JMB Racing is a racing team from Monaco that competes in sports car racing. It was founded in Nice, France, in 1995 as JB Racing by Jean-Michel Bouresche and Jean-Pierre Jabouille, it was renamed JMB in 2000 after Jabouille left the partnership. JMB relocated its headquarters to Monaco in 2004, racing with a Monegasque license since then; the team first raced in the Andros Trophy and the Porsche Pirelli Supercup in the 1995 season, winning the 2 litre class in the first with Jean-Pierre Malcher and Jacques Laffite, taking the title in the second with Malcher, repeating the win the following year with Emmanuel Collard. For 1997, Bouresche and Jabouille went international, purchasing a Porsche 911 GT1 to race in the brand new FIA GT Championship, with Emmanuel Collard and Jürgen von Gartzen taking part in Le Mans; the team was backed by primary sponsor Marlboro. The increased presence of factory teams drove JB Racing away from the FIA GT Championship, so instead the team purchased two Ferrari 333 SPs to race in the International Sports Racing Series from 1998, dropping Marlboro as a sponsor in place of Italian manufacturing firm Giesse.
The French team stayed in this sports-prototype championship for three years, winning the drivers titles with Collard and Vincenzo Sospiri in 1998 and 1999 and David Terrien and Christian Pescatori in 2000, in addition to taking the teams titles for three years in a row. The team ran one Ferrari in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1998 and 1999. In 2000 JB, now called JMB made a return to GT racing with the new Ferrari 360 Modena as official Ferrari demonstrator, taking second place overall in the 6 Hours of Vallelunga. In 2001 they switched full-time to GTs, winning the N-GT class in the FIA GT Championship, once more with Terrien and Pescatori, who won the title in 2002. In both occasions, the team title was retained. JMB ran two cars in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, Bouresche created the JMB Racing USA operation to run cars in the international American races, such as the Daytona 24 Hours and Sebring 12 Hours. In 2003, in addition to taking second place in the N-GT category with Andrea Bertolini and Fabrizio De Simone, JMB Racing graduated to the main GT category with a Ferrari 550 Maranello.
However, the French team used the car developed by N. Technology, more troublesome than the Prodrive version, drivers Pescatori and Boris Derichebourg were only competitive after upgrading to the 575 GTC. In 2004, JMB Racing changed its address to Monaco and began racing under the Monegasque flag; the team however retained their workships in Nice. The team scored third place in the FIA GT Championship with two 575 GTCs, in spite of a lack of consistency due to several drivers changes, but still won the Donington race with Karl Wendlinger and Jaime Melo. JMB took the Drivers title in the Le Mans Endurance Series with Roman Rusinov in a 360 Modena and was third in the Italian GT Championship, with the old 550 Maranello. JMB was one of the first teams in the FIA GT to race the brand new Maserati MC12 in 2005. Wendlinger and Bertolini won at Magny-Cours but missed the win at the Spa 24 Hours by two laps, taking third place at the end of the year for the drivers championship, with the team reaching second place.
The 575 was used in the LMES as well as at Le Mans. In 2006, JMB went back to the GT2 class with the new Ferrari 430, but in spite of a win in Silverstone, were outclassed by rivals Scuderia Ecosse as well as the Porsche teams and managed only fourth place in the teams championship at the end. JMB entered three cars in the new FIA GT3 European Championship. In 2007, JMB divided their time between the FIA GT, European GT3 and the Le Mans Series; the highlight of the year was Ben Aucott's win of the Citation Cup, a series within the FIA GT for gentleman drivers. The team won one race in the European GT3 series, took second and third in the final round of the LMS at Interlagos. Official website
FIA GT Championship
The FIA GT Championship was a sports car racing series organized by the Stéphane Ratel Organisation at the behest of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. The championship was concentrated in Europe, but throughout the years has visited other continents including Asia and South America. At the end of 2009, the championship was replaced by the FIA GT1 World Championship, which morphed into the FIA GT Series for 2013. FIA defines several categories of GT cars with the top two specifications being GT1, or Grand Touring Cars, GT2, or Series Grand Touring Cars; each category has an annual driver champion, team champion, manufacturer champion. Both categories are based on production road car designs, which must be produced in a minimum quantity of 25 examples to qualify. Both types may undergo significant modifications from the road car they are based on, but GT1 allows the use of exotic materials, better aerodynamics, larger brakes, wider tires and larger engine admission restrictors. For the 2006 season, the FIA created a new class called GT3.
