Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
1864 United States presidential election in Michigan
The 1864 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Michigan voters chose eight representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Michigan was won by incumbent president Abraham Lincoln over Democratic challenger George B. McClellan by a margin of 7.2%. As of 2018, this is the last time Ottawa County voted for the Democratic candidate
1968 United States presidential election in Michigan
The 1968 United States presidential election in Michigan was held on November 5, 1968. All 50 states and The District of Columbia, were part of the 1968 United States presidential election. Michigan chose twenty-one electors to represent them in the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Michigan was narrowly won by the Democratic Party candidate, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, defeating the Republican Party candidate, former Vice President Richard Nixon, by a margin of 6.72%, making the state 6.79% more Democratic than the national average. American Independent Party candidate, former Alabama governor George Wallace, performed rather well, receiving 10% of the vote. Humphrey's margin of victory was down from President Lyndon B. Johnson's landslide 33.6% in 1964. American involvement in the Vietnam War, plus race riots in Detroit and the rest of the country, brought about unpopularity for the incumbent president and disenchantment towards his political agenda. Vice President Humphrey ran on a platform to continue the policies of Johnson's Great Society and support civil rights for African Americans, former Vice President Nixon ran on a law and order platform to combat crime in the nation's cities plus promote new leadership in Vietnam, Governor Wallace ran a similar law and order campaign with an emphasis on opposition to school desegregation and support for states' rights.
Although Wallace did not poll as in the Midwest as he did in the Deep South, he was able to appeal to blue collar working class voters who traditionally voted Democrat, but had become disillusioned with the race riots and civil rights. As a result, he siphoned off enough votes to allow Nixon to win every state in the region except for Humphrey's home state of Minnesota and Michigan. With Michigan being Wallace's second best state percentage-wise behind Ohio, Humphrey was able to hold on to the Wolverine State's electoral votes for the Democrats once more by running up margins in populated Wayne County, the surrounding suburban counties of Macomb and Monroe, Genesee County, the Upper Peninsula. Michigan would not vote Democratic again until 1992; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last time Wayne County cast more than a million votes
1920 United States presidential election in Michigan
The 1920 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 United States presidential election. Michigan voters chose fifteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Republican candidate Warren G. Harding won Michigan in a landslide, carrying over 70% of the vote to Democratic opponent James M. Cox's 22%. Harding received the largest share of the popular vote in a presidential election for Michigan at the time, though that record would be broken only four years later; this was the first of three consecutive elections where Michigan supported a Republican candidate with more than 70% of the vote and the only examples of any presidential candidate receiving such a high share in the state. With 72.76% of the popular, Michigan would prove to be Harding third strongest state in the 1920 election terms of popular vote percentage after North Dakota and Vermont
1872 United States presidential election in Michigan
The 1872 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Michigan voters chose eleven electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president. Michigan again went for Republican incumbent Ulysses S. Grant, increasing his margin of victory over his challenger to more than 27%
1976 United States presidential election in Michigan
The 1976 United States presidential election in Michigan was held on November 2, 1976. Incumbent President Gerald Ford won his home state of Michigan with 51.83% of the vote, carrying Michigan's 21 electoral votes. However, he lost the general election to Democratic candidate Jimmy Carter; this marked the last time. Jimmy Carter - 43.40% Mo Udall - 43.06% George Wallace - 6.94% Gerald Ford - 64.94% Ronald Reagan - 34.25%
1924 United States presidential election in Michigan
The 1924 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 4, 1924, as part of the 1924 United States presidential election. Michigan voters chose fifteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Michigan supported Republican Party incumbent Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts in the state's largest landslide in a presidential race as of the 2016 election. Coolidge received over three-quarters of the popular vote, while Democratic nominee John W. Davis of West Virginia garnered only 13%. Third-party candidate Robert M. La Follette Sr. of the Progressive Party collected 10% of the vote. With 75.37% of the popular vote, Michigan would prove to be Coolidge's second strongest state in the 1924 election in terms of popular vote percentage after Vermont