Foreign relations of Thailand
The foreign relations of Thailand are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand. Thailand participates in international and regional organizations, it has developed close ties with other ASEAN members—Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei, Cambodia and Vietnam—whose foreign and economic ministers hold annual meetings. Regional cooperation is progressing in economic, banking and cultural matters. In 2003, Thailand served as APEC host. Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi, the former Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand, served as Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development from 2005 until 31 August 2013. In 2005 Thailand attended the inaugural East Asia Summit. Since the military coup of May 2014, Thailand's global reputation has plunged, according to Professor Thitinan Pongsudhirak of Chulalongkorn University, he maintains that, "When the fourth anniversary of Thailand's coup comes to pass this month, Thailand's foreign relations will be one of the many costs to be counted from the military government....
Instead of moving ahead in its relations with the outside world, Thailand has regressed to a standstill. Parts of the border with Laos are undefined. A maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam was resolved, August 1997. Parts of border with Cambodia are disputed. Maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined. Sporadic conflict with Myanmar over alignment of border. Relations are considered close and cordial and have made strides to improve trade and investment between the two countries. Diplomatic relations were established on 5 October 1972 and Thailand opened its embassy in 1974 followed by Bangladesh setting up their own in Bangkok in the following year; the first visit between the two countries was President Ziaur Rahman's visit to Thailand in 1979 followed by Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanonda in 1983. Other Heads of States like Ershad visited in 1985, 1988 and 1990 and Thaksin Shinawatra in July and December 2002 and January 2004. Thailand is a key country in Bangladesh's "Look East" policy and relations have begun to increase and diversify into different areas.
They seek not to intervene in each other's internal matters as shown by their response to the events occurring in their own respective countries in 2006 such as the 2006 Thai coup d'état and 2006–2008 Bangladeshi political crisis. Both have considerable cooperation in summits organised by the ASEAN regional forum. Upper class and upper middle class Bangladeshis go to Thailand for medical treatment and operations that the country's medical infrastructure cannot provide. Brunei has an embassy in Bangkok, Thailand has an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan; the relations have always been cordial. Parts of Cambodia's border with Thailand are indefinite, the maritime boundary with Thailand is not defined. On 5 November 2009 Thailand recalled its ambassador from Cambodia in protest of the Cambodian government's appointment of Thai ex-leader Thaksin Shinawatra as an economic adviser. Thai Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva stated that this was "the first diplomatic retaliation measure" against the appointment.
He said that Cambodia was interfering in Thai internal affairs and as a result bi-lateral co-operation agreements would be reviewed. The Cambodian government has stated that it would refuse any extradition request from Thailand for Thaksin as it considered him to be a victim of political persecution. In the months leading up to the Cambodian decision, troops from both nations had clashed over territory claimed by both countries adjacent to Cambodia's Preah Vihear temple, leading to a deterioration in relations. At 20:30 on 5 November Cambodia announced that it was withdrawing its ambassador from Thailand as a retaliatory measure. Sok An, a member of the Council of Ministers and Deputy Prime Minister of Cambodia, said that the appointment of Thaksin is a decision internal to Cambodia and that it "conforms to international practice"; the mutual withdrawal of ambassadors is the most severe diplomatic action to have occurred between the two countries. Thailand established diplomatic relations with the PRC on 1 July 1975.
It remains with growing cooperation between both countries. For an evaluation of Sino-Siamese relations, see Siamese Inter-State Relations in the Late Nineteenth Century: From An Asian Regional Perspective. Diplomatic relations between India and Thailand were established in 1947, soon after India gained independence. Thailand maintains three diplomatic posts in India: in Mumbai, in New Delhi, in Calcutta. India maintains three enclaves in Thailand: in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, A Muang; the end of the Cold War led to a significant enhancement in the substance and pace of bilateral interactions. Indian Look East policy from 1993 and Thailand's Look West policy since 1996 set the stage for a substantive consolidation of bilateral relations; the past few years since 2001 have witnessed growing warmth, increasing economic and commercial links, exchange of high-level visits on both sides, the signing of a large number of Agreements leading to a further intensification of relations. Thailand and India are cooperating in various multilateral fora like India's dialogue partnership with ASEAN, the ASEAN Regional Forum, the East Asia Summit, the sub-regional grouping BIMSTEC involving Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bhutan, trilateral transport linkages with Thailand and India.
India is a member of the Asia Cooperation Dialogue initiated by Thailand in 2002 and of the Mekong–Ganga Cooperation, a group of six countries. Indonesia and Thailand are viewed as natural allies; the nations established diplomatic ties in 1950 and have enjoyed a cordial relati
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
Maha Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun has been the King of Thailand since 2016. He is the only son of King Bhumibol Queen Sirikit. In 1972, at the age of 20, he was made crown prince by his father. After his father's death on 13 October 2016, he was expected to accede to the throne of Thailand but asked for time to mourn before taking the throne, he accepted the throne on the night of 1 December 2016. His father was cremated on 26 October 2017, his coronation is planned to be held on 4 to 6 May 2019. The Thai government retroactively declared his reign to have begun on 13 October 2016, upon his father's death; as the tenth monarch of the Chakri dynasty, he is styled as Rama X. Aged 64 at that time, Vajiralongkorn became the oldest Thai monarch to ascend to the throne. Maha Vajiralongkorn was born on 28 July 1952 at 17:45 in the Amphorn Sathan Residential Hall of the Dusit Palace in Bangkok; when the crown prince was one year old, Somdet Phra Sangkharat Chao Kromma Luang Wachirayanawong, the 13th Supreme Patriarch of Thailand of the Rattanakosin Era, gave the child his first name at birth, "Vajiralongkorn Borommachakkrayadisonsantatiwong Thewetthamrongsuboriban Aphikhunuprakanmahittaladunladet Phumiphonnaretwarangkun Kittisirisombunsawangkhawat Borommakhattiyaratchakuman".
He is the second of the four children of King Bhumibol Adulyadej and Queen Sirikit. Vajiralongkorn began his education in 1956, when he entered kindergarten at the Chitralada School in Dusit Palace. After completing Mathayom 1, he was sent to be educated at independent schools in the United Kingdom, first at a prep school, King's Mead, Sussex, at Millfield School, in Somerset, where he completed his secondary education in July 1970. In August 1970, he attended a five-week military training course at The King's School, in Sydney, Australia. In 1972, the prince enrolled at Duntroon in Canberra, Australia, his education at Duntroon was divided into two parts, military training by the Australian Army and a bachelor's degree course under the auspices of the University of New South Wales. He graduated in 1976 as a newly commissioned lieutenant with a liberal arts degree. In 1982 he completed a second bachelor's degree in law with second-class honours at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. Vajiralongkorn was proclaimed crown prince on 28 December 1972 at 12:23 in the Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, making him the third crown prince of the Chakri dynasty.
An excerpt from the royal command to establish the title of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn, reads: As stated in the bliss or the royal statutes of the country, when a Royal Prince, destined to be heir to the throne is mature, the King shall graciously bestow the rank upon him of Somdet Phra Yupharat Mongkutratchakuman. At this present time, all people including citizens of nations all over the world shall accept and acclaim that His Royal Highness Prince Vajiralongkorn shall to succeed to the throne of the Kingdom; when His Royal Highness Prince is mature, at the time that he shall be established as heir to the throne, tradition and a royal tradition Kattii ceremony should be observed, consistent with the citizens and all leaders of the country of all sides. Therefore, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej hereby decrees for His Royal Highness Prince Vajiralongkorn to be His Royal Highness Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn in accordance with the name written in the Supannabhat as: Somdet Phra Boromma-orasathirat Chao Fa Maha Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun Sirikittayasombunsawangwat Worakhuttiyarajsantiwong Mahitalaphong Adulayadet Chakkrinaresyuppharajvisut Sayammakutratchakuman He had taken up his duties while serving in the Royal Thai Armed Forces, including frequent provincial tours and representing King Bhumibol at a wide variety of official functions and ceremonies before he ascended the throne.
On 6 November 1978, the prince was ordained as a monk at Wat Phra Sri Rattana Satsadaram, at age 26. As is traditional for royals, he stayed at Wat Bowonniwet Vihara for 15 days and under the monastic name "Vajiralongkornno". After completing his studies, Vajiralongkorn served as a career officer in the Royal Thai Army, he served as a staff officer in the Directorate of Army Intelligence and attended the Command and General Staff College in 1977. Vajiralongkorn trained for periods with the US, Australian armed services, studying unconventional warfare and advanced navigation, he is a qualified helicopter pilot. In 1978 he became head of the King's Own Bodyguard Battalion; that year he interrupted his military career to be ordained for a season as a Buddhist monk, as is customary for all Thai Buddhist men. Vajiralongkorn holds the ranks of Field Marshal in the Royal Thai Army, Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Thai Navy, Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force in the Royal Thai Air Force, he is qualified to pilot the Northrop F-5 and many other aircraft, F-16, the Boeing 737-400.
His military role in recent years has become ceremonial. As his father grew older, Vajiralongkorn took a more prominent part in royal ceremonial and public appearances, he opened the 2007 Southeast Asian Games, held in Nakhon Ratchasima. The event occurred one day after the 80th birthday of his father. Vajiralongkorn established "Crown Prince Hospitals" through funds donated by the public to serve as medical
Chuan Leekpai is a Thai politician, the Prime Minister of Thailand from 20 September 1992 to 19 May 1995 and again from 9 November 1997 to 9 February 2001. As the leader of the Democrat Party, Chuan was elected in 1992 after the abortive coup by General Suchinda Kraprayoon, thus becoming Thailand's first prime minister to come to power without either aristocratic or military backing, his first administration consisted of a five party coalition of the Democrat, New Aspiration, Palang Dhamma, Social Action, Social Unity Parties until he was defeated in the 1995 election, but assumed power in late-1997 following the fall of the Chavalit Yongchaiyudh administration, held responsible for the economic crisis that beset Thailand in 1997. Although criticised as a slow actor and allowing numerous corruption scandals, Chuan managed to meet factional demands and extend Thailand's social security system. Chuan is ethnic Hokkien, his father's name was Niyom Leekpai and his mother's name was Tuan Leekpai.
Chuan Leekpai is the third child in the family. At a young age, Chuan moved to the temple school at Wat Amarintraram in Bangkok where he lived for six years, he went on to study law at Bangkok. After he was graduated, he worked as a lawyer and as a politician, he has Surabot Leekpai, with Pakdiporn Sujaritkul. In the aftermath of Bloody May, the Democrat Party won a plurality of seats in the September 1992 elections, with 79 seats, compared to the Chart Thai Party with 77 seats. Chuan formed a coalition government with the New Aspiration Ekkaparb parties. Phalang Dharma Party join his cabinet after the New Aspiration Party left in 1994. Key policies of Chuan's first administration included: Engagement with Burma; as with all previous administrations, the Chuan government employed a policy of constructive engagement with the military government of Burma, provoking much criticism. Reforestation. A huge five million rai reforestation programme in honour of King Bhumibol's 50th anniversary of accession to the throne was initiated in 1994.
The reforestation programme was declared a failure, with less than 40 percent of the target realised. The director-general of the RFD was suspended from his post for alleged corruption. Emphasis on national economic stability, decentralisation of the administrative powers to the rural provinces, fostering income and economic development distribution to the regions; the first Chuan administration fell when members of the cabinet were implicated in profiting from Sor Phor Kor 4-01 land project documents distributed in Phuket Province. Fierce public and press criticism and dissolution of parliament were the reasons for his administration's downfall. Chuan became prime minister for the second time on 9 November 1997, replacing Chavalit Yongchaiyudh, with a shaky line-up of a six party coalition and 12 independent defectors from a seventh party, Prachakorn Thai; the ruling coalition increased its 20-seat majority in October 1998, by including the Chart Pattana Party. Chuan's second government enacted several economic reforms for which it was criticised.
Chuan's "bitter medicine" policies brought little economic relief in the years following the 1997 economic crisis at the grassroots level. Opinions emerged that the Democrats were only helping big financial institutions and making the country more dependent of foreign investors. Many of the reforms recommended by the IMF were in line with the policies of market economies such as Australia and New Zealand; the subsequent government's economic growth was based more on selling national assets and private organisations abroad such as the Shin Corporation, while most of its economic gains were built on the frugality of the Democrat policy platform. Thai Rak Thai painted the Democrats as having "open contempt" for the plight of the common Thai which set off a revenge vote against the party during the 2001 election, which gave a landslide victory to Thaksin Shinawatra. During his first administration as Prime Minister of Thailand, the national education act 1999 has been enacted. According to World Bank Thailand has recentralized rather than decentralized during his administration.
Bang Na Expressway The world's longest car bridge, the Bang Na Expressway, held the title of the world's longest bridge from 2000 until 2004. Today, it is the 6th longest bridge in the world; the bridge was one of his cabinet achievements. Chuan's second government came under fire for the violent arrest of 223 villagers protesting the Pak Mun Dam. Historian Nidhi Iawsriwong noted. We have a tyrannical government, arrogant and not accountable to the public; this is dangerous because the government still sees itself as legitimate and claims that it is democratic. In fact, it is as brutal as the military government". In March 1999, Chuan nominated Thanom Kittikachorn to the post of honorary royal guard to King Bhumibol Adulyadej, provoking widespread criticism. Thanom turned down the appointment Thanom was one of the "three tyrants" who ruled Thailand from 1963 to 1973 and ordered the massacre of pro-democracy students on 14 October 1973, after which he was ordered to step down and be exiled by King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
In April 2000, the editor in chief of the Chiang Mai daily newspaper Pak Nua was shot and wounded in an attempted murder, but recovered. The editor believed. Although gener
Bangkok Metropolitan Administration
The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration is the local government of Bangkok, which includes the capital of the Kingdom of Thailand. The government is composed of two branches: the legislative; the administration's roles are to implement policies to manage Bangkok. Its purview includes transport services, urban planning, waste management, housing and highways, security services, the environment. According to the Thailand Future Foundation, Bangkok employs a workforce of 97,000, including 3,200 municipal officers in Bangkok city, 200 in the city Law Enforcement Department, 3,000 in district offices; the Governor of Bangkok is the head of the local government of Bangkok. The governor is the chief executive of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the governor is elected to a renewable term of four years it is one of the two directly elected executive offices in the kingdom. The office is comparable to that of a city mayor; the current incumbent is Pol Gen Aswin Kwanmuang. He was appointed by Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha using Section 44 of the interim charter to replace Sukhumbhand Paribatra.
The reason given for his ouster was "...because he was involved in many legal cases." The powers and role of the office of Governor of Bangkok in accordance with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528 are as follows: Formulate and implement policies for the Bangkok Metropolitan Area. Head the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Appoint and remove deputy governors, board members, city officials, public servants. Coordinate and carry out the orders of the Cabinet of Thailand, the Prime Minister of Thailand, the Ministry of Interior. Oversee the smooth running of the various agencies and services of the city; the governor is invested with the same powers as any other governor of a province of Thailand and any other mayor. The power to draw up legislation and bills for the city, to be considered in the Bangkok Metropolitan Council. Since 1973 the city was administered by a single executive appointed by the cabinet from city civil servants; however soon it was determined that the executive office should a popularly elected office instead.
The passage of the Bangkok Metropolis Administrative Organisation Act, BE 2518, created the Bangkok Metropolis to replace Bangkok Province and created an elected governor with a four-year term. The first election for the office was held on the 10 August 1975. Thamnoon Thien-ngern was elected the first elected Governor of Bangkok. Conflicts between the governor and the Bangkok Metropolitan Council, became so fierce that Thanin Kraivichien, the Prime Minister of Thailand removed him and reinstated the appointment system. Elections resumed with the passing of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528. Elections were held on 14 November 1985. Unless otherwise indicated, they were elected; the Bangkok Metropolitan Council or BMC is the legislative branch of the administration. It is vested with primary legislative powers as well as the power to scrutinize and advise the governor; the council is headed by the Chairman of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council. The current chairman is Captain Kriangsak Lohachala since 2013.
The number of members depends on the size of Bangkok's population. One member represents one hundred thousand people. There are 60 members, elected from 57 constituencies in Bangkok; each is elected to a four-year term. The last election was held on 30 April 2006; the council is divided into 11 general committees with five to nine members appointed by the councillors themselves: Committee of Cleanliness and Environment Committee for Checking the Minutes of Sittings and for Considering Closure of the Minutes of the Secret Sittings Committee for the Affairs of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council Committee for the Public Works and Utilities Committee for Education and Culture Committee for Health Committee for Community Development and Social Welfare Committee for Local Administration and Orderliness Committee for Economics and Follow-up of Budget Utilization Committee for Tourism and Sports Committee for Traffic and Drainage The Secretariat of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council is the executive agency of the council.
The secretariat helps the council in all its roles including drafting of legislation, organisation of sessions and procedures of the council. The secretariat helps members of the council by providing research and legal counsel; the secretariat is headed by the Secretary of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council The current secretary is Manit Tej-Apichok. The secretariat itself is divided into nine sections: General Administration Section Council and Committee Meetings Section Working Committees Section Legislation Section Legal Section Foreign Affairs Section Council Service Section Academic Section Secretary Section As of 2018 BMA's annual budget is nearly 80 billion baht; the Bangkok Post has made the point that, although the city suffers from the "worst traffic congestion in the world after Mexico City", 37 disparate agencies are responsible for traffic management and infrastructure. It maintains; as evidence, it points to
Government of Thailand
The Government of Thailand, or formally the Royal Thai Government, is the unitary government of the Kingdom of Thailand. The country emerged as a modern nation state after the foundation of the Chakri Dynasty and the city of Bangkok in 1782; the Revolution of 1932 brought an end to absolute monarchy and replaced it with a constitutional monarchy. From on the country was ruled by a succession of military leaders installed after coups d’etat, the most recent in May 2014, a few democratic intervals; the 2007 Constitution was annulled by the 2014 coup-makers who run the country as a military dictatorship. Thailand has so far had seventeen Constitutions. Throughout, the basic structure of government has remained the same; the government of Thailand is composed of three branches: the executive, the legislative, the judiciary. The system of government is modelled after the Westminster system. All branches of government are concentrated in the capital city of Thailand. Since May 2014 Thailand has been ruled by a military junta, the National Council for Peace and Order, which has repealed the 2007 constitution, declared martial law and nationwide curfew, banned political gatherings and detained politicians and anti-coup activists, imposed internet censorship and taken control of the media.
The King of Thailand, King Vajiralongkorn, is the current monarch, reigning since the death of his father Bhumibol Adulyadej on 13 October 2016, in actuality he has only exercised the role of monarch since 1 December 2016. The constitution stipulates that although the sovereignty of the state is vested in the people, the king will exercise such powers through the three branches of the Thai government. Under the constitution the king is given little power, but remains a figurehead and symbol of the Thai nation; as the head of state, however, he is given some powers and has a role to play in the workings of government. According to the constitution, the king is head of the armed forces, he is required to be Buddhist as well as the defender of all faiths in the country. The king retained some traditional powers such as the power to appoint his heirs, the power to grant pardons, the royal assent; the king is aided in his duties by the Privy Council of Thailand. The king is head of the House of Chakri, the ruling house of Thailand founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke in 1782.
The monarchy and the royal family continues to command huge respect in Thailand, with its influence peaking during the Bhumibol era. The previous monarch wielded a great deal of popular respect and moral authority, used at times to resolve political crises; the monarch's official home is the Grand Palace, however the present king lives in the Chitralada Palace in Bangkok or the Klai Kangwon Palace, in Hua Hin. The monarch's household was managed by the Bureau of the Royal Household and his finances by the Crown Property Bureau, But are being transferred to direct control by the Monarchy; the heir presumptive to the throne is Prince Dipangkorn Rasmijoti, although it is up to the king's discretion whether Prince Dipangkorn will be named Crown Prince in the future. Succession to the throne is governed by the 1924 Palace Law of Succession, promulgated by King Vajiravudh. Palace law follows the male agnatic primogeniture, where males only are allowed to succeed and inheritance is passed only from father to son and through the male line only.
Since 1932 the head of government of Thailand has been the Prime Minister of Thailand the leader of the largest party or the largest coalition party in the lower house of parliament. The prime minister is, in accordance with the constitution, first by an election in the lower house officially appointed by the King; the prime minister, as head of the executive branch, is the leader of the Cabinet of Thailand. The prime minister therefore retains the prerogative to appoint or remove any minister he or she so chooses; as the most visible member of the government the prime minister represents the country abroad and is the main spokesperson for the government at home. The prime minister's official residence is Phitsanulok Mansion, a mansion in the Dusit district of Bangkok; the most recent prime minister was Yingluck Shinawatra of the Pheu Thai Party, the first female prime minister of Thailand. She was removed from office by the Constitutional Court of Thailand on 7 May 2014, on charges of abuse of power.
She was replaced by an interim prime minister, Niwatthamrong Boonsongpaisan, succeeded by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, leader of the military coup of 22 May 2014. The Cabinet of Thailand or the Council of Ministers of Thailand is a council composed of 35 ministers of state and deputy ministers, who run the cabinet ministries of the kingdom. There are 20 cabinet ministries, accounting for the main portion of state employees; the cabinet is responsible for the execution of policies of the government. Members of the cabinet do not need to be members of the lower house as in other countries, but most are; the Office of the Prime Minister and the cabinet offices are in a building complex called the Government House of Thailand. The legislative branch of the Thai government was first established in the "temporary" constitution of 1932; the assembly first met on 28 June 1932 in the Ananda Samakhom Throne Hall. The National Assembly of Thailand is a bicameral legislature and is composed of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives
Prayut Chan-o-cha is a Thai politician, retired Royal Thai Army general officer, head of the National Council for Peace and Order, concurrently serves as the Prime Minister of Thailand. The council, which he appointed himself along with other junta members, has the power to name the prime minister and control prime ministerial positions. Prayut ran for Prime Minister in the 2019 Thai elections, which critics said he had an unfair advantage in over the other democratic parties due to the new bicameral system adopted in the 2017 constitution; as journalist Tom Evans has said, this election with either determine Thai’s return to democracy or it sliding further into authoritarianism. Prayut is a former Commander in Chief of the Royal Thai Army, the post he held from October 2010 to October 2014. After his appointment as army chief, Prayut was characterised as a strong royalist and an opponent of former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Considered a hardliner within the military, he was one of the leading proponents of military crackdowns on the Red Shirt demonstrations of April 2009 and April–May 2010.