GT3 cars are closer to their production counterparts and are simply racetrack prepared with the essentials. All cars are performance balanced together via different weights, tyre pressures etc. Prestigious motorsports makes such as Aston Martin, Dodge, Lamborghini and Maserati take part in FIA GT3 European Championship, a support series in some rounds of the main championship; the FIA defines a GT car as "an open or closed automobile which has no more than one door on each side and a minimum of two seats situated one on each side of the longitudinal centre line of the car. This car must be able to be used legally on the open road, adapted for racing on circuits or closed courses." All races in the FIA GT Championship were of endurance type, a full race distance lasting a minimum of 500 km or a maximum of three hours, with the exception of the Spa 24 Hours, Istanbul 2 hours and the exhibition Mil Milhas Brasileiras, run over a thousand miles and was planned to be a round of the championship in 2007.
However, with the release of the 2007 FIA GT Championship schedule and rules, the FIA GT series becomes more of a sprint race event, with all races being a maximum of 2 hours with the exception of the Spa 24 Hours. In 1997, due to increasing interest from manufacturers such as Mercedes-Benz and Panoz, the FIA took over control of the expanding BPR Global GT Series, standardizing the race-length at 500 km instead of the usual four hours, liberalizing the technical regulations and leaving commercial exploitation in the hands of one of BPR's founders, Stéphane Ratel, who managed to get TV support from the pan-European TV station Eurosport; the new manufacturers built "homologation specials", racing-bred cars that took full advantage of the new rules, to build quasi-prototypes with limited production runs of 25 cars. Chrysler and Marcos, not wanting to accompany the cost escalation, moved down to the GT2 class; this proved to be the wisest move, as Mercedes dominated the new category and the other manufacturers pulled out after the end of the 1998 season.
This left Chrysler's Viper to become the dominating car in the series, with the aging Porsche 993 GT2 and the Lister Storm providing a certain degree of competition. However, there was no lower inexpensive category for amateur drivers, this led to the creation of the N-GT class in 2000. While the manufacturer field in the main class blossomed, the new category became swamped with Porsches and Ferraris, but lower running costs meant both classes enjoyed a balanced number of entries. In order to boost the championship's status, the SRO added the 24 Hours of Spa a touring car race, to the calendar, where it became the series' most important race; the FIA banned official manufacturer involvement, although certain teams had preferential treatment, with Porsche establishing a "round robin" system. After the end of the 2004 season, the FIA renamed the classes GT1 and GT2, somewhat liberalized the GT1 regulations, allowing "supercars". While this was made to accommodate the Saleen S7, the biggest beneficiary was the purpose-built Maserati MC12, which lead the FIA to impose aerodynamic limitations on the Italian car.
However, thanks to a weight penalty system, the fight for the championship is protected from more domineering cars. The level of competition remains tight, with gentlemen drivers managing to fight for the wins with professional drivers, some of them with Formula One experience. Following the 2009 season, the SRO announced that the FIA GT Championship's two categories, GT1 and GT2, would break off into separate series; the GT1 category became a world championship with rounds across the world. Cars which fit the GT1 class were eligible to race only in the FIA GT1 World Championship, as the ACO banned the cars from the event and all of its associated series; this meant that the category that once was eligible to race not only in the FIA GT, Le Mans Series and numerous national championships, was now only able to run in the new World Championship. A few GT1 were entered in the LMGT1 class at the 2010 24 Hours of Le Mans; the GT1 cars continued to race in the World Championship in 2010 and 2011, but in 2012 the series switched to GT3 machinery due to shrinking car counts and the fact that most of the cars were ageing and no one was willing to build new models.
This meant that the San Luis round of the 2011 season was the last time GT1 cars contested in international motorsport. The 2012 FIA GT1 season was contested with GT3 cars (yet retaining GT1 in se
Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc is a British independent manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. Steered from 1947 by David Brown, it became associated with expensive grand touring cars in the 1950s and 1960s, with the fictional character James Bond following his use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger, their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to the Prince of Wales since 1982, it has over 150 car dealerships in over 50 countries on six continents, making them a global automobile brand. The company is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Headquarters and main production site are in Gaydon, England, alongside one of Jaguar Land Rover's development centres on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martin's recent cars was named after the 1950s Avro Vulcan bomber. Aston Martin has announced plans to turn itself into a global luxury brand, is branching out into projects including speed boats, bicycles and real estate development submarines and aircraft on a licensing basis.
Aston Martin had a troubled history after the third quarter of the 20th century but has enjoyed long periods of success and stability. "In the first century we went bankrupt seven times", incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe. "The second century is about making sure, not the case." Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they serviced GWK and Calthorpe vehicles. Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, the pair decided to make their own vehicles; the first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta Fraschini. They acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of the first World War, Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford joined the Army Service Corps.
After the war they found new premises at Abingdon Road and designed a new car. Bamford left in 1920 and Bamford & Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Three works Team Cars with 16-valve twin cam engines were built for racing and record breaking: chassis number 1914 developed as the Green Pea. 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations. Bamford & Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Bamford & Martin got into financial difficulty again in 1925 and Martin was forced to sell the company; that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business. They renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham. Renwick and Bertelli had been in partnership some years and had developed an overhead-cam four-cylinder engine using Renwick's patented combustion chamber design, which they had tested in an Enfield-Allday chassis.
