Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Dundee Football Club is a professional football club based in the city of Dundee, Scotland. Founded in 1893, they are nicknamed "The Dark Blues" or "The Dee"; the club plays. The club's most successful era was in the 1960s when, under the management of Bob Shankly, Dundee won the Scottish Football League title in 1962 for the only time in their history before reaching the semi-finals of the 1962–63 European Cup. Dundee have won the Scottish Cup once in 1910 and the Scottish League Cup three times. Dundee F. C. was formed in 1893 by the merger of two local clubs, East End and Our Boys, with the intention of gaining election to the Scottish Football League. Their application was successful and they played their first League game on 12 August 1893 at West Craigie Park, securing a 3–3 draw against Rangers. Dundee struggled during the first 10 years of their existence, their best league position was fifth which they achieved in seasons 1895–96 and 1896–97. They reached the semi-finals of the Scottish Cup in 1894–95 and 1897–98, losing to Renton and Kilmarnock respectively.
On 26 October 1895 Dundee lost a league game by a record score of 0–11 to Celtic in Glasgow. On 1 January 1894 Dundee defeated Newton Heath 2–1 at their Carolina Port ground in Dundee. Carolina Port hosted the first international football match held in Dundee on 21 March 1896 when Scotland defeated Wales 4–0. Dundee's goalkeeper Frank Barrett, midfielder Sandy Keillor and inside-forward Bill Thomson were all capped for Scotland during this early period of the club's history. Things began to improve for Dundee with the beginning of the new century. In 1899 they moved from Carolina Port to their present ground of Dens Park. In season 1902–03 they finished runners-up in the league championship to Hibernian. Dundee were league runners-up in 1906–07 and 1908–09 finishing behind Celtic on both occasions, in 1908–09 by just 1 point. In the 10 seasons from 1902–03 Dundee lost just 16 league games at Dens Park out of 154 played and were unbeaten at home during season 1909–10. Although ultimate success eluded Dundee in the league the club achieved success in the Scottish Cup.
In season 1909–10 Dundee won their first trophy by defeating Clyde in the Scottish Cup Final. The winning goal in the second replay was scored by John'Sailor' Hunter. In season 1910–11 Dundee defeated Rangers 2–1 at Dens Park in the Scottish Cup quarter-final but lost to Hamilton in the semi-final; the beginning of the First World War and the call-up of many players for military duty drastically curtailed football in Britain from 1914 and in 1917 Dundee and Aberdeen were both asked to withdraw from the league due to increasing transport costs for the other league clubs. In 1919 league football recommenced and good home form once again propelled Dundee up the league, they finished 4th in seasons 1919–20, 1920–21 and 1921–22, were unbeaten at home during season 1921–22. However, they could not make the breakthrough to win the league championship. Dave Halliday had played on the left for his previous clubs, his hometown side Queen of the South and St Mirren. Halliday went to Dundee in 1921 with the celebrated Alec Troup playing on the left wing.
Dundee thus converted Halliday to centre forward with prolific results, finishing as Scottish top scorer in the 1923–24 season with 38 goals from 36 appearances – a good return in the era of the three-man off-side rule. With Halliday Dundee reached the 1924–25 Scottish Cup final eliminating the holders en route, the Airdrieonians side of Hughie Gallacher. Halliday scored 103 goals in 147 cup appearances for the Dee; the post-Second World War period was a golden era for Dundee Football Club. Having been relegated on the eve of war, the Dark Blues started in 1946 in the first official season in the second tier but within five years they were runners-up in the Scottish League Championship and won their first trophy in forty-one years. Back to back'B’ Division titles earned George Anderson's Dundee promotion in 1947 and just two years they were within a whisker of becoming Champions of Scotland. Silverware wasn't far away however as after spending a world record transfer fee of £23,500 on Billy Steel, much to the chagrin of modern-day supporters of the club – at least some anyway – who resented the aspect of finance in football and wish instead for'homegrown' talent, they won the Scottish League Cup in 1951 in one of the most exciting finals Hampden has seen.
