Grampians National Park
The Grampians National Park referred to as The Grampians, is a national park located in the Grampians region of Victoria, Australia. The 167,219-hectare national park is situated between Stawell and Horsham on the Western Highway and Dunkeld on the Glenelg Highway, 260 kilometres west of Melbourne and 460 kilometres east of Adelaide. Proclaimed as a national park on 1 July 1984, the park was listed on the Australian National Heritage List on 15 December 2006 for its outstanding natural beauty and being one of the richest indigenous rock art sites in south-eastern Australia; the Grampians feature a striking series of sandstone mountain ranges. Named Gariwerd by one of the local Australian Aboriginal languages, either the Jardwadjali or Djab Wurrung language, the ranges were given their European name in 1836 by Surveyor General of New South Wales Sir Thomas Mitchell after the Grampian Mountains in his native Scotland. After a two-year consultation process, the park was renamed Grampians National Park in 1991, however this controversial formality was reversed after a change of state government in 1992.
The Geographic Place Names Act, 1998 reinstated dual naming for geographical features, this has been subsequently adopted in the park based on Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung names for rock art sites and landscape features with the National Heritage List referring to "Grampians National Park". This area is a distinct physiographic section of the larger Western Victorian Highlands province, which in turn is part of the larger East Australian Cordillera physiographic division; the general form that the ranges take is: from the west, a series of low-angled sandstone ridges running north-south. The eastern sides of the ridges, where the sedimentary layers have faulted, are steep and beyond the vertical in places - notably at Hollow Mountain near Dadswells Bridge at the northern end of the ranges; the most popular walking area for day trippers is the Wonderland area near Halls Gap. In summer the ranges can get hot and dry. Winter and spring are the best times for walking; the Wonderland area is host to "The Grand Canyon" on the "Wonderland Loop" on one of the tracks to the "Pinnacle".
In spring the Grampians wildflowers are an attraction. The area is a rock climbing destination, it is visited by campers and bushwalkers for its many views and its natural environment. Mount William is known within the gliding community for the'Grampians Wave', a weather phenomenon enabling glider pilots to reach extreme altitudes above 28,000 ft; this predominantly occurs during the months of May, June and October when strong westerly winds flow at right angles to the ridge, produce a large-scale standing wave. The rock material that composes the high peaks is sandstone, laid down from rivers during the Devonian period 380 million years ago; this sediment accumulated to a depth of 7 km. Forty million years ago the Southern Ocean reached the base of the northern and western base of the mountain range, the deposition from the range forming the sea floor, now Little Desert National Park; the highest peak is Mount William at 1167 meters. Numerous waterfalls are found in the park and are accessible via a well-developed road network.
To the Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung peoples, Gariwerd was central to the dreaming of the creator and buledji Brambimbula, the two brothers Bram, who were responsible for the creation and naming of many landscape features in western Victoria. Grampians National Park is one of the richest Indigenous rock art sites in south-eastern Australia and was listed on the National Heritage for its natural beauty and its past and continuing Aboriginal cultural associations. Motifs painted in numerous caves include depictions of human hands, animal tracks and birds. Notable rock art sites include: Billimina Jananginj Njani Manja Larngibunja Ngamadjidj Gulgurn Manja; the rock art was created by Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung peoples, while Aboriginal communities continue to pass on knowledge and cultural traditions, much indigenous knowledge has been lost since European settlement of the area from 1840. The significance of the right hand prints at Gulgurn Manja is now unknown. Dual naming of features has been adopted in the Park based on Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung names for rock art sites and landscape features, including: Grampians / Gariwerd Mount Zero / Mura Mura Halls Gap / Budja Budja Halls Gap / Budja Budja is the largest service town in the area and is located at a point equidistant between the towns of Ararat and Stawell.
The town is located towards the eastern side of the park and offers accommodation to the many tourists who visit the area. The Brambuk National Park and Cultural Centre in Halls Gap is owned and managed by Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung people from five Aboriginal communities with historic links to the Gariwerd-Grampians ranges and the surrounding plains. Grampians National Park is home to one of Australia's longest running food and wine festivals, Grampians Grape Escape, held over the first weekend of May in Halls Gap every year. Launched in 1992, the Grampians Grape Escape is a hallmark event for Victoria and provides food and wine offerings by more than 100 local artisan producers, live music and family entertainment. A major bushfire burned out about 50% of the Grampians National Park in January 2006. Soon afterwards the first signs of regeneration were visible with, for example, regrowth of the eucalyptus trees. Many trees exhibit epicormic g
The Riverina is an agricultural region of South-Western New South Wales, Australia. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of flat plains, warm to hot climate and an ample supply of water for irrigation; this combination has allowed the Riverina to develop into one of the most productive and agriculturally diverse areas of Australia. Bordered on the south by the state of Victoria and on the east by the Great Dividing Range, the Riverina covers those areas of New South Wales in the Murray and Murrumbidgee drainage zones to their confluence in the west. Home to Aboriginal groups for over 40,000 years, the Riverina was colonised by Europeans in the mid-19th century as a pastoral region providing beef and wool to markets in Australia and beyond. In the 20th century, the development of major irrigation areas in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys has led to the introduction of crops such as rice and wine grapes; the Riverina has strong cultural ties to Victoria, the region was the source of much of the impetus behind the federation of Australian colonies.
Major population and service centres in the Riverina include the cities of Wagga Wagga and Griffith. Wagga Wagga is home to a campus of Charles Sturt University, the only local provider of higher education for the region. Wagga Wagga is home to two major Australian Defence Force establishments; the delineation of the Riverina region by government agencies and other bodies varies, but in common usage it comprises the agricultural and pastoral areas of New South Wales, west of the Great Dividing Range and in the drainage basin of the snow-fed Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers. The northern boundary beyond the Riverina is determined by the Lachlan River catchment area and is referred to as the Central West. Along the Murray to the south, the Riverina borders the state of Victoria. West of the confluence of the Murray and Murrumbidgee is the beginning of the more arid Far West region. In general, the Riverina is an alluvial plain formed by deposition carried from the Great Dividing Range by streams between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago.
The terrain includes rolling hills to the east but becomes flatter to the west with most of that plain reaching less than 200 metres above sea level. The western Riverina consists of featureless saltbush plain; the geology of the Riverina comprises sedimentary basins. The western Riverina is presumed to be a continuation of the Ballarat and Bendigo geological zone while eastern sections are underlain by western portions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. There is potential for the Riverina to host several mineral deposit types including coal, coal seam methane, orogenic gold, Cobar style polymetallic systems, heavy mineral sands and diamonds in these fold belt rocks and basins. Riverina soils are sandy along the river channels, with more saline grey and brown clays found on flooded areas on the perimeter of the floodplain; as the Murrumbidgee passes downstream, the water and soil become more saline. The Riverina is drained by the large Murray-Darling Basin. Rivers and streams in the Riverina flow east to west.
As well as the Murray and Lachlan, other streams include Billabong Creek and the Edward River, an anabranch of the Murray. Much of the water carried by these streams is diverted. In 2001–2002, 52% of the Murray and Murrumbidgee water runoff was diverted, 77% of, used for irrigation.https://drive.google.com/open?id=16zHR6KKmMf-Tqz7cc67nvksEs_HZBL1S The Bureau of Meteorology classify the Riverina in the Hot Dry Zone climatic zone. Places in this zone can be hot in the summer months while in the winter, nights can be cold with cool to mild days. Mean daily maximum temperatures in the Riverina range from 31.0 °C in January and 12.4 °C in July in Wagga Wagga to 33.2 °C in January and 14.8 °C in July in Hillston. Rainfall levels in the Riverina are low with the median annual rainfall over most of the region between 250–500 millimetres, rising to between 500–800 mm on the eastern fringe. Rain falls in the winter in the southern Riverina and around Hay while in the north rainfall patterns are consistent throughout the year.
Corowa, in the south eastern Riverina has an average rainfall of 539.4 millimetres per year while mean annual rainfall at Hay is 367.2 millimetres. Drought in 2006 has seen the lowest recorded rainfall in towns such as Lockhart and Narrandera. One method of classification of boundaries for the Riverina is the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia that defines the bioregion as an area comprising 9,704,469 hectares, with biogeographic subregions covering each of the Lachlan, Murray Fans, Victorian Riverina, Robinvale Plains, Murray Scroll Belt; the New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service has divided New South Wales into 17 distinct bioregions. Bioregions are quite large areas of land that capture a geophysical pattern, linked to fauna and flora ecosystems; the Riverina bioregion is an area of land that comprises part of the larger Riverina area but extends into Victoria. It has been defined by the New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service as extending from Ivanhoe in the Murray Darling Depression Bioregion south to Bendigo, from Narrandera in the east to Balranald in the west.
74.03 % of the bioregion is in the remainder in Victoria. In another mapping the World Wildlife Fund has made this area part of the larger Southeast Australia temperate savanna ecoregion that covers the western plains of New South Wales. River channels in the region support River Red Gum (Eucalyp
Hobart is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. With a population of 225,000, it is the least populated Australian state capital city, second smallest if territories are taken into account. Founded in 1804 as a British penal colony, Hobart known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney, New South Wales. Prior to British settlement, the Hobart area had been occupied for as long as 35,000 years, by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe; the descendants of these Aboriginal Tasmanians refer to themselves as'Palawa'. Since its foundation as a colonial outpost, the city has expanded from the mouth of Sullivans Cove in a north-south direction along both banks of the Derwent River, from 22 km inland from the estuary at Storm Bay to the point where the river reverts to fresh water at Bridgewater. Penal transportation ended in the 1850s, after which the city experienced periods of growth and decline.
The early 20th century saw an economic boom on the back of mining and other primary industries, the loss of men who served in the world wars was counteracted by an influx of immigration. Despite the rise in migration from Asia and other non-English speaking parts of the world, Hobart's population remains predominantly ethnically Anglo-Celtic, has the highest percentage of Australian-born residents among the Australian capital cities. In June 2016, the estimated greater area population was 224,462; the city is located in the state's south-east on the estuary of the Derwent River, making it the most southern of Australia's capital cities. Its harbour forms the second-deepest natural port in the world, its skyline is dominated by the 1,271-metre kunanyi/Mount Wellington, much of the city's waterfront consists of reclaimed land. It is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, serving as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations and acting as a major tourist hub, with over 1.192 million visitors in 2011/2012.
The metropolitan area is referred to as Greater Hobart, to differentiate it from the City of Hobart, one of the five local government areas that cover the city. The first European settlement began in 1803 as a military camp at Risdon Cove on the eastern shores of the Derwent River, amid British concerns over the presence of French explorers. In 1804, along with the military and convicts from the abandoned Port Phillip settlement, the camp at Risdon Cove was moved by Captain David Collins to a better location at the present site of Hobart at Sullivans Cove; the city known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, was named after Lord Hobart, the British secretary of state for war and the colonies. The area's indigenous inhabitants were members of the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe. Violent conflict with the European settlers, the effects of diseases brought by them reduced the aboriginal population, replaced by free settlers and the convict population. Charles Darwin visited Hobart Town in February 1836 as part of the Beagle expedition.
He writes of Hobart and the Derwent estuary in his Voyage of the Beagle:... The lower parts of the hills which skirt the bay are cleared. I was chiefly built or building. Hobart Town, from the census of 1835, contained 13,826 inhabitants, the whole of Tasmania 36,505; the Derwent River was one of Australia's finest deepwater ports and was the centre of the Southern Ocean whaling and sealing trades. The settlement grew into a major port, with allied industries such as shipbuilding. Hobart Town became a city on 21 August 1842, was renamed Hobart from the beginning of 1881. Hobart is located on the estuary of the Derwent River in the state's south-east. Geologically Hobart is built predominantly on Jurassic dolerite around the foothills interspersed with smaller areas of Triassic siltstone and Permian mudstone. Hobart extends along both sides of the Derwent River. Both of these areas rest on the younger Jurassic dolerite deposits, before stretching into the lower areas such as the beaches of Sandy Bay in the south, in the Derwent estuary.
South of the Derwent estuary lies the Tasman Peninsula. The Eastern Shore extends from the Derwent valley area in a southerly direction hugging the Meehan Range in the east before sprawling into flatter land in suburbs such as Bellerive; these flatter areas of the eastern shore rest on far younger deposits from the Quaternary. From there the city extends in an easterly direction through the Meehan Range into the hilly areas of Rokeby and Oakdowns, before reaching into the tidal flatland area of Lauderdale. Hobart has access to a number of beach areas including those in the Derwent estuary itself. Hobart has a mild temperate oceanic climate; the highest temperature recorded was 41.8 °C on 4 January 2013 and the lowest was −2.8 °C on 25 June 1972 and 11 July 1981. Annually, Hobart receives 40.8 clear days. Compared to other major Australian cities, Hobart has the fewest daily average hours of sunshine, with 5.9 hours per day. However, during the summer it has the most
Gippsland is an economic rural region of Victoria, located in the south-eastern part of that state. It covers an area of 41,556 square kilometres, lies to the east of the eastern suburbs of Greater Melbourne, to the north of Bass Strait, to the west of the Tasman Sea, to the south of the Black-Allan Line that marks part of the Victorian/New South Wales border, to the east and southeast of the Great Dividing Range that lies within the Hume region and the Victorian Alps. Gippsland is broken down into the East Gippsland, South Gippsland, West Gippsland, the Latrobe Valley statistical divisions; as at the 2016 Australian census, Gippsland had a population of 271,266, with the principal population centres of the region, in descending order of population, being Traralgon, Warragul, Sale, Drouin and Phillip Island. Gippsland is best known for its primary production such as mining, power generation and farming as well as its tourist destinations— Phillip Island, Wilsons Promontory, the Gippsland Lakes, the Baw Baw Plateau, the Strzelecki Ranges.
The area was inhabited by Indigenous Australians of the Gunai nation and part of West Gippsland by the Bunurong nation. Before permanent European settlement, the area was visited by sealers and wattle bark gatherers, but who did not settle. Samuel Anderson, a Scottish immigrant from Kirkcudbright and explorer, arrived in Hobart, Tasmania in 1830, in 1835 established a squatter agricultural settlement on the Bass River in Gippsland, the third permanent settlement in Victoria, his business partner Robert Massie joined him in 1837. Both had worked for the Van Diemen's Land Company at Tasmania. Samuel's brothers Hugh and Thomas arrived at Bass shortly after, where they established a successful farming venture. Further European settlement followed two separate expeditions to the area. During his expedition to the South in March 1840, Polish explorer Paweł Edmund Strzelecki led an expedition across the terrain, gave his own names to many natural landmarks and places. Following these expeditions, the area was named "Gippsland", a name chosen by Strzelecki in honour of the New South Wales Governor, George Gipps, his sponsor.
See Count Strzelecki - a magic name in Gippsland Angus McMillan led the second European expedition between 1840, naming the area "Caledonia Australis". The naming of this geographical region, remained the name given by P. E. Strzelecki - Gippsland The township of Bass was surveyed and settled in the early 1860s; the intensive settlement of south Gippsland began late in the 1870s. The story of that process is told in, The land of the Lyre Bird. Gippsland is traditionally subdivided into four or five main sub–regions or districts: West Gippsland South Gippsland the Latrobe Valley East Gippsland. Sometimes a fifth region, Central Gippsland, is added to refer to the drier zone between the Gippsland Lakes and Yarram; the climate of Gippsland is temperate and humid, except in the central region around Sale, where annual rainfall can be less than 600 millimetres. In the Strzelecki Ranges annual rainfall can be as high as 1,500 millimetres, while on the high mountains of East Gippsland it reaches similar levels – much of it falling as snow.
In lower levels east of the Snowy River, mean annual rainfall is about 900–950 millimetres and less variable than in the coastal districts of New South Wales. Mean maximum temperatures in lower areas range from 24 °C in January to 15 °C in July. In the highlands of the Baw Baw Plateau and the remote Errinundra Plateau, temperatures range from a maximum of 18 °C to a minimum of 8 °C. However, in winter, mean minima in these areas can be as low as −4 °C, leading to heavy snowfalls that isolate the Errinundra Plateau between June and October; the soils in Gippsland are very infertile, being profoundly deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. Apart from flooded areas, they are classed as Spodosols and Ultisols. Heavy fertilisation is required for agriculture or pastoral development. Despite this, parts of Gippsland have become productive dairying and vegetable-growing regions: the region supplies Melbourne with most of its needs in these commodities. A few alluvial soils have much better native fertility, these have always been intensively cultivated.
In the extreme northeast is a small section of the Monaro Tableland used for grazing beef cattle. Gippsland possesses few deposits of metallic minerals. However, the deep underground gold mines operated at Walhalla for a fifty-year period between 1863-1913. Gippsland has no deposits of major industrial nonmetallic minerals, but it does feature the world's largest brown coal deposits and, around Sale and offshore in the Bass Strait, some of the largest deposits of oil and natural gas in Australia. Like the rest of Australia, the seas around Gippsland are of low productivity as there is no upwelling due to the warm currents in the Tasman Sea. Nonetheless, towns such as Marlo and Mallacoota depended for a long time on the fishing of abalone, whose shells could fetch high prices because of their use for pearls and pearl inlays. For Australian federal elections
The Bolte Bridge is a large twin cantilever bridge in Melbourne, Australia. It spans the Yarra River and Victoria Harbour in the Docklands precinct to the west of the Melbourne CBD, it forms part of the CityLink system of toll roads that connects the Tullamarine Freeway from the northern suburbs with the West Gate Freeway and the Domain and Burnley tunnels to the Monash Freeway and the south eastern suburbs. It is named after Sir Henry Bolte; the bridge was designed by architects Denton Corker Marshall and was built for head contractor Transurban by Baulderstone Hornibrook, construction taking three years from 1996 to 1999 and costing $75 million. It was named by Jeff Kennett, for former Premier of Victoria, Sir Henry Bolte because of its linking the West Gate and Tullamarine Freeways—projects commissioned or completed by the Bolte Government, it is the largest balanced cantilever cast in situ box girder bridge in Australia. The superstructure is built as two independent bridges of variable depth, prestressed concrete box girders, separated by a 1.15 m clear gap between the structures.
The bridge features two 140 metre high silver towers, situated on either side of the roadway at the midpoint of the bridge's span. These two towers are an aesthetic addition by the architects, are not joined to the main body of the bridge; these towers are hollow, feature access ladders to a small roof top hatch. Until locked and surrounded by water, these towers were a popular target for urban explorers, it has two main spans of 173 metres, two side spans of 72 metres with approach viaducts 430m to the south 4080 metres to the north. The bridge supports eight lanes of automobile traffic. Access is prohibited to pedestrians. Other bridges in Australia of similar construction are the Gateway Bridge and Mooney Mooney Bridge near Gosford, north of Sydney. Bolte Bridge at Structurae Bolte Bridge and innovative design Denton Corker Marshall Profile
New South Wales Rural Fire Service
The New South Wales Rural Fire Service is a volunteer-based firefighting agency and statutory body of the Government of New South Wales. The NSW RFS is responsible for fire protection in 95% of the land area of New South Wales and the Jervis Bay Territory, while urban areas are the responsibility of Fire and Rescue NSW; the NSW RFS is the primary agency for responding to bushfires in the state. In addition, they respond to structural fires, vehicle fires, motor vehicle accidents and wide range of other emergencies, as well as providing preventative advice to local communities; the NSW RFS is the world's largest volunteer fire service, with 74,162 volunteer members, although this figure includes many inactive volunteer firefighters and all support volunteers. They are organised into 2,029 brigades; as of 30 June 2016, the service employed 855 paid staff who fulfill senior operational management and administrative roles. The agency attends to 23,000 incidents per annum; the agency is led by its Commissioner, presently Shane Fitzsimmons, who reports to the Minister for Emergency Services the Hon. Troy Grant MP.
More than 100 years ago, the residents of the small town of Berrigan in south west New South Wales, banded together as firefighters to protect their community against the ever-present threat of bush fires. They were Australia's first official bush fire brigade. Prior to 1997, bushfire fighting services in New South Wales were a patchwork of more than 200 separate fire fighting agencies working under a loose umbrella with no single chain of command; the core of the service as now, was the volunteer brigades that were organised along council district lines under the command of a locally appointed Fire Control Officer. Fire fighting efforts were funded by the Bush Fire Fighting Fund, established in 1949 and financed by insurance companies, local council and the State Government. A variety of State-run committees and councils oversaw bush fire operations with members drawn from various Government fire fighting agencies and council and volunteer representatives; these groups developed legislation and techniques but in the main responsibility for bushfire management was vested in individual local councils in dedicated bush fire areas as determined under the 1909 Fire Brigades Act.
This Act proclaimed the areas serviced by the Board of Fire Commissioners and covered the urban areas of Sydney and Newcastle together with most regional and country towns of any significance. In January 1994, extreme weather conditions resulted in over 800 bush fires breaking out along the coast of NSW. More than 800,000 hectares of land and 205 homes were burned. 120 people were injured and four people were killed, including a volunteer firefighter from the Wingello Bush Fire Brigade. The financial cost of the disaster was estimated at $165 million; the lengthy Coronial Inquiry that followed recommended the State Government introduce a single entity responsible for the management of bush fires in NSW. The 1997 Rural Fires Act was proclaimed on 1 September, with Phil Koperberg announced as Commissioner; as Director-General of the Department of Bush Fire Services, Koperberg had been in command of the fire agencies battling the 1994 fires and was instrumental in developing the legislation that led to the Rural Fires Act.
Organised control of bush fires began with the establishment of the first volunteer bush fire brigades at Berrigan in 1896. This brigade had been established in response to a series of large fires in northern Victoria and south western New South Wales in the 1890s; these culminated in the Red Tuesday fire of 1 February 1898 in Gippsland that claimed 12 lives and destroyed 2000 buildings. In 1916 the Local Government Act provided for the prevention and mitigation of bush fires by authorising local councils to establish and maintain these brigades; the establishment of the Bush Fires Act in 1930 granted local councils the authority to appoint bush fire officers with powers comparable to those held by a Chief Officer of the NSW Fire Brigades. These Fire Control Officers were responsible for bush fire management within their appointed local council districts. In September 1939 a conference of fire-fighting authorities was convened to discuss the prevention of bush fires during the summer months.
The Bush Fire Advisory Committee was established to mitigate bush fires. This committee had no statutory powers but publicised the need for the public to observe fire safety precautions and highlighted the role of Bush Fire Brigades, it was largely responsible for preparing legislation that led to the Bush Fires Act of 1949. The Bush Fires Act, 1949 came into effect on 9 December 1949; this legislation consolidated and modernised the law relating to the prevention and suppression of bush fires, gave councils and other authorities wider powers to protect the areas under their control. The system of bush fire brigades manned by volunteers and directed by their officers appointed by their local Councils continued but shire and district councils or Ministers could now appoint group captains to direct brigades formed by two adjoining councils; the Act gave the Governor of NSW the authority to proclaim bush fire districts where none had been proclaimed. Essential to the legislation was the establishment of the Bush Fire Fighting Fund.
This Fund was financed by insurance companies contributing half the funds with the remainder supplied by State and local government. The Act enabled for the co-ordination of the activities of the Board of Fire Commissioners, the Forestry Commission and the Bush Fire Brigades; the Minister for Local Government was empowered to appoint a person to take charge of all bush
Bushfires in Australia
Bushfires frequenT t events during the warmer months of the year, due to Australia's hot, dry climate. Each year, such fires impact extensive areas. On one hand, they can cause property loss of human life. Certain native flora in Australia have evolved to rely on bushfires as a means of reproduction, fire events are an interwoven and an essential part of the ecology of the continent. For thousands of years, Indigenous Australians have used fire to foster grasslands for hunting and to clear tracks through dense vegetation. Major firestorms that result in severe loss of life are named based on the day on which they occur, such as Ash Wednesday and Black Saturday; some of the most intense and deadly bushfires occur during droughts and heat waves, such as the 2009 Southern Australia heat wave, which precipitated the conditions during the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires in which 173 people lost their lives. Other major conflagrations include the 1983 Ash Wednesday bushfires, the 2003 Eastern Victorian alpine bushfires and the 2006 December Bushfires.
In 2013 the non-profit Climate Council reported that Global warming is increasing the frequency and severity of bushfires. The word "bushfire" builds on the concept of "the bush". Bushfires in Australia are defined as uncontrolled, non-structural fires burning in a grass, bush, or forested area. Australia, being a geographically and meteorogically diverse continent, experiences many types of bushfires. There are two main categories, depending on local topography. Hilly/mountainous fires – burn in hilly, mountainous or alpine areas which are densely forested; the land is less accessible and not conducive to agriculture, thus many of these densely forested areas have been saved from deforestation and are protected by national and other parks. The steep terrain increases the intensity of a firestorm. Where settlements are located in hilly or mountainous areas, bushfires can pose a threat to both life and property. Flat/grassland fires – burn along flat plains or areas of small undulation, predominantly covered in grasses or scrubland.
These fires can move fanned by high winds in flat topography, they consume the small amounts of fuel/vegetation available. These fires pose less of a threat to settlements as they reach the same intensity seen in major firestorms as the land is flat, the fires are easier to map and predict, the terrain is more accessible for firefighting personnel. Many regions of predominantly flat terrain in Australia have been completely deforested for agriculture, reducing the fuel loads which would otherwise facilitate fires in these areas. Common causes of bushfires include lightning, arcing from overhead power lines, accidental ignition in the course of agricultural clearing and welding activities, campfires and dropped matches, sparks from machinery, controlled burn escapes; the natural fire regime in Australia was altered by the arrival of humans. Fires became more frequent, fire-loving species—notably eucalypts—greatly expanded their range, it is assumed that a good deal of this change came about as the result of deliberate action by early humans, setting fires to clear undergrowth or drive game.
Plants have evolved a variety of strategies to survive bushfires, or encourage fire as a way to eliminate competition from less fire-tolerant species. Some native animals are adept at surviving bushfires. In 2009, a standardised Fire Danger Rating was adopted by all Australian states. During the fire season the Bureau of Meteorology provides fire weather forecasts and by considering the predicted weather including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and dryness of vegetation, fire agencies determine the appropriate Fire Danger Rating. In 2010, following a national review of the bush fire danger ratings, new trigger points for each rating were introduced for grassland areas in most jurisdictions. See for example the following glossaryFire Danger Ratings are a feature of weather forecasts and alert the community to the actions they should take in preparation of the day. Ratings are broadcast via newspapers, radio, TV, the internet; the Australasian Fire Authorities Council is the peak body responsible for representing fire, emergency services and land management agencies in the Australasian region.
The Rural Fire Service is a volunteer-based firefighting agency and operates as part of the Queensland Fire and Emergency Services. The New South Wales Rural Fire Service is a volunteer-based firefighting,agency and statutory body of the Government of New South Wales; the Country Fire Service is a volunteer based fire service in the state of South Australia. The CFS operates as a part of Emergency Services Commission. Bushfires tend to occur near Adelaide. In Victoria, the Country Fire Authority provides firefighting and other emergency services to country areas and regional townships within the state, as well as large portions of the outer suburban areas and growth corridors of Melbourne not covered by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade. Responsibility for fire suppression and management, including planned burning on public land such as State Forests and National Parks, which makes up about 7.1 million hectares or about one third of the State, sits with the Department of Environment, Water an