The only "Renwick and Bertelli" motor car made, it was known as "Buzzbox" and still survives. The pair had planned to sell their engine to motor manufacturers, but having heard that Aston Martin was no longer in production realised they could capitalise on its reputation to jump start the production of a new car. Between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as "Bertelli cars", they included the 1½-litre "T-type", "International", "Le Mans", "MKII" and its racing derivative, the "Ulster", the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative, the "Speed Model". Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertelli's brother Enrico, with a small number of long-chassis four-seater tourers and saloons produced. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers; the "LM" team cars were successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans. Financial problems reappeared in 1932.
Aston Martin was rescued for a year by Lance Prideaux Brune before passing it on to Sir Arthur Sutherland. In 1936, Aston Martin decided to concentrate on road cars, producing just 700 until World War II halted work. Production shifted to aircraft components during the war. In 1947, old-established owned Huddersfield gear and machine tools manufacturer David Brown Limited bought Aston Martin putting it under control of its Tractor Group. David Brown became Aston Martin's latest saviour, he acquired without its factory Lagonda's business for its 2.6-litre W. O. Bentley-designed engine. Lagonda moved operations to Newport Pagnell and shared engines and workshops. Aston Martin began to build the classic "DB" series of cars. In April 1950, they announced planned production of their Le Mans prototype to be called the DB2, followed by the DB2/4 in 1953, the DB2/4 MkII in 1955, the DB Mark III in 1957 and the Italian-styled 3.7 L DB4 in 1958. While these models helped Aston Martin establish a good racing pedigree, the DB4 stood out and yielded the famous DB5 in 1963.
Aston stayed true to its grand touring style with the DB6, DBS (1967–1
Monaco the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides. Monaco has an area of 2.020 km2, making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican. Its population was about 38,400 based on the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, 161 metres above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state.
Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297; the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris. Since Monaco's mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax, low business taxes, is well known for being a tax haven. It is the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One; the principality has a club football team. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004, it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" "alone, single" + "οἶκος" "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods; as a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos.
Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before gaining control. Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy the Third Reich, before being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.
Since Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union. Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia", his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was known by this name. Francesco, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century; the Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica; the Crown of Aragon became a part of Spain through marriage and other parts drifted into various pieces of other
Aston Martin DBRS9
The Aston Martin DBRS9 is a racing car built by Aston Martin Racing to be a cheaper alternative to the Aston Martin DBR9, both of which are based on the Aston Martin DB9. The DBRS9 was introduced in 2005 and has since been replaced with the Aston Martin V12 Vantage GT3; the DBRS9 features several modifications to the standard DB9. With developments including a full race specification roll-cage and a tuned version of the 5.9-litre V12 engine to bring output up to 550 bhp and 620 N⋅m. Other modifications include carbon fiber body panels, polycarbonate side and rear windows and a stripped out interior in order to drop weight by 480 kg; these enhancements bring the DBRS9's power output up to 430 bhp/tonne. The DBRS9 has a top speed of 314 km/h; the car features uprated suspension with a lowered ride height and stiffened racing springs. The DBRS9 has been fitted with a close-ratio racing gearbox in either 6-speed manual or an upgraded sequential manual form; the DBRS9 is open to customers through Aston Martin Racing and Prodrive at a price of £175,000 without optional extras and taxes.
The car is a bridge between the expensive race specification GT1 Aston Martin DBR9 and the standard DB9 road car. While the DBR9 was designed to be used by large teams participating in international motorsport in the FIA GT Championship and GT1 class at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the DBRS9 was intended to be raced by teams in lower level GT racing the FIA GT3 class and some national and international GT series such as the British GT Championship. After Aston Martin Racing and Prodrive unveiled the DBRS9 in late 2005, Barwell Motorsport and BMS Scuderia Italia started to race the car in the 2006 FIA GT3 European Championship, with BMS Scuderia Italia winning a race at Oschersleben. BMS raced one DBRS9 in the 2006 FIA GT Championship Spa 24 Hours race in the GT3 class, but did not finish. BMS continued to race the DBRS9s in FIA GT Championship in late 2006, winning at Hungaroring and Dubai in the GT3 class. BMS continued with the DBRS9 in the 2007 FIA GT3 Championship, alongside French team Hexis Racing and its associate of Racing for Belgium.
