Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. Relative to its territory, it is a diverse country distinguished by a transitional character, situated along cultural, climatic. Serbia numbers around 7 million residents, and its capital, following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans from the 6th century onwards, Serbs established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by Rome and the Byzantine Empire in 1217, in the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the regions first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro which dissolved peacefully in 2006, in 2008 the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community.
Serbia is a member of organizations such as the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC. An EU membership candidate since 2012, Serbia has been negotiating its EU accession since January 2014, the country is acceding to the WTO and is a militarily neutral state. Serbia is an income economy with dominant service sector, followed by the industrial sector. The country ranks high on the Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index, relatively high on the Human Development Index, located at the crossroads between Central and Southern Europe, Serbia is found in the Balkan peninsula and the Pannonian Plain. Serbia lies between latitudes 41° and 47° N, and longitudes 18° and 23° E. The country covers a total of 88,361 km2, which places it at 113th place in the world, with Kosovo excluded, the area is 77,474 km2. Its total border length amounts to 2,027 km, all of Kosovos border with Albania and Montenegro are under control of the Kosovo border police. The Pannonian Plain covers the third of the country while the easternmost tip of Serbia extends into the Wallachian Plain.
The terrain of the part of the country, with the region of Šumadija at its heart. Mountains dominate the third of Serbia. Dinaric Alps stretch in the west and the southwest, following the flow of the rivers Drina, the Carpathian Mountains and Balkan Mountains stretch in a north–south direction in eastern Serbia. Ancient mountains in the southeast corner of the country belong to the Rilo-Rhodope Mountain system, elevation ranges from the Midžor peak of the Balkan Mountains at 2,169 metres to the lowest point of just 17 metres near the Danube river at Prahovo. The largest lake is Đerdap Lake and the longest river passing through Serbia is the Danube, the climate of Serbia is under the influences of the landmass of Eurasia and the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
Maxim Max Mirnyi is a professional tennis player. Mirnyi became a doubles specialist following his singles career, in which he reached a career-high of World No. At the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, Mirnyi carried the flag of Belarus at the Opening Ceremony on 27 July 2012 and he won 2 mixed doubles grand slams in 1998 along with Serena Williams of United States. In 1998 US Open and 1998 Wimbledon mixed doubles final, he won the grand slams and reached the final of 1999 Australian Open, but lost. In the 2004 Davis Cup, he and Vladimir Voltchkov defeated Russia 3–2 and Argentina 5–0, reaching the semifinals, in 2006, he scored an upset as he took down James Blake 6–4, 3–6, 4–6, 6–1, 6–0, at Wimbledon. That same year, he and Jonas Björkman defeated the Bryan brothers in mens doubles at the French Open, in September 2008, he completed his studies at Belarus State University, where he earned a degree in international law. In 2011, he and Daniel Nestor defeated Juan Sebastián Cabal, in 2012, he and Daniel Nestor defeated the Bryan brothers, both at the Queens Club, UK, and again at the French Open.
Max Mirnyi at the Association of Tennis Professionals Max Mirnyi at the International Tennis Federation Max Mirnyi at the Davis Cup Site for Max Mirnyi
Mark Knowles is a former tennis player from the Bahamas, specialising in doubles tennis. He has won a number of Grand Slam tournaments, most notably partnering with Daniel Nestor, at various times between 2002 and 2005 he was ranked World No.1 in doubles. After being awarded a scholarship to the Nick Bollettieris famed academy and his highest ATP singles ranking was world no.96. He was very successful in doubles, partnering Daniel Nestor, Mahesh Bhupathi, Brian MacPhie, with Nestor, Knowles won the 2002 Australian Open, the 2004 US Open and the 2007 French Open. He won the 2009 Wimbledon mixed doubles title with Anna-Lena Grönefeld of Germany, on 5 July 2006, Knowles participated in one of the longest matches in Wimbledon history, lasting 6 hours and 9 minutes. His long-term partnership with Daniel Nestor ended after the 2007 US Open, after reaching the Basel final with James Blake, Knowles reunited with Nestor once again to win the 2007 Tennis Masters Cup. They defeated Simon Aspelin and Julian Knowle, 6–3, 6–2, the two lost to eventual champions Jonathan Erlich and Andy Ram.
Other season highlights included three titles, at Memphis and Basel, the victory in Basel gave Knowles his 50th career title. At the 2009 Australian Open and Bhupathi went one step further than the year before and they went on to reach the US Open final that year, despite the fact that Knowles was hampered by a hand injury that required eight stitches on his dominant hand. They claimed their first ATP World Tour Masters 1000 crown together and they closed out their partnership at the Barclays ATP World Tour Finals, winning their round-robin group before going down in the semifinals to the Bryans. Knowles repeated as champion in Memphis with Mardy Fish, the two advanced to the quarterfinals of the Western & Southern Open in Cincinnati and the third round of the US Open. Knowles finished the season on a note with a runner-up finish at the ATP World Tour Masters 1000 event in Paris with Andy Ram. The two upset top-ranked Bob Bryan and Mike Bryan in the quarterfinals,2011 was a tough year for the Bahamian, as his season partner, Michal Mertiňák, went down with a back injury at the French Open.
Prior to that, the two semifinal appearances in San Jose and Memphis and the quarterfinals of the BNP Paribas Open at Indian Wells. The two edged Somdev Devvarman and Treat Conrad Huey to give the Bahamian his 54th doubles title and Malisse reached the quarterfinals in Washington and the third round at the US Open. In October, Knowles was invited to participate in the 19th annual World TeamTennis Smash Hits charity event in Cleveland, co-hosted by Sir Elton John, Knowles was selected by John as a member of his team, which went on to win the exhibition 19–18. The event raised over $500,000 for various AIDS charities, at the 2012 SAP Open, Knowles rejoined Malisse to win the ATP World Tour 250 event in San Jose, becoming the first mens player over 40 to win a tour-level doubles title since John McEnroe. Knowles was a standout at UCLA for three years, earning All-American honors in singles and doubles before turning pro in 1991, representing the Bahamas, Knowles competed in five consecutive Olympic Games and is his countrys all-time leader in Davis Cup wins, playing in 29 ties
2006 Australian Open
The 2006 Australian Open was played between 16 and 29 January 2006. Marat Safin could not defend his 2005 title, due to an injury he suffered in late 2005, roger Federer won his second Australian Open title, defeating little-known Marcos Baghdatis in the final in four sets. Serena Williams was unsuccessful in defending her 2005 title, losing in the round against Daniela Hantuchová. Amélie Mauresmo won her first Australian Open title, defeating 2004 champion Justine Henin-Hardenne in the final, Henin-Hardenne was forced to retire at 1–6 and it began Henin-Hardennes run of reaching the final of all four Grand Slam events, winning the French Open. Several leading mens players declined to attend the Open due to injury, including Andre Agassi, Rafael Nadal, the womens tournament fared much better, with no absentees among the top 20 ranked players. It was Martina Hingis first grand slam event in her comeback to the game, lindsay Davenport and Serena Williams were among those who welcomed her return to the circuit as a positive step forward for womens tennis.
Roger Federer defeated Marcos Baghdatis, 5–7, 7–5, 6–0, 6–2 It was Federers 2nd title of the year and it was his 7th career Grand Slam title, and his 2nd Australian Open title. Amélie Mauresmo defeated Justine Henin, 6–1, 2–0, retired It was Mauresmos 1st title of the year and it was her 1st career Grand Slam title
Andy Ram is a retired Israeli professional tennis player. He is primarily a doubles player and he is the first Israeli tennis player to win a senior Grand Slam event. He first won the doubles title at the 2006 Wimbledon Championships. He won the doubles title at the 2007 French Open with Nathalie Dechy. Ram attained his highest doubles ranking of World No.5 in July 2008 and he reached 36 doubles finals and won 20 of them through 2013, mostly with partner Jonathan Erlich, they are known in Israel as AndiYoni. His Davis Cup doubles record, as of 2013, was 17-7, in May 2014, he announced his retirement, to take effect after Israels Davis Cup tie in September. In April 2015, Andy Ram, CEO of Pulse Play, announced his new startup - wearable technology, born in Montevideo, Uruguay, is Jewish. His father Amiram, a professional soccer player for Betar Jerusalem in the 1950s, is Israeli. After his father was injured he was sent to Uruguay on shlihut, and it was there that he met Rams mother and he has an older brother and a younger sister.
They moved to Jerusalem when he was five, which is when he began playing tennis and it was tough at the beginning because I couldnt speak the language, and was fighting with people in the kindergarten who didnt understand me, said Ram. My parents decided to send me to the center not long after we arrived. I really enjoyed playing tennis, because when I was six or seven years old and winning tournaments it felt good, from when I was 8 or 10 I knew it was going to be a career for me. Its a tennis life so it wasnt so easy and you have to give up many things. When all my friends were playing outside I had to practice, I didnt go to all the school trips. But I was focused from a young age. I grew up practicing at the Jerusalem tennis center, I spent most of my childhood there, practicing five days a week. I never regretted it and I enjoyed every moment, now I am reaping the rewards. Ram was trained by Ronen Moralli at the Israel Tennis Centers in Jerusalem and my first inspiration was Jo Jo Lizmi, the famous Jerusalem tennis coach, who showed me all the basic techniques
Nicolas Pierre Armand Mahut is a French professional tennis player. In singles, he reached a career-high Association of Tennis Professionals ranking of world No.37 on 5 May 2014, in doubles, he reached a career-high ATP ranking of world No.1 on 6 June 2016. He is a doubles player, having being ranked world No. 1, and has reached all four Grand Slam finals in mens doubles, Nicolas Mahut was born in 1982 in Angers, France. He first trained at the Beaucouzé tennis club when he was five years old and he joined a tennis club in Paris when he was 11. He currently lives in Boulogne-Billancourt, a suburb of Paris near the grounds of Roland Garros and he met his wife Virginie in 2007 and she gave birth to their son Natanel on 18 August 2011. Mahut is the stepfather to Virginies teenage son from a previous relationship and his closest friends on the ATP Tour are fellow countrymen Michaël Llodra, Édouard Roger-Vasselin, Julien Benneteau, and Paul-Henri Mathieu. Mahut has good friends with the American tennis player John Isner, after they played together in the longest professional tennis match ever at Wimbledon 2010.
He is currently coached by professional players Gabriel Urpi and Jérôme Haehnel. Mahut had excellent junior results, winning the Orange Bowl in 1999 and his career-high singles ranking is world No. Mahut was runner-up to Andy Roddick at the 2007 Queens Club Championships, Mahut is known for being part of the longest match in professional tennis history against John Isner in the first round of the 2010 Wimbledon Championships. He holds a number of records and awards for the match, including the most points won in a single match. Mahut is a doubles player, reaching a career high of world No.1 in 6 June 2016. He has won titles with countrymen Julien Benneteau, Arnaud Clément. In 2013, he and Michaël Llodra lost the final of the French Open, in 2015, with Pierre-Hugues Herbert, lost the final of the Australian Open but won the US Open doubles title. In 2016, with Pierre-Hugues Herbert, he won the Wimbledon doubles title, in 1998, Mahut was champion of France for 15- and 16-year-olds and the 17- and 18-year-olds.
1999 saw Mahut win the Orange Bowl doubles title, in addition, Mahut was the winner of the Sunshine Cup, the 35th Coffee Bowl, and the Coupe Galéa-Valério. In Grand Slams, he won the 2000 Wimbledon Championships Boys Singles, the 2000 Australian Open Boys Doubles, as a junior Mahut posted a 93–33 record in singles and a 76–21 record in doubles
Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested and its strongest economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian Peoples Republic, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus lost almost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921, during WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years, in 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR. The parliament of the declared the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990. Alexander Lukashenko has served as the president since 1994.
Belarus has been labeled Europes last dictatorship by some Western journalists, Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of large sections of the economy. Though not directly espousing communism like the five remaining communist countries of China, Laos and North Korea, in 2000 Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State. Over 70% of Belaruss population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas, more than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages and Russian, the Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Belarus is the only European country to retain capital punishment in both law and practice, the name Belarus is closely related with the term Belaya Rus, i. e. White Rus. There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus, an alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population.
A third theory suggests that the old Rus lands that were not conquered by the Tatars had been referred to as white, other sources claim that, before 1267, the land not conquered by the Mongols was considered White Rus. The name Rus is often conflated with its Latin forms Russia and Ruthenia, in some languages, including German and Dutch, the country is generally called White Russia to this day. The Latin term Alba Russia was used again by Pope Pius VI in 1783 to recognize the Society of Jesus there, exclaiming Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo. The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey. During the 17th century, the Russian tsars used White Rus to describe the lands added from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Daniel Mark Nestor CM is a Canadian professional tennis player from Toronto, Ontario. He is one of the foremost doubles players in history due to his longevity. As of October 2016, he is 11th for most mens ATP titles in Open Era history, in January 2016, Nestor became the first doubles player in ATP history to win 1000 matches. His 91 mens doubles titles make him the third most decorated champion among doubles players and he was named ATP Doubles Team of the Year in 2002 and 2004 and 2008. He became the World No.1 ranked doubles player in the world in August 2002, Nestors career-high singles ranking is World No. 58, which he reached in August 1999, Nestor won his first doubles title in Bogotá, Colombia with Mark Knowles in 1994. They defeated French Open champions Luke and Murphy Jensen in the final and he has been a member of the Canadian Davis Cup team since 1992. He first came to prominence in the eye that year by defeating world number one Stefan Edberg in a hard-fought singles match in Vancouver.
He was part of the squad who made history for Canada in 2013 as they were the first Canadian team in the Open Era to reach the World Group semifinals. At the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia and partner Sébastien Lareau won a gold medal, the duo won four more titles together during their career, which was highlighted by an ATP Masters 1000 win in Canada. After the Olympics, Nestor won one title with Kevin Ullyett in November 2000, on July 5,2006, he participated in the second-longest match in Wimbledon history, lasting 6 hours and 9 minutes. Nestor won three Grand Slam doubles titles together with longtime partner Mark Knowles of the Bahamas, the tandem won the 2002 Australian Open, the 2004 US Open and the 2007 French Open. He and Knowles reached the final of the 1995 Australian Open, the 1998 French Open and US Open, the 2002 French Open and Wimbledon, in mixed doubles, he reached his first final at the 2003 US Open with Lina Krasnoroutskaya. He made it to the 2006 Australian Open and 2006 French Open finals,2007 was a year of change for Nestor.
He and long-time doubles partner Knowles announced that they were parting ways after the 2007 US Open and Zimonjić had actually won an ATP World Tour 250 Series event together back in 2001. Nestor and Knowles partnered once more at the 2007 Tennis Masters Cup after having qualified for the event as the top seed. Nestor had chosen to partner with Zimonjić because he felt as though the game had transformed into a more powerful and physical version of doubles. The New York Times reported that on the tour, its known that they joined up, after years in the top 5 with other partners, in 2008, Nestor and Zimonjić won the first major title of their partnership at the Hamburg Masters
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace.
However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians and Samaritans. Israel hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016.
The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Islam