Twelve months Dundee were back at Hampden to become the first side to retain the League Cup and in between these two victories appeared in the 1952 Scottish Cup Final. The Dark Blue side of the era included players such as Bill Brown, Tommy Gallacher, Doug Cowie, Alfie Boyd, Bobby Flavell and Billy Steel. In the 1958–59 Scottish Cup Dundee suffered a shock 1–0 defeat to Highland League side Fraserburgh; this is regarded as Dundee's most embarrassing defeat in their history. Bob Shankly was appointed manager in 1959. Dundee won the league title of Scotland's top division called the Division One, in the 1961–62 season. With players such as Bobby Cox, Bobby Wishart, Pat Liney, Alan Cousin, Andy Penman, Hugh Robertson, Alan Gilzean, Alex Hamilton, Bobby Seith, Gordon Smith and Ian Ure they clinched the title with a win against St Johnstone, which in turn relegated St Johnstone to the Second Division. Gordon Smith earned the distinction of being the only player to win the Scottish football championship with three clubs (Hibs, Hearts and
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Craig Sinclair Gordon is a Scottish professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Scottish Premiership club Celtic. Gordon started his career with Heart of Midlothian, he spent time on loan at Cowdenbeath, before establishing himself as Hearts first-choice keeper between 2003 and 2007, winning the Scottish Cup in 2005–06. English Premier League club Sunderland bought him in 2007 for £9 million. Gordon suffered serious injuries during his time with Sunderland and was released from his contract in 2012. After two years out of the professional game, Gordon signed for Celtic in July 2014, he has since won four Scottish league titles, two Scottish Cups and three Scottish League Cups with Celtic, including an unbeaten domestic treble in 2016–17. He became the regular goalkeeper for the Scotland national football team between 2004 and 2010, before injuries interrupted his career, but returned to the national set-up in 2014. Gordon is a former recipient of the Young Player of the Year and a twice winner of Footballer of the Year, as voted for by the Scottish Football Writers'.
Born in Edinburgh, Gordon attended Balerno Community High School from 1994 until 1999. His father, David Gordon, played in goal for several East of Scotland clubs, Gordon spent many Saturday afternoons as a child watching him play. Gordon started off his own career as a goalkeeper at local team Currie Boys Football Club, went on to join and graduate from the Heart of Midlothian youth development programme. Gordon was loaned to lower league club Cowdenbeath in 2001. In his time there he continued to train with Hearts, but spent two nights a week training with Cowdenbeath, his first professional game was at Forthbank against Stirling Albion, he went on to make a total of 13 appearances before being recalled by Hearts. Cowdenbeath went undefeated in their home games during Gordon's time there, he won praise for an outstanding performance in an away league match in Dumfries versus Queen of the South 3–1. Divisional champions that season, Queens dominated the game, but Gordon's saves thwarted them time and again, with opposition manager John Connolly describing Gordon's performance as "sensational".
Gordon made his debut for Heart of Midlothian in a 1–1 draw with Livingston on 6 October 2002. His one other appearance that season was in a 4–0 defeat against Falkirk on 25 January 2003 in the third round of the Scottish Cup. Over the course of the following season, 2003–04 season, he edged out Tepi Moilanen as the regular Hearts goalkeeper, playing in 29 of Hearts' league fixtures. Gordon made his first appearance in European competition on 6 November 2003, playing in the first leg of Hearts' UEFA Cup second round tie in France against Bordeaux, he performed well and kept a clean sheet in an impressive 1–0 win for Hearts. Despite that result, Heart lost the return leg 2–0 in Edinburgh to go out on aggregate, his performances that year resulted in him being short-listed for the Scottish PFA Young Player of the Year award, won by Celtic midfielder Stephen Pearson. Manager Craig Levein praised Gordon for his performances, stating that he had a "brilliant" season and that whilst Levein only intended to play him in a handful of games, "he did so well that I couldn't take him out."
Gordon had become a Scotland regular by 2005 and his consistent displays during the 2005–06 season helped Hearts to a second-place finish in the Scottish Premier League and victory in the Scottish Cup. The trophy was won in a penalty shootout against Gretna following a 1–1 draw, with Gordon saving opponent Derek Townsley's penalty; that season he was voted Scottish Football Writers' Association Player of the Year, becoming the first Hearts player to win the award since Sandy Jardine in 1986 and the first goalkeeper since Rangers' Andy Goram in 1993. For much of the 2006–07 season rumours linked Gordon with a move away from Tynecastle following his involvement in the issuing of a statement against club owner Vladimir Romanov. Gordon and Paul Hartley flanked captain Steven Pressley as he read out a statement claiming there was "significant unrest" in the Hearts dressing room; the venue for this statement, Hearts' Riccarton training ground, led to the media dubbing the players the "Riccarton Three".
Rangers, Aston Villa and Manchester United were all credited with an interest in the player in late 2006. Arsenal manager Arsène Wenger observed Gordon in action in Scotland's 1–0 victory against France in a Euro 2008 qualifying match, he touted Gordon as having "presence and good handling and looks a good goalkeeper to me." Gordon confirmed his rising stock with a spectacular cross-goal save in the October 2006 Edinburgh derby and the following month he was named as Hearts' new captain, replacing the departed Pressley. Despite Hearts' claims that he was ill, he was "dropped" to the bench for the game against Dundee United in December 2006 for what many believed to be a disciplinary measure by the club following his involvement in the "Riccarton Three" statement, he was reinstated for the Edinburgh derby match against Hibernian three days later. He was not listed in the squad to face Rangers on 27 January 2007, four days before the closure of the transfer window, it was confirmed by the club that they were negotiating his transfer.