BMS finished second in the Team Championship. For the 2008 FIA GT3 Championship, Brixia Racing took over BMS Scuderia Italia's operation. Hexis Racing continued in the FIA GT3 class with the DBRS9 and finished second in both Driver's and Team Championship. In the 2009 FIA GT3 Championship, both Brixia Racing and Hexis Racing stayed with the Aston Martin DBRS9, with Hexis racing winning the night race at Adria. In the 2008 ADAC GT Masters series, Hexis Racing finished a full season with DBRS9s and finished 3rd overall in the Team Championship. In 2007 Racing for Belgium and Phoenix Racing competed with several Aston Martin DBRS9s in the ADAC GT Masters. At the 2007 24 Hours Nürburgring, the DBRS9 of Team Phoenix led the race in the early stages, but the engine failed on Sunday. In 2007 Australian GT Championship, ABCOR, Preston General Engineering raced an Aston Martin DBRS9 in selected rounds with different drivers; the team continued with DBRS9 in 2008 Australian GT, with additional entry from Team Aston Martin VIP Petfoods Racing joining in late season with a DBRS9.
VIP Petfoods Racing continued with DBRS9 in 2009 Australian GT with team boss Tony Quinn still driving the car in 2011. In the 2009 Belgian GT race, Barwell Motorsport competed with their DBRS9 with sponsorship from Aston Martin Brussels. British GT Championship, Barwell Motorsport raced 3 DBRS9 in 2006. Barwell Motorsport finished second in Team Championship and took the Driver's Championship with Leo Machitski. Barwell Motorsport continued with DBRS9 in the 2007 British GT Championship, with Cadena Motorsport joining with another DBRS9. Barwell Motorsport took the Team Championship title, with Lord Paul Drayson and Jonathan Cocker finished 2nd in Driver's Championship. In 2008, 22GTRacing and Cadena Motorsport took over with the British GT DBRS9s but did not have a successfully season. In 2009, Barwell Motorsport joined force with Beechdean Motorsport and got back to British GT with a Barwell-Beechdean Aston Martin DBRS9. 22GT Racing continued competing with their DBRS9. Aston Martin Racing DBRS9 GT3
Dijon-Prenois is a 3.801 km motor racing circuit located in Prenois, near Dijon, France. The undulating track is noted for its sweeping bends. Opened in 1972, Dijon-Prenois hosted the Formula One French Grand Prix five times, the Swiss Grand Prix in 1982; the non-championship 1975 Swiss Grand Prix was held at Dijon. The circuit hosts the Grand Prix de l'Age d'Or, last hosted the FFSA GT Championship in 2012. Planned in 1967, work commenced in December 1969; the track was part of a plan to make Dijon an automotive centre. It was the brainchild of rugby-player and wrestler François Chambelland, was developed with the aid of racers Jean-Pierre Beltoise and François Cevert, as well as motoring journalist José Rosinski. In spite of lack of support from the city government and a chronic lack of funds, the track was declared open on 26 May 1972, with Guy Ligier making the first timed lap around the circuit; the first race, for 2-litre prototypes, was held ten days later. Arturo Merzario was the inaugural winner.
The first F1 race was run in 1974 on the circuit's original 3.289 km layout. Therefore, in 1976 an extension was added to lengthen the circuit as well as to reprofile many of its corners before the time F1 could return to Dijon in 1977; the 1979 French Grand Prix featured a memorable battle for second place in the final laps between Gilles Villeneuve's Ferrari and René Arnoux's Renault, won by Villeneuve. The race itself was won by Jean-Pierre Jabouille in the other Renault - Renault's first, the first F1 victory for a turbocharged car; the 1982 Formula One season was not to see the French Grand Prix held at Dijon as that race was held at the Paul Ricard Circuit, located at Le Castellet in southern France. Instead, Dijon held the last Swiss Grand Prix, despite being located in France and not Switzerland; this was due to the Swiss Government's ban on motor racing in the wake of the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans disaster in which 83 people, many of whom were spectators, the driver Pierre Levegh, died when a car crashed at high speed and vaulted into the pit straight grandstand.
1982 Formula One World Champion Keke Rosberg, driving his Williams-Ford, won his first Grand Prix in the 1982 Swiss race, four seconds in front of local favourite Alain Prost driving a factory backed Renault. The French Grand Prix alternated between Paul Ricard and Dijon, until the last F1 race at Dijon took place in 1984; the race was won by McLaren's Niki Lauda, who would win his 3rd and final World Championship that year. The fastest lap of the race was set by Lauda's team mate Alain Prost at an average speed of 214 km/h. Fittingly, the last F1 pole at Dijon was set by a French driver driving a French car, with Patrick Tambay recording a 1:02.200 in his factory Renault RE50 turbo. Tambay led the race for the first 47 laps before being passed by Lauda, the Frenchman finishing 2nd, seven seconds behind the McLaren. Long-distance racing continued, with a race in the FIA GT Championship held there in 1998 for instance. Although Formula One has not returned to Dijon since 1984, the circuit continues to be used today for minor local races.
These include club level events and motorcycle racing, truck racing events have been held there since 1988. The track was renovated in 2001, when a go-cart track was added. Official website Satellite picture by Google Maps
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well