible vaulting poles in the early 1950s made from composites such as fiberglass or carbon fiber allowed vaulters to achieve greater height. Physical attributes such as speed and strength are essential to pole vaulting but technical skill is an if not more important element; the object of pole vaulting is to clear a bar or crossbar supported upon two uprights without knocking it down. In 2000, IAAF rule 260.18a was amended, so that "world records" can be set in a facility "with or without roof". This rule was not applied retroactively, With many indoor facilities not conforming to outdoor track specifications for size and flatness, the pole vault is the only world record set indoors. Today, athletes compete in the pole vault as one of the four jumping events in field; because the high jump and pole vault are both vertical jumps, the competitions are conducted similarly.
Each athlete can choose what height. Once they enter, they have three attempts. If a height is cleared, the vaulter advances to the next height, where they will have three more attempts. Once the vaulter has three consecutive misses, they are out of the competition and the highest height they cleared is their result. A "no height" denoted "NH", refers to the failure of a vaulter to clear any bar during the competition. Once the vaulter enters the competition, they can choose to pass heights. If a vaulter achieves a miss on their first attempt at a height, they can pass to the next height, but they will only have two attempts at that height, as they will be out once they achieve three consecutive misses. After earning two misses at a height, they could pass to the next height, when they would have only one attempt; the competitor who clears the highest height is the winner. If two or more vaulters have finished with the same height, the tie is broken by the number of misses at the final height. If the tied vaulters have the same number of misses at the last height cleared, the tie is broken by the total number of misses in the competition.
If there is still a tie for first place, a jump-off occurs to break the tie. Marks achieved in this type of jump-off are considered valid and count for any purpose that a mark achieved in a normal competition would. If a tie in the other places still exists, a jump-off is not conducted, unless the competition is a qualifying meet, the tie exists in the final qualifying spot. In this case, an administrative jump-off is conducted to break the tie, but the marks are not considered valid for any other purpose than breaking the tie. A jump-off is a sudden death competition in which the tied vaulters attempt the same height, starting with the last attempted height. If both vaulters miss, the bar goes down by a small increment, if both clear, the bar goes up by a small increment. A jump-off ends when one vaulter clears and the other misses; each vaulter gets one attempt at each height until one makes and one misses. The equipment and rules for pole vaulting are similar to the high jump. Unlike high jump, the athlete in the vault has the ability to select the horizontal position of the bar before each jump and can place it a distance beyond the back of the box, the metal pit that the pole is placed into before takeo
4 × 400 metres relay
The 4 × 400 metres relay or long relay is an athletics track event in which teams consist of four runners who each complete 400 metres or one lap. It is traditionally the final event of a track meet. At top class events, the first 500 metres is run in lanes. Start lines are thus staggered over a greater distance than in an individual 400 metres race; the longer 4 × 440 yards relay was run British and American meetings, until metrication was completed in the 1970s. Relay race runners carry a relay baton which they must transfer between teammates. Runners have a 20 m box in; the first transfer is made within the staggered lane lines. This prevents confusion and collisions during transfer. Unlike the 4 × 100 m relay, runners in the 4 × 400 look back and grasp the baton from the incoming runner, due to the fatigue of the incoming runner, the wider margins allowed by the longer distance of the race. Disqualification is rare; as runners have a running start, split times cannot be compared to individual 400 m performances.
Internationally, the U. S. men's team has dominated the event, but have been challenged by Jamaica in the 1950s and Britain in the 1990s. The current men's Olympic champions are from the United States. According to the IAAF rules, world records in relays can only be set if all team members have the same nationality. Mixed-gendered 4 × 400 metres relays were introduced at the 2017 IAAF World Relays, but the IAAF has yet to recognize any world records in that event. Note: On 12 August 2008, the IAAF rescinded a time of 2:54.20 set by the USA at Uniondale on 22 July 1998 after Pettigrew admitted to using human growth hormone and EPO between 1997 and 2003. Note: A time of 3:00.77 by the USC runners at the 2018 NCAA Division I Championship was rejected as a record as Benjamin was a citizen of Antigua & Barbuda while the others are US citizens. US runners Ilolo Izu, Robert Grant, Devin Dixon, Mylik Kerley recorded a 3:01.39 at the same race also unable for record proposes. Correct as of August 2017.
Correct as of August 2017. Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds and received medals. Note: † Indicates athlete who did not run in any rounds and received medal. Note: Marion Jones was stripped of all her Olympic medals in 2000. Crystal Cox was stripped of her Olympic medal in both being found guilty of doping violations. Dominique Blake was accidentally given her Olympic medal and she returned it in 2017. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Dq1 The United States team won the 1997 World Championships in a time of 2:56.47 minutes, but were disqualified in 2009 after Pettigrew admitted to doping during the period. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Herb McKenley ran a 44.6 split in the 1952 Helsinki Olympic final. Ron Freeman ran a 43.2 split in the 1968 Mexico Olympic final. Julius Sang ran a 43.6 split in the 1972 Munich Olympic final.
Alberto Juantorena ran a 43.7 split in the 1977 IAAF World Cup event as part of the Americas team. Quincy Watts ran Steve Lewis ran a 43.4 split in the 1992 Barcelona Olympic final. Butch Reynolds ran a 43.23 split and Michael Johnson ran a 42.91 split in the 1993 Stuttgart World Championship final. Jeremy Wariner ran a 43.10 split in the 2007 Osaka World Championship final. Jeremy Wariner ran a 43.18 split in the 2008 Beijing Olympic final. Michael Norman ran a 43.06 split in the 2018 NCAA West Preliminaries final. Jarmila Kratochvílová ran a 47.6 split in the 1982 Athens European Championship final, a 47.75 split in the 1983 Helsinki World Championship final, a 47.9 split in the 1983 Europa Cup in London. Marita Koch ran a 47.70 split in Erfurt 1984, a 47.9 split in the 1982 European Championship final, a 47.9 split at the 1985 Canberra World Cup. Allyson Felix ran a 47.72 split in the 2015 Beijing World Championships final, a 48.01 split in the 2007 Osaka World Championships final, a 48.20 split in the 2012 London Olympic final.
Olga Nazarova and Olga Bryzgina both ran a 47.80 split in the 1988 Seoul Olympic final. Florence Griffith-Joyner ran a 48.08 split in the 1988 Seoul Olympic final. IAAF list of 4x400-metres-relay records in XML
The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop and jump or the hop and jump, is a track and field event, similar to the long jump. As a group, the two events are referred to as the "horizontal jumps"; the competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a bound and a jump into the sand pit. The triple jump was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games' inception in 1896. According to IAAF rules, "the hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which he has taken off. Both records were set during 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg. Historical sources on the ancient Olympic Games mention jumps of 15 meters or more; this led sports historians to conclude that these must have been a series of jumps, thus providing the basis for the triple jump. However, there is no evidence for the triple jump being included in the ancient Olympic Games, it is possible that the recorded extraordinary distances are due to artistic license of the authors of victory poems, rather than attempts to report accurate results.
The triple jump was a part of the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens, although at the time it consisted of two hops on the same foot and a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is performed in competition today; the women's triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996. In Irish mythology the geal-ruith, was an event contested in the ancient Irish Tailteann Games as early as 1829 BC; the athlete sprints down a runway to a takeoff mark. The takeoff mark is a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the far edge of the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board; these boards are placed at different places on the run way depending on how far the athlete can jump.
The boards are set. These are the most common boards you see at the high school and collegiate levels, but boards can be placed anywhere on the runway. There are three phases of the triple jump: the "hop" phase, the "bound" or "step" phase, the "jump" phase; these three phases are executed in one continuous sequence. The hop begins with the athlete jumping from the take off board on one leg, which for descriptive purposes will be the right leg; the objective of the first phase is to hop out. The hop landing phase is active, involving a powerful backward "pawing" action of the right leg, with the right take-off foot landing heel first on the runway; the hop landing marks the beginning of the step phase, where the athlete utilizes the backward momentum of the right leg to execute a powerful jump forwards and upwards, the left leg assisting the take-off with a powerful hip flexion thrust. This leads to the familiar step-phase mid-air position, with the right take off leg trailing flexed at the knee, the left leg now leading flexed at the hip and knee.
The jumper holds this position for as long as possible, before extending the knee of the leading left leg and immediately beginning a powerful backward motion of the whole left leg, again landing on the runway with a powerful pawing action. The takeoff leg should be extended with the drive leg thigh just below parallel to the ground; the takeoff leg stays extended behind the body with the heel held high. The drive leg extends with a flexed ankleand snaps downward for a quick transition into the jump phase; the step landing forms the beginning of the take-off of the final phase, where the athlete utilizes the backward force from the left leg to take off again. The jump phase is similar to the long jump although most athletes have lost too much speed by this time to manage a full hitch kick, used is a hang or sail technique; when landing in the sand-filled pit, the jumper should aim to avoid sitting back on landing, or placing either hand behind the feet. The sand pit begins 13m from the take off board for male international competition, or 11m from the board for international female and club-level male competition.
Each phase of the triple jump should get progressively higher, there should be a regular rhythm to the 3 landings. A "foul" known as a "scratch," or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit does not use the correct foot sequence throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time; when a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper, "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump. It shall not be considered a foul if an athlete, while jumping, should touch or scrape the ground with his/her "sleeping leg". Called a "scrape foul", "sleeping leg" touch violations were ruled as fouls prior to the mid-1980s; the IAAF changed the rules following outrage at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, when Russian field officials in the Men's Triple Jump ruled as foul 8 of the 12 jumps made by two leading competitors thus helping two Russian jumpers win the G
100 metres hurdles
The 100 metres hurdles, or 100-meter hurdles, is a track and field event run by women. For the race, ten hurdles of a height of 83.8 centimetres are placed along a straight course of 100 metres. The first hurdle is placed after a run-up of 13 metres from the starting line; the next 9 hurdles are set at a distance of 8.5 metres from each other, the home stretch from the last hurdle to the finish line is 10.5 metres long. The hurdles are set up so that they will fall over if bumped into by the runner, but weighted so this is disadvantageous. Fallen hurdles do not count against runners provided. Like the 100 metres sprint, the 100 m hurdles begins with athletes in starting blocks; the fastest 100 m hurdlers run the distance in a time of around 12.5 seconds. The world record set by Kendra Harrison stands at 12.20 seconds. The Olympic Games had included the 80 m hurdles in the program from 1932 to 1968. Starting with the 1972 Summer Olympics the women's race was lengthened to 100 m hurdles; the hurdles sprint race has been run by women since the beginning of women's athletics, just after the end of World War I.
The distances and hurdle heights varied in the beginning. While the men had zeroed in on the 110 m hurdles, the International Women's Sport Federation had registered records for eight different disciplines by 1926. At the first Women's World Games in 1922 a 100 m hurdles race was run. From 1926 until 1968 on only the 80 m distance was run. For the 80 m race women had to clear eight hurdles placed at a distance of 8 metres from each other and a height of 76.2 cm. Just like with the men's races, until 1935 no more than three hurdles could be knocked over and records were only registered if the runner had cleared all her hurdles clean. In 1935, this rule was abandoned, L-shaped hurdles were introduced that fell over forward and reduced the risk of injury to the runner. Hurdles are weighted, so when properly set for the height, they serve as a consistent disadvantage to making contact with the barrier; the 80 m hurdles was on the list of women's sports demanded by the International Women's Sport Federation for the Olympic Summer Games in 1928, but wasn't included as an Olympic discipline until 1932.
Starting with 1949, the 80 m hurdles was one of the disciplines included in the women's pentathlon. During the 1960s, some experimental races were run over a distance of 100 metres using hurdles with a height of 76.2 cm. During the 1968 Summer Olympics, a decision was made to introduce the 100 m hurdles using hurdles with a height of 84 cm; the first international event in the 100 m hurdles occurred at the European Athletics Championships, which were won by Karin Balzer, GDR. The modern 100 m race has an extra 2 hurdles compared to the 80 m race, which are higher and spaced further apart; the home stretch is shorter by 1.5 m. A version of the 100 metres hurdles is used for 50- to 59-year-old men in Masters athletics, they run the same spacing as women, which coordinates with existing markings on most tracks, but run over 36-inch hurdles. In the 60-69 age range, the spacings are changed. Women over age 40 and men over age 70 run 80 metre versions with different spacings. 100 m hurdles: First official time registered with hurdles of reduced height: Pamela Kilborn, AUS, November 26, 1961 First official time with hurdles of standard height: 15.1 seconds, Connie Pettersson, USA, May 28, 1966 First official world record: 13.3 seconds, Karin Balzer, GDR, June 20, 1969 First runner under 13 seconds: 12.9 seconds, Karin Balzer, GDR, September 5, 1969 First runner under 12.5 seconds: 12.3 seconds, Annelie Ehrhardt GDR, July 20, 1973 12.48 seconds, Grażyna Rabsztyn, POL, June 10, 1978 First runner under 12.3 seconds: 12.29 seconds, Yordanka Donkova BUL, August 17, 1986 First country to win gold and bronze in the women's 100 m hurdles in one Olympics: America, 2016.
Below is a list of all other legal times inside 12.39: Yordanka Donkova ran 12.24, 12.26, 12.27, 12.29, 12.33. Kendra Harrison ran 12.24, 12.28, 12.36. Ludmila Narozhilenko ran 12.28, 12.28, 12.32. Ginka Zagorcheva ran 12.34. Brianna Rollins ran 12.34 and 12.38. Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second does not count for record purposes. Below is a list of all wind-assisted times equal or superior to 12.37. Cornelia Oschkenat ran 12.28 sec in Berlin, August 25, 1987. Yordanka Donkova ran 12.29 sec in Lausanne, June 24, 1988. Gail Devers ran 12.29 sec in Eugene, May 26, 2002. Lolo Jones ran 12.29 sec in Eugene, July 6, 2008. Brianna Rollins ran 12.30 on June 22, 12.33 on June 21, in Des Moines in 2013. Bettine Jahn ran 12.35 sec in Helsinki, August 13, 1983 Kellie Wells ran 12.35 sec in Gainseville, April 16, 2011. Dawn Harper ran 12.36 sec in Eugene, June 28, 2009. Gloria Siebert ran 12.37 sec in Berlin, August 25, 1987. Danielle Carruthers ran 12.37 sec in Eugene, June 26, 2011.
Shirley Strickland: two Olympic victories, 1952 and 1956 in the 80 m hu
The high jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump unaided over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it. In its modern most practised format, a bar is placed between two standards with a crash mat for landing. In the modern era, athletes run towards the bar and use the Fosbury Flop method of jumping, leaping head first with their back to the bar. Since ancient times, competitors have introduced effective techniques to arrive at the current form; the discipline is, alongside the pole vault, one of two vertical clearance events to feature on the Olympic athletics programme. It is contested at the World Championships in Athletics and IAAF World Indoor Championships, is a common occurrence at track and field meetings; the high jump was among the first events deemed acceptable for women, having been held at the 1928 Olympic Games. Javier Sotomayor is the current men's record holder with a jump of 2.45 m set in 1993 – the longest standing record in the history of the men's high jump.
Stefka Kostadinova has held the women's world record at 2.09 m since 1987 the longest-held record in the event. The rules for the high jump are set internationally by the International Association of Athletics Federations. Jumpers must take off on one foot. A jump is considered a failure if the bar is dislodged by the action of the jumper whilst jumping or the jumper touches the ground or breaks the plane of the near edge of the bar before clearance; the technique one uses for the jump must be flawless in order to have a chance of clearing a high bar. Competitors may begin jumping at any height announced by the chief judge, or may pass, at their own discretion. Most competitions state that three consecutive missed jumps, at any height or combination of heights, will eliminate the jumper from competition; the victory goes to the jumper. Tie-breakers are used for any place. If two or more jumpers tie for one of these places, the tie-breakers are: 1) the fewest misses at the height at which the tie occurred.
If the event remains tied for first place, the jumpers have a jump-off, beginning at the next greater height. Each jumper has one attempt; the bar is alternately lowered and raised until only one jumper succeeds at a given height. The first recorded high jump event took place in Scotland in the 19th century. Early jumpers used either a scissors technique. In latter years, soon after, the bar was approached diagonally, the jumper threw first the inside leg and the other over the bar in a scissoring motion. Around the turn of the 20th century, techniques began to change, beginning with the Irish-American Michael Sweeney's Eastern cut-off. By taking off like the scissors and extending his spine and flattening out over the bar, Sweeney raised the world record to 1.97 m in 1895. Another American, George Horine, developed an more efficient technique, the Western roll. In this style, the bar again is approached on a diagonal, but the inner leg is used for the take-off, while the outer leg is thrust up to lead the body sideways over the bar.
Horine increased the world standard to 2.01 m in 1912. His technique was predominant through the Berlin Olympics of 1936, in which the event was won by Cornelius Johnson at 2.03 m. American and Soviet jumpers were the most successful for the next four decades, they pioneered the evolution of the straddle technique. Straddle jumpers took off as in the Western roll, but rotated their torso around the bar, obtaining the most efficient and highest clearance up to that time. Straddle-jumper, Charles Dumas, was the first to clear 7 feet, in 1956, American John Thomas pushed the world mark to 2.23 m in 1960. Valeriy Brumel took over the event for the next four years; the elegant Soviet jumper radically sped up his approach run, took the record up to 2.28 m, won the Olympic gold medal in 1964, before a motorcycle accident ended his career. American coaches, including two-time NCAA champion Frank Costello of the University of Maryland, flocked to Russia to learn from Brumel and his coaches. However, it would be a solitary innovator at Oregon State University, Dick Fosbury, who would bring the high jump into the next century.
Taking advantage of the raised, softer landing areas by in use, Fosbury added a new twist to the outmoded Eastern Cut-off. He directed himself over the bar head and shoulders first, sliding over on his back and landing in a fashion which would have broken his neck in the old, sawdust landing pits. After he used this Fosbury flop to win the 1968 Olympic gold medal, the technique began to spread around the world, soon floppers were dominating international high jump competitions; the last straddler to set a world record was Vladimir Yashchenko, who cleared 2.33 m in 1977 and 2.35 m indoors in 1978. Among renowned high jumpers following Fosbury's lead were Americans Dwight Stones and his rival, 1.73 metres tall Franklin Jacobs of Paterson, NJ, who cleared 2.32 m, 0.59 metres over his head. The approach run of the high jump may be more important than the take-off. If
The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as demonstrated by Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated back to at least to 708 BC, is part of the modern decathlon; the sport of throwing the discus traces back to it being an event in the original Olympic Games of Ancient Greece. The discus as a sport was resurrected in Magdeburg, Germany, by Christian Georg Kohlrausch and his students in the 1870s. Organized Men's competition was resumed in the late 19th century, has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first modern competition, the 1896 Summer Olympics. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games, the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics.
Today the sport of discus is a routine part of modern track-and-field meets at all levels, retains a iconic place in the Olympic Games. The first modern athlete to throw the discus while rotating the whole body was František Janda-Suk from Bohemia, he invented this technique. After only one year of developing the technique he earned a silver medal in the 1900 Olympics. Women's competition began in the first decades of the 20th century. Following competition at national and regional levels it was added to the Olympic program for the 1928 games; the men's discus is a heavy lenticular disc with a weight of 2 kilograms and diameter of 22 centimetres, the women's discus has a weight of 1 kilogram and diameter of 18 centimetres. Under IAAF rules, Youth boys throw the 1.6 kilograms discus, the Junior men throw the unique 1.75 kilograms discus, the girls/women of those ages throw the 1 kilogram discus. In international competition, men throw the 2 kg discus through to age 49; the 1.5 kilograms discus is thrown by ages 50–59, men age 60 and beyond throw the 1 kilogram discus.
Women throw the 1 kilogram discus through to age 74. Starting with age 75, women throw; the typical discus has sides made of plastic, fiberglass, carbon fiber or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. The rim must be smooth. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. However, a higher rim weight, if thrown can lead to a farther throw. A solid rubber discus is sometimes used. To make a throw, the competitor starts in a circle of 2.5 m diameter, recessed in a concrete pad by 20 millimetres. The thrower takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw, he spins anticlockwise around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum releases his throw. The discus must land within a 34.92-degree sector. The rules of competition for discus are identical to those of shot put, except that the circle is larger, a stop board is not used and there are no form rules concerning how the discus is to be thrown.
The basic motion is a forehanded sidearm movement. The discus is spun off the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins clockwise when viewed from above for a right-handed thrower, anticlockwise for a left-handed thrower; as well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. A faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability; the technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs lots of experience to get right, thus most top throwers are 30 years old or more. The discus technique can be broken down into phases; the purpose is to transfer from the back to the front of the throwing circle while turning through one and a half circles. The speed of delivery is high, speed is built up during the throw. Correct technique involves the buildup of torque so that maximum force can be applied to the discus on delivery.
During the wind-up, weight is evenly distributed between the feet, which are about shoulder distance and not overly active. The wind-up sets the tone for the entire throw. Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance; this is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle. For a right handed thrower, the next stage is to move the weight over the left foot. From this position the right foot is raised, the athlete'runs' across the circle. There are various techniques for this stage where the leg swings out to a small or great extent, some athletes turn on their left heel but turning on the ball of the foot is far more common; the aim is to land in the'power position', the right foot should be in the center and the heel should not touch the ground at any point.
The left foot should land quickly after the right. Weight shoul
Racewalking, or race walking, is a long-distance discipline within the sport of athletics. Although it is a foot race, it is different from running in that one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times; this is assessed by race judges. Held on either roads or on running tracks, common distances vary from 3000 metres up to 100 kilometres. There are two racewalking distances contested at the Summer Olympics: the 20 kilometres race walk and 50 kilometres race walk. Both are held as road events; the biennial IAAF World Championships in Athletics features these three events, in addition to a 50 km walk for women. The IAAF World Race Walking Cup, first held in 1961, is a stand-alone global competition for the discipline and it has 10 kilometres race walks for junior athletes, in addition to the Olympic-standard events; the IAAF World Indoor Championships featured 5000 m and 3000 m race walk variations, but these were discontinued after 1993. Top level athletics championships and games feature 20 km racewalking events.
The sport emerged from a British culture of long-distance competitive walking known as pedestrianism, which began to develop the ruleset, the basis of the modern discipline around the mid-19th century. Since the mid-20th century onwards and Chinese athletes have been among the most successful on the global stage, with Europe and parts of Latin America producing most of the remaining top level walkers. Compared to other forms of foot racing, stride length is reduced. There are only two rules; the first dictates that the athlete's back toe cannot leave the ground until the heel of the front foot has touched. Violation of this rule is known as loss of contact; the second rule requires that the supporting leg must straighten from the point of contact with the ground and remain straightened until the body passes directly over it. These rules are judged by the unaided human eye. Athletes lose contact for a few milliseconds per stride, which can be caught on film, but such a short flight phase is said to be undetectable to the human eye.
Athletes stay low to the ground by keeping their arms pumping low, close to their hips. If one sees a racewalker's shoulders rising, it may be a sign that the athlete is losing contact with the ground. What appears to be an exaggerated swivel to the hip is, in fact, a full rotation of the pelvis. Athletes aim to move the pelvis forward, to minimize sideways motion in order to achieve maximum forward propulsion. Speed is achieved by stepping with the aim of rapid turnover; this minimizes the risk of the feet leaving the ground. Strides are short and quick, with pushoff coming forward from the ball of the foot, again to minimize the risk of losing contact with the ground. World-class racewalkers can average under five minutes per kilometre in a 20-km racewalk. Races have been walked at distances as short as 3 kilometres —at the 1920 Summer Olympics—and as long as 100 km; the men's world record for the 50-mile race walk is held by Israeli Shaul Ladany, whose time of 7:23:50 in 1972 beat the world record that had stood since 1935.
The modern Olympic events are the 20 km race walk and 50 km race walk. One example of a longer racewalking competition is the annual Paris-Colmar, 450 to 500 km. There are judges on the course to monitor form. Three judges submitting "red cards" for violations results in disqualification. There is a scoreboard placed on the course. If the third violation is received, the chief judge removes the competitor from the course by showing a red paddle. For monitoring reasons, races are held on a looped course or on a track so judges get to see competitors several times during a race. A judge could "caution" a competitor that he or she is in danger of losing form by showing a paddle that indicates either losing contact or bent knees. No judge may submit more than one card for each walker and the chief judge may not submit any cards. Disqualifications are routine at the elite level, such as the famous case of Jane Saville, disqualified within sight of a gold medal in front of her home crowd in the 2000 Summer Olympics, or Yet Lyu, disqualified 20 meters before the finish line at the 2017 World Championships in Athletics.
Racewalking developed as one of the original track and field events of the first meeting of the English Amateur Athletics Association in 1880. The first racewalking codes came from an attempt to regulate rules for popular 19th century long distance competitive walking events, called pedestrianism. Pedestrianism had developed, like footraces and horse racing, as a popular working class British and American pastime, a venue for wagering. Walkers organised the first English amateur walking championship in 1866, won by John Chambers, judged by the "fair heel and toe" rule; this rather vague code was the basis for the rules codified at the first Championships Meeting in 1880 of the Amateur Athletics Association in England, the birth of modern athletics. With football and other sports codified in the 19th century, the transition from professional pedestrianism to amateur racewalking was, while late, part of a process of regularisation occurring in most modern sports at this time. Racewalking is an Olympic athletics event with distances of 20 kilometres for both men and women and 50 kilometres for men only.
Racewalking first appeared in the modern Olympics in 1904 as a half