National Assembly (France)
The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate. The National Assembly's members are known as députés. There are 577 députés, each elected by a single-member constituency through a two-round voting system. Thus, 289 seats are required for a majority; the assembly is presided over by a president from the largest party represented, assisted by vice-presidents from across the represented political spectrum. The term of the National Assembly is five years; this measure is becoming rarer since the 2000 referendum reduced the presidential term from seven to five years: a President has a majority elected in the Assembly two months after the presidential election, it would be useless for him/her to dissolve it for those reasons. Following a tradition started by the first National Assembly during the French Revolution, the "left-wing" parties sit to the left as seen from the president's seat, the "right-wing" parties sit to the right, the seating arrangement thus directly indicates the political spectrum as represented in the Assembly.
The official seat of the National Assembly is the Palais Bourbon on the banks of the river Seine. It is guarded by Republican Guards; the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic increased the power of the executive at the expense of Parliament, compared to previous constitutions. The President of the Republic can decide to dissolve the National Assembly and call for new legislative elections; this is meant as a way to resolve stalemates where the Assembly cannot decide on a clear political direction. This possibility is exercised; the last dissolution was by Jacques Chirac in 1997, following from the lack of popularity of prime minister Alain Juppé. The National Assembly can overthrow the executive government by a motion of no confidence. For this reason, the prime minister and his cabinet are from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly. In the case of a president and assembly from opposing parties, this leads to the situation known as cohabitation. While motions de censure are periodically proposed by the opposition following government actions that it deems inappropriate, they are purely rhetorical.
Since the beginning of the Fifth Republic, there has only been one single successful motion de censure, in 1962 in hostility to the referendum on the method of election of the President, President Charles de Gaulle dissolved the Assembly within a few days. The government used to set the priorities of the agenda for the assembly's sessions, except for a single day each month. In practice, given the number of priority items, it meant that the schedule of the assembly was entirely set by the executive. This, was amended on 23 July 2008. Under the amended constitution, the government sets the priorities for two weeks in a month. Another week is designated for the assembly's "control" prerogatives, and the fourth one is set by the assembly. One day per month is set by a "minority" or "opposition" group. Members of the assembly can ask oral questions to ministers; the Wednesday afternoon 3 p.m. session of "questions to the Government" is broadcast live on television. Like Prime Minister's Questions in Britain, it is a show for the viewers, with members of the majority asking flattering questions, while the opposition tries to embarrass the government.
The history of national representation for two centuries is linked to history of the democratic principle and the uneven road that it had to go before finding in the French institutions the consecration, its own today. Although the French have periodically elected representatives since 1789, the mode of appointment and the powers of these representatives have varied according to the times, the periods of erasure of the parliamentary institution coinciding with a decline in public liberties. In this respect, the names are not innocent; the name of National Assembly, chosen in the fervor of 1789, just reappears - if we except the short parenthesis of 1848 - in 1946. In the meantime, more or less reductive appellations "Instituted by the Constitution of the year III in August 1795," Chamber of deputies of the departments "," House of Representatives "," Legislative body "," Chambers of deputies ", etc.) which show, to varying degrees, the reluctance or the declared hostility of some governments or governments to the principle
Seine-Saint-Denis is a French department located in the Île-de-France region. Locally, it is referred to colloquially as quatre-vingt treize or neuf trois, after its official administrative number, 93; the learned and used demonym for the inhabitants is Séquano-Dionysiens. Seine-Saint-Denis is located to the northeast of Paris, it has a surface area of only 236 km², making it one of the smallest departments in France. Seine-Saint-Denis and two other small departments, Hauts-de-Seine and Val-de-Marne, form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne. Since 1 January 2016, together with Paris, they form the area of Greater Paris. Seine-Saint-Denis is made up of three departmental arrondissements and 40 communes: Seine-Saint-Denis was created in January 1968, through the implementation of a law passed in July 1964, it was formed from the part of the Seine department to the north and north-east of the Paris ring road, together with a small slice taken from Seine-et-Oise. Seine-Saint-Denis has a history as a veritable left-wing stronghold, belonging to the ceinture rouge of Paris.
The French Communist Party has maintained a continued strong presence in the department, still controls the city councils in cities such as Saint-Denis, Montreuil and La Courneuve. Until 2008, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne were the only departments where the Communist Party had a majority in the general councils but the 2008 cantonal elections saw the socialists become the strongest group at the Seine-Saint-Denis general council. A commune of Seine-Saint-Denis, Clichy-sous-Bois, was the scene of the death of two youths which sparked the nationwide riots of autumn 2005. In October and November, 9,000 cars were burned and 3,000 rioters were arrested. In 2018, the department had the highest crime rate in metropolitan France. In 2017, the area was the theatre of 18% of all drug offences in metropolitan France. Seine-Saint-Denis is the French department with the highest proportion of immigrants: 21.7% at the 1999 census. This figure does not include the children of immigrants born on French soil as well as some native elites from former French colonies and people who came from overseas France.
The ratio of ethnic minorities is difficult to estimate as French law prohibits the collection of ethnic data for census taking purposes. In 2005, 56.7% of young people under 18 were of foreign origin including 38% of African origin. In 2018, the poverty rate was twice the national average at 28%, the unemployment rate was 3 percentage above the national average and 4 percentage points above the Île-de-France average at 12.7%. In 2018, it was estimated. Brittany M. Hughes of MRCTV estimates that there are more than 300,000 illegal immigrants in Seine-Saint-Denis. An education study confirmed falling levels of literacy in the area, where the fraction of pupils who had 25 errors or more increased from 5.4% in 1987 to 19.8% in 2015. Bédarida, Catherine. "Seine-Saint-Denis, naissance d'un ghetto". Le Monde. Kefi, Ramses. "Pourquoi toujours le 9-3 ?". L'Obs. Seine-Saint-Denis General Council Prefecture website Seine-Saint-Denis Tourist Board
Socialist Party (France)
The Socialist Party is a social-democratic political party in France and was, for decades, the largest party of the French centre-left. The PS used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic, along with the Republicans; the Socialist Party replaced the earlier French Section of the Workers' International in 1969, is led by First Secretary Olivier Faure. The PS is a member of the Party of European Socialists, the Socialist International and the Progressive Alliance; the PS first won power in 1981, when its candidate François Mitterrand was elected President of France in the 1981 presidential election. Under Mitterrand, the party achieved a governing majority in the National Assembly from 1981 to 1986 and again from 1988 to 1993. PS leader Lionel Jospin lost his bid to succeed Mitterrand as president in the 1995 presidential election against Rally for the Republic leader Jacques Chirac, but became prime minister in a cohabitation government after the 1997 parliamentary elections, a position Jospin held until 2002, when he was again defeated in the presidential election.
In 2007, the party's candidate for the presidential election, Ségolène Royