The Bentley Arnage was a large luxury car produced by Bentley Motors in Crewe, England from 1998 to 2009. The Arnage, and its Rolls-Royce-branded sibling, the Silver Seraph, were introduced in the Spring of 1998, and were the first entirely new designs for the two marques since 1980. Another break from the past was to be found under the bonnet, for home to the same 6. 75-litre V8 engine. The new Arnage was to be powered by a BMW V8 engine, with Cosworth-engineered twin-turbo installation, the Arnage is over 5.4 meters long,1.9 metres wide, and has a kerb weight of more than 2.5 metric tonnes. For a brief period it was the most powerful and fastest four-door saloon on the market, in September 2008, Bentley announced that production of the model would cease during 2009. In a complete switch from tradition, these new cars would have built at the Crewe factory. The BMW V8 Arnage was renamed the Arnage Green Label for the 2000 model year, in addition, from 2000–2001, a special edition Birkin was produced.
During the takeover battle in 1998 between BMW and Volkswagen Group for ownership of Rolls Royce and Bentley Motors, BMW had threatened to stop supply of their engines if Volkswagen Group won, customers were nervous about engine and part availability and orders for new cars dropped precipitously. Volkswagens response was to prepare the old pushrod 6. 75-litre 16-valve engine from the Turbo R for the Arnage, coupled with an outdated 4-speed automatic, the engine was extremely thirsty, and would not meet government-imposed emissions standards without hasty modifications. The revised version of the car was launched as the Arnage Red Label in October 1999. At the same time, but without the fanfare, Bentley made several modifications to the original BMW engined cars. As part of the process, both Red and Green Label cars received stiffer body shells and larger wheels and brakes. The stiffer body shell was needed because of the weight of the British engine. The larger brakes were needed for the same reason, despite the larger brakes, braking performance worsened with the extra weight of the 6.75 engine.
The braking performance of the 99 Green Label from 70–0 was 172 feet while the Arnage Ts performance was 182 feet from the same speed, the rest of the revisions included,1. Making a pop up Alpine navigation system standard 2, adding park distance control to the front and rear 3. Increasing the rear leg room 4. Adding power folding mirrors and 5
The Chrysler Sebring is a line of mid-size luxury automobiles that was sold from 1995 through 2010 by Chrysler. Three generations of convertibles, two generations of sedans, and two generations of coupes were produced, although the coupe shared the same name and some styling cues, it was mechanically unrelated to the other Sebring models. The Sebring line was introduced in 1995 with the Chrysler Sebring coupe and it was the replacement for the Chrysler LeBaron coupe. In 1996 the convertible was introduced, replacing its LeBaron counterpart as well, for 2001, both body styles were redesigned and a sedan version was now offered. The sedan replaced the Chrysler Cirrus, the coupe was discontinued after 2005 with no replacement model planned. The redesigned sedan was introduced for 2007, but the version was not introduced until 2008. This generation added a couple new options including all-wheel drive on sedan models, all Sebring models were replaced by the Chrysler 200 for the 2011 model year. The Chrysler Sebring was introduced as a coupe for 1995, and as a convertible in 1996, the convertible was built off the Chrysler JA platform used for the Cirrus sedan, while the coupe was based on the Mitsubishi Eclipse.
The Chrysler Sebring was named after Sebring, the site of the renowned endurance car race called the 12 Hours of Sebring, the name was first used by Chrysler Corporations Plymouth division trim line of the Satellite mid-size coupe of the 1970s. The 1995 through 2000 Chrysler Sebring coupe was the successor to the Chrysler LeBaron coupe, the first generation Sebring coupe was introduced in April 1995, several months after the related Dodge Avenger. Despite its similarities to the Avenger, the Chryslers suspension was tuned slightly on the softer side, although the Sebring did not really offer true off-the-line muscle, it did handle well over long, curvy roads, offering minimal body roll. LXi models further benefited from rear sway bars, a slightly different tuned fully independent suspension, the coupe version of the Sebring had seating for five and was considered to be one of the larger, more roomy coupes on the market. Trunk capacity was similar to that of many cars, capable of handling more than one set of golf clubs.