Gordon remained a Hearts player. In March 2007, Gordon expressed his interest in playing for Arsenal, after reports had cited that he was linked as a candidate to succeed the veteran Jens Lehmann as Arsenal's first-choice goalkeeper, stating "Arsenal is one of the top teams in Britain, in Europe, if not the world, so it is something that would definitel
Rudolf Skácel is a professional footballer who plays for 1. FK Příbram, he has been capped at international level by the Czech Republic. He is deployed as a left sided midfield player but has proven himself to be versatile, having played as a central attacking midfielder and a left back at Southampton. Skácel began his career with FC Hradec Králové before joining Gambrinus liga side Slavia Prague, where he caught the attention of French giants Olympique de Marseille. However, he struggled to establish himself in the first-team during his time with L'OM and was loaned out to Panathinaikos and Heart of Midlothian; the latter loan spell saw him establish himself as a fan favourite, culminating in him scoring in the 2006 Scottish Cup Final as the Jambos emerged victorious. He went on to Southampton where he spent three years, including a six-month loan spell with Hertha BSC. before being released. A brief return to Slavia Prague and a short spell with Larissa followed, before he returned to Hearts.
His second spell at the Edinburgh club proved to be just as successful as he ended both seasons as the club's top scorer and scored two goals in the 2012 Scottish Cup Final against Hearts' biggest rivals Hibernian en route to another cup victory. He has received infrequent call-ups to the Czech Republic national team squad, amassing seven caps over a period of seven years. Skácel was born in Trutnov and began his career with Czech club FC Hradec Králové, making his senior debut in 1999 and helping his team to gain promotion back to the Czech top flight. In February 2002 he was signed for a fee of 14 million Czech koruna. In May 2002 he won the Czech Cup with Slavia, beating their fierce rivals Sparta Prague in the final, he won gold with the Czech Republic in the European Under-21 Football Championship. His UEFA Cup and Czech league performances in the 2002–03 season were noticed by French club Olympique de Marseille manager Alain Perrin. In August 2003 Marseille concluded a deal to sign Skácel for a fee of 2.5 million Euros.
He made his debut on 13 September 2003, playing the entire match in a 5–0 victory over Le Mans at Stade Vélodrome. His first and only goal for L'OM came in a 3–1 home victory over Bastia on 5 October 2003. After his first season at Marseille, Skácel found himself out of favour after Alain Perrin was sacked; this led to Skácel being loaned out to Greek club Panathinaikos with an option of a permanent deal. He scored twice on his debut in a 3–2 cup victory over Atsalenios. Skácel played in the UEFA Champions League for the first time in his career for Panathinaikos, playing in five of the six group and scoring in a 2–2 away draw with Rosenborg as the Greek club finished third in Group E to earn the consolation of a place in the UEFA Cup. During his time with Panathinaikos he scored five goals in all competitions. After Panathinaikos did not take up their option to buy Skácel, Heart of Midlothian manager George Burley stepped in with an offer to take him on a season's loan from Marseille. In July 2005, the deal was concluded to take Skácel to Hearts on loan with the option of a permanent deal.
At the start of the 2005–06 season, Hearts won the first seven league games with Skácel scoring in each of them to set a Scottish Premier League record. Skácel's home debut was a 4–0 victory over Hearts' city rivals Hibernian at Tynecastle in which he opened the scoring; this was to be a common sight for the Hearts fans as Skácel went on to score 16 goals over the season and scored the Hearts goal in the Scottish Cup final victory over Gretna. Despite announcing that the club had signed Skácel on a permanent deal, Skácel's celebration and post match comments after the Cup Final suggested that he had played his last game for the club. On 3 July 2006, it was revealed that Skácel and Andy Webster had failed to join up with the squad for pre-season training prompting rumours of Skácel's departure. Opposition fans point to accusations of diving. On 29 July 2006, Skácel joined Southampton for £1.6 million and linked up again with former Hearts manager George Burley. Although Skácel plays in midfield he found himself playing the majority of games at left back after the departure of Gareth Bale to Tottenham Hotspur in May 2007.
He scored from 25 yards in the 3–2 victory of West Bromwich Albion on 6 October 2007. On 31 January 2008, Skácel moved to Hertha BSC on loan until the end of the season. Skácel had requested the move to boost his chances of representing his country on the international scene. Southampton acting chief executive Lee Hoos was quoted as saying: "The Czech national manager views the Championship much as a second tier league – though it is the fifth most popular in Europe. Skácel felt he would not get a look in unless he was playing in a top division". Skácel succeeded in making the UEFA Euro 2008 squad, due to injury to Daniel Pudil, but was an unused substitute in all three of their games as the Czechs crashed out at the group stages. Skácel returned to Southampton for the start of the 2008–09 season, he was released from his contract on 2 May 2009. Skácel returned to former club Slavia Prague in October 2009, six years after leaving to join Marseille, he made his first appearance since returning in a 2–1 league defeat to Sigma Olomouc at the Synot Tip Arena.