He sought to moderate his profile, talking to relatives of protesters who were killed in the bloody conflict, co-operating with the government of Yingluck Shinawatra who won parliamentary elections in July 2011. During the political crisis that began in November 2013 and involved protests against the caretaker government of Yingluck, Prayut claimed that the army was neutral, would not launch a coup; however in May 2014, Prayut staged a military coup against the government and assumed control of the country as NCPO leader. He issued an interim constitution granting himself sweeping powers and giving himself amnesty for staging the coup. In August 2014, a military-dominated national legislature, whose members were handpicked by Prayut, non-democratically appointed him Prime Minister. After seizing power, Prayut deemed it necessary to crackdown on dissent for the sake of public order, he introduced the “twelve values” that he formulated based on traditional Thai values and suggested that these values be included in school lessons.
Certain measures were implemented to limit public discussions about democracy and criticism of the government that might instigate further hatred and conflict. Prayut will be Phalang Pracharat's candidate for prime minister in the upcoming election. Prayut studied at the Armed Forces Academies Preparatory School Class 12, Command and General Staff College Class 63, the National Defence College of Thailand 5020, attended Infantry Officer Basic Course Class 51 and Infantry Officer Advanced Course, Class 38, he graduated with a bachelor of science degree from Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy. Like his direct predecessor, Anupong Paochinda, former defence minister Prawit Wongsuwan, Prayut is a member of the army's "eastern tigers" faction. Most of them, like Prayut, began their military careers in the 2nd Infantry Division, headquartered in eastern Thailand in the 21st Infantry Regiment. After graduating from the Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy, Prayut served in the 21st Infantry Regiment, granted Royal Guards status as the Queen's Guards.
In 2002, he served as a deputy commanding general in the 2nd Infantry Division, becoming its commanding general one year later. In 2005, he became a deputy commanding general of the 1st Army, which includes the 2nd Infantry Division, again became its commanding general within a year. Prayut was the chief of staff of the Royal Thai Army from 2008 to 2009, in 2009 he was appointed honorary adjutant to the king. In 2010, he succeeded Anupong Paochinda as commander in chief. After the 2006 Thai coup d'état, Prayut was appointed to the National Legislative Assembly. In this capacity, he joined the Committee on Natural Resources. Prayut sits on the executive boards of a number of companies including a state electricity utility company, the Metropolitan Electricity Authority. From 2007 to 2010 he was independent director at Ltd.. Since 7 October 2010 he has been a director of Thai Military Bank and chairman of the Army United Football Club. In May 2013, Prayut sold nine plots of land in a Bangkok suburb to a company called 69 Property for 600 million baht.
Reporters subsequently asked him about the land sale, the prime minister's position was that the media had no business questioning him on the matter. "The land has belonged to me since I was a kid, it belonged to my father. So what's the problem?" Gen Prayut said. "Please stop criticising me already."In his mandatory 4 September 2014 asset disclosure to the National Anti-Corruption Commission, the prime minister listed 128.6 million baht in assets and 654,745 baht in liabilities. His assets included a Mercedes Benz S600L, a BMW 740Li series sedan, three additional vehicles, nine luxury watches valued at three million baht, US$200,000 in jewellery, several pistols, he reported the transfer of 466.5 million baht to other family members. As army chief, prior to his retirement at the end of September, the general received a 1.4 million baht annual salary. Since taking power in 2014, Prayut has appeared on a weekly television program called "Sustainable Development from a Royal Philosophy". Following the 2013–2014 Thai political crisis, Prayut attempted to bring the rival parties to an agreement.
When that failed, he staged a coup against the caretaker government of Yingluck Shinawatra on 22 May 2014. Yingluck herself had been removed from office earlier by the Constitutional Court, Niwatthamrong Boonsongpaisa