At the time of its introduction, the Sebring sported a crosshair grille, the grille was non-functional, with the lower half under the bumper used for air flow intake in a bottom breather function. Although said to be built on a stretched Eagle Talon platform, these cars do share a great deal with their Talon sibling, including much of their dash and instrument panel along with select suspension and steering components. The Sebring underwent a facelift for 1997. Its grille was replaced with a larger black grid. The facelift made the Sebring the first car to use Chryslers wings logo, the 1997 restyle saw the addition of ribbed lower body cladding and new wheel styles
Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione
The Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione is a sports car produced by Italian automaker Alfa Romeo between 2007 and 2010. It was first presented as a car at the 2003 Frankfurt Motor Show. The name refers to the engine and Alfa Romeos racing pedigree. Alfa received over 1400 orders for the 8C after the announcement that the car would enter production. However, only 500 customers ended up with the 8C Competizione, the 8C Competizione was introduced at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 2003. It was in the latter of two races that the car was driven by Juan-Manuel Fangio and Augusto Zanardi. It won the 1950 Targa Florio, a 3. 0-litre prototype was built but not produced. These 6C2500 models were among the last vehicles with links to the pre-war cars, during the Mondial de lAutomobile 2006, Alfa Romeo announced the production of a limited series of 500 units of the 8C Competizione. The production version is similar to the concept, the biggest difference to the exterior being the rear-hinged hood. Other minor changes included the front lights, which used Xenon lamps, a standard system, a mesh side vent, and the rims.
The car came standard in Alfa Red or Black, pearl Yellow and the Special Competition Red were available as an option. Paint upon sample colors were available for an additional charge. Therefore, the 8Cs were produced in a range of colors including, Maserati range, Fuji White, Blue Avio, Blue Oceano, Grigio Nuvolari, Ferrari range, Blue Pozzi. The bodyshell is made of fibre, produced by ATR Group. The carbon fibre body is fitted to a chassis, made by Italian company ITCA Produzione. The final assembly takes place at the Maserati factory in Modena, an 8C Competizione was featured on the main sculpture at the 2010 Goodwood Festival of Speed. One of the two remaining Alfa Romeo P2s was part of the display, the car uses a modified Maserati platform and powertrain and features a Ferrari/Maserati derived 90-degree cross-plane wet sump lubricated 4. 7-litre V8 assembled by Ferrari. The V8 engine has variable timing intake valves and compression ratio of 11.3, the gearbox can shift in 175 milliseconds when using Sport mode
The Lancia Delta is a small family car produced by Italian automobile manufacturer Lancia in three generations. The first generation produced between 1979 and 1994, the generation from 1993 to 1999, and the third generation from 2008 to 2014. The Delta was first shown at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1979, the Delta dominated the World Rally Championship during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The homologation requirements of Group A regulations meant marketing road-going versions of these competition cars — the Lancia Delta HF 4WD, a total of 44,296 Integrales were produced. The first Delta was a hatchback, designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro. Between 1980 and 1982, it was sold in Sweden by Saab Automobile. The Delta was voted the 1980 European Car of the Year, a special Delta HF Integrale version was a four-wheel drive hot hatch with a turbocharged petrol engine. Design was by Giorgetto Giugiaros Italdesign and its platform put together MacPherson suspension developed for the Beta with four-cylinder, SOHC engines derived from the Fiat Ritmo.
The Fiat engines were revised by Lancia engineers with a Weber twin-choke carburettor and its three-piece body-coloured bumpers made from polyester resin sheet moulding compound were claimed by Lancia to be a first in the industry. The heating and ventilation were developed with help from Saab, experts in the field, sales started in October 1979,43,000 were sold in 1980, and by the end of 1981 production had exceeded 100,000. At the beginning of 1982 as a transmission option was added. Two months after the level was extended to the 1. 3-litre engine too. November 1982 brought the first facelift for the Delta, other changes included the deletion of the anodised fascia between the rear tail lights and a 40 kg weight reduction on all models. Inside there were new seats and, on the range topping models, concurrently the Delta GT1600 was launched, the cars first sporting variant. It was powered by a 1585 cc,105 PS twin-cam engine with Marelli Digiplex ignition, lower profile tyres, retuned suspensions, standard equipment was the richest available and some optionals like air conditioning were exclusive to the GT, the cabin was upholstered in Zegna cloth.
Outside details like a GT badge on the side of the grille, matte black door handles. As the 5-speed 1500, 4-speed 1300 and LX versions were dropped — the latter only to be reintroduced in April 1984 on the 1300 LX, on 9 March 1984 the 200, 000th Delta left the Chivasso factory. The first performance Delta was the Delta HF, which was introduced in July 1983, the HF acronym—last used on the Stratos—stood for High Fidelity, and had been used on performance version of Lancia cars since 1966
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
The Hyundai Grandeur is a mid-size car produced by the South Korean manufacturer Hyundai since 1986. The Grandeur has evolved through five generations with intermediate restylings, and is marketed under various nameplates worldwide—prominently as the Hyundai Azera, as the Azera, it was considered the flagship model of Hyundais United States lineup until the arrival of the Genesis sedan. Currently the Azera slots between the midsize Sonata and the Genesis sedan, as of January 2014, the sedan is available in South Korea, the Middle East, and the Americas. The first Grandeur was a rebadged Mitsubishi Debonair produced by Hyundai, initially launched with Mitsubishi-sourced 2. 0L SOHC MPI version of the engine used in the first generation Sonata, a 2.4 L SOHC MPI engine was added in 1987. A V63.0 L engined model was launched in 1991 to better compete with the Daewoo Imperial, before the 1988 Seoul Olympics, most of the luxury car market of South Korea was held by Daewoo Motors and its Royale Series.
From October 1978, Hyundai built its car, Ford Granada Mark II, in Korea. As Hyundai was looking to enter the car market, it tried to make its own luxury car. In the early eighties, Mitsubishi Motors wanted to renew its aging Debonair model, given the existing relationship of sharing technologies and innovations, Mitsubishi accepted Hyundais request to share a platform, internal configuration, and most importantly, an engine. As Hyundai was a sponsor of 1988 Seoul Olympics, it used this opportunity to notify all the executives and important people about their new car. Because of its Mitsubishi basis and good quality, it very popular in Korea. Also called Gak -Grandeur, it succeeded Ford Granada Mark II, before the 1988 Summer Olympics, the official sponsor Hyundai Motor co-developed it with Mitsubishi Motors of Japan, and launched it in July 1986. The design was done by Hyundai Motors, but the configuration was done by Mitsubishi. It was the second FF layout model in Korea after Hyundai Excel, only a four-cylinder 2,000 cc engine and manual transmission were offered, but a 2,400 cc engine, a V63,000 cc engine, and automatic transmission were equipped.
The Grandeur became Koreas bestselling large car by a considerable margin, taillight design was changed in 1989, and ABS first became available in 1991. It had 4-speed automatic transmission or 5-speed manual transmission and it was discontinued in September 1992, after 122,074 had been built. The New Grandeur and the generation of the Mitsubishi Debonair were the products of a joint development between Hyundai and Mitsubishi Motors. Mitsubishi was responsible for the powertrain, and Hyundai was responsible for the body, production of the car began in September 1992 and ended in 1998. The New Grandeur came in various levels and only V6 engine combinations
Land Rover Defender
The Land Rover Defender is a British four-wheel-drive off-road utility vehicle developed from the original Land Rover Series launched in June 1948. In October 2013 Land Rover announced that production would end in December 2015 after a run of 67 years. Production finally ended on 29 January 2016 when the last Defender, H166 HUE, Jaguar Land Rover announced their intention to launch a replacement new Defender, which motoring journalists speculate will be quite different from the original version. The model was introduced in 1983 as Land Rover One Ten, the Ninety and One Ten replaced the earlier Land Rover Series, and at the time of launch, the only other Land Rover model in production was the Range Rover. In 1989, a model was brought out by Land Rover to be produced in parallel with the other two, the Land Rover Discovery. To avoid possible confusion, from 1991 the Ninety and the One Ten were renamed the Defender 90 and these carried front badges that said Defender, with a badge on the rear of the vehicle saying Defender 90 or Defender 110.
The most recent model, from 2007-2016, still featured the space above the radiator for the badge but was blank, instead had Land Rover spelled across the leading edge of the bonnet in raised individual letters, in keeping with the Discovery and Freelander. At the rear was a new style of Defender badge with an underlining swoosh, on these last models there are no badges defining the wheelbase model of the vehicle. The 127-inch wheelbase Land Rover 127, available from 1985, was marketed with the name rendered numerically. Following the adoption of the Defender name, it became the Defender 130, production of the model now known as the Defender began in 1983 as the Land Rover 110, a name which reflected the 110-inch length of the wheelbase. The Land Rover 90, with 93-inch wheelbase, and Land Rover 127, with 127-inch wheelbase, there is little to distinguish the post-1983 vehicles from the Series III Land Rover. A full-length bonnet, revised grille, plus the fitting of wheel arch extensions to cover wider-track axles are the most noticeable changes, initially the Land Rover was available with a part-time 4WD system familiar to all derivatives produced since 1949.