He made his fifth and final league appearance of his second spell with the club on 29 November 2009, scoring a hat-trick against FC Brno in a 3–1 victory. In January 2010, Skácel signed for Larissa on a free transfer until June 2010 with the option of a further year. On 16 September 2010, Skácel returned to Hearts on a one-year deal. He
The Scottish Football Association Challenge Cup known as the Scottish Cup, is an annual association football knock-out cup competition for men's football clubs in Scotland. The competition was first held in 1873–74. Entry is open to all 89 clubs with full membership of the Scottish Football Association, along with up to eight other clubs who are associate members; the competition is called the William Hill Scottish Cup for sponsorship reasons. Although it is the second oldest competition in association football history, after the FA Cup, the Scottish Cup trophy is the oldest in association football and is the oldest national trophy in the world, it was first presented to Queen's Park, who won the final match of the inaugural tournament in March 1874. The current holders are Celtic, who won the tournament for a 38th time by defeating Motherwell 2–0 in the 2018 final; the tournament starts in the middle of August. The Scottish Cup Final is the last game of the season, taking place at the end of May.
Participating teams enter the tournament at different stages depending on their league ranking. The lowest ranked clubs enter the tournament at the preliminary round whilst the highest ranked, those that compete in the Scottish Premiership, enter at the fourth round stage; the competition is a knock-out tournament. In each round of games the teams are paired at random, with the first team drawn listed as the home team; every game lasts 90 minutes plus any additional stoppage time. The winner of each game advances to the next round, whilst the loser is eliminated from the tournament. If a game ends in a draw, the fixture is replayed at the home ground of the other team at a date. If the replay ends in a draw, 30 minutes of extra time is played followed by a penalty shoot-out if there is still no clear winner. In the semi-final and final rounds, if the game ends in a draw there is no replay; the competition has a staggered entry system. For the 2018–19 edition, two preliminary rounds are contested by 19 clubs, featuring those qualifying from Junior and Amateur competitions plus clubs with full membership of the Scottish Football Association.
Sixteen Highland League and fourteen Lowland League clubs begin in the first round. Scottish League Two clubs enter the second round along with the top two clubs from the previous season's Highland League and Lowland League. Scottish League One and six Scottish Championship clubs start in the third round, while the remaining four Championship clubs and all 12 Scottish Premiership clubs enter in the fourth round. Any club, a full or associate member of the Scottish Football Association is entitled to compete in the tournament. Full members qualify automatically, which includes every team that plays in the Scottish Professional Football League, Highland League or Lowland League. Between 1895 and 2007, clubs that were SFA members but not competitors in the country's professional football leagues could only qualify for the tournament through the Scottish Qualifying Cup. Clubs which are not full members of the SFA may still qualify for the tournament by winning the East or South of Scotland football leagues, or the South & East of Scotland Cup-Winners Shield.
Clubs that are members of the Scottish Junior Football Association have been able to qualify since 2007 by winning one of the three regional Super League divisions or by winning the Scottish Junior Cup. Two junior clubs, Banks O' Dee and Girvan, are full SFA members and therefore qualify automatically. Since 2015, the winners of the Scottish Amateur Cup are eligible to qualify. Players that are registered with a competing club are eligible to play. However, players are not entitled to play for more than one club during the same tournament; each club names eleven up to five substitutes before every match. In order to play in the final match, a player must have been registered to compete in the semi-final round for the same club. If a club fields a player, not registered to play, the club may be expelled from the tournament. Before the semi-final and final rounds, the venue of each match is determined when the fixtures are drawn. In the event of a game ending in a draw, the venue for the replay is the home ground of the second club drawn.
The semi-final ties are played at a neutral venue. On occasions when Hampden has been unavailable, such as when it was being renovated in the late 1990s and when it was being transformed into an athletics stadium for the 2014 Commonwealth Games, the semi-finals have been hosted at Celtic Park and Ibrox Stadium in Glasgow. Hampden Park usually hosts the final match of the tournament; the venue has hosted the majority of finals including the first in 1874. Other venues that have hosted the final in the tournament's early years are Hamilton Crescent, Kinning Park and Cathkin Park; the last game of the 1896 tournament is the only final, hosted outside Glasgow when rivals Heart of Midlothian and Hibernian played at New Logie Green in Edinburgh. Hampden Park has held world and European records for the highest attendance, some of which were recorded at Scottish Cup games; the 1937 final played between Aberdeen and Celtic attracted a crowd of 147,365 spectators, a world record for a national cup final and remains a European record.
As Scotland is a member of the Union of European Football Associations, the winner of the Scottish Cup qualifies to compete in European-wide competitions organised by UEFA. Between 1