The part-time system failed to sell and was dropped from the options list by 1984. From 1984, wind-up windows were fitted, and a 2. 5-litre,68 horsepower diesel engine was introduced and this was based on the earlier 2. 3-litre engine, but had a more modern fuel-injection system as well as increased capacity. A low compression version of the 3. 5-litre V8 Range Rover engine transformed performance and it was initially available in the 110 with a four-speed transmission with integral transfer case, later in conjunction with a high strength Santana five-speed transmission. This period saw Land Rover market the utility Land Rover as a recreational vehicle. While the basic pick-up, 4x4 and van versions were still working vehicles, the switch from leaf spring to coil spring suspension was a key part of the new models success. It offered improved off-road ability, load capacity, from 1983, Land Rover introduced a third wheelbase to its utility line-up, a 127-inch wheelbase vehicle designed to accommodate larger, heavier loads than the 110
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
The Audi A3 is a Small Family/Compact car produced since 1996. The third-generation A3 uses the Volkswagen Group MQB platform, the original A3 was introduced in the European market in 1996, marking Audis return to the production of smaller cars following the demise of the Audi 50 in 1978. This was the first Volkswagen Group model to use the PQ34 or A4 platform, bearing a resemblance to the contemporary Volkswagen Golf Mk4. Within three years, this platform was used for total of seven cars, the A3 was initially available only with a three-door hatchback body, to present a more sporty image than the Golf, in both front and four-wheel drive. The inline four-cylinder engines were transversely mounted, after the A4, the Audi A3 was the second model in the Audi lineup to use five valves per cylinder. The United Kingdom market first received the Audi A3 in November 1996, the four-wheel-drive A31. 8T quattro used either the 150 PS or 180 PS engine, and the same Haldex Traction-based four-wheel-drive system as the Audi S3 and the Audi TT.
Also in 1999, Audi introduced a five-door body, Audis electronic stability control, traction-control, and brake force distribution computer became standard equipment in some countries. Although the first-generation Audi A3 was replaced in Europe in 2003, production of the first generation model stopped in Brazil in 2006. Euro NCAP rating of 4 out of 5 stars and their evaluation concluded the column lock, adjuster lever and bracket presented hazards in the knee impact area for the driver. These could cause high loads on his legs and damage to his knees. The A3 provides almost no protection to pedestrians, giving it two out of a possible four. Audi released the A3-derived Audi S3 in 1999, only as a three-door hatchback, the inline-four 20v 1.8 L turbocharged petrol engine came in two versions,210 PS and 225 PS. Later models had variable valve timing and 225 PS, the engine had a maximum of 280 N·m torque. This is the first time a small four-cylinder engine has been used in an Audi S-series car, although dubbed quattro, the S3 uses a different four-wheel drive system.
The Haldex Traction coupling adjusts the bias of torque distribution from the front to rear axle as grip requirements change – most of the time it operates as a front-wheel drive. The S3 was sold in the Europe, Mexico, South Africa, the S3 was facelifted in 2002, where it was given one-piece headlights/indicator units, different front wings, rear lights clusters, and some minor upgrades to interior trim. These items are standard in export markets. The engines used are the same as those for other cars in the Volkswagen Group
The Toyota bB is a mini MPV produced by the Japanese car company Toyota for the first generation launched in 2000, and the second generation was built by Daihatsu from 2005. The car has been engineered and sold as the Daihatsu Materia, Scion xB. The first-generation bB was based on the Toyota Vitz, production of the bB occurred between January 2000 and April 2005 at the Takaoka plant in Toyota, Aichi. Production occurred at the former Central Motors between August 2004 and December 2005 for the bB, export Scion xB model continued until December 2006, engine choices include 1. 3- and 1. 5-litre inline-four engines. In United States, the first-generation bB was sold under the Scion brand as the xB from June 2003 to 2007, the bB Open Deck was a coupe utility version of the bB. The second generation bB vehicle was unveiled in 2005 Tokyo Motor Show, production version went on sale in Netz dealers. The second-generation Scion xB is not based on the bB but was designed by Toyota to appeal to American buyers.
Badge engineered Daihatsu and Subaru models were produced, but production ceased in 2012. Production of the Toyota model was ceased in May 2016, with ended in Japan in July 2016. The vehicle was designed as A Car-shaped Music Player to hopefully satisfy the preferences of the younger generation, the Daihatsu version can be identified by a wider and shallower grille and indicator layout. All models include Super ECT 4-speed automatic transmission, the Subaru Dex is a badge engineered version for Subaru with the K3-VE1. 3-litre engine and a choice of FWD or 4WD. The Daihatsu Materia replaced the Daihatsu YRV and is identical to the second generation of the Toyota bB. The Materia comes in 1. 3L and 1. 5L varieties with a 4WD version in the pipeline, manual, in UK they only ever had the 1. 5L front-wheel-drive version. 0-60 mph times 10.8 seconds for manual, and 13.7 seconds for auto UK versions. Maximum speed of 106 mph and for automatic 102 mph In the tenth series of Top Gear, Jeremy Clarkson jokingly compared the Materia to the Ascari A10, saying, id choose the big, shouty car instead.
The Daihatsu Materia was only available with a 1.5 litre,16 valve, fuel injected. The vehicles were built in Head Plant, Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd, sales of the Daihatsu Materia was ended in Japan in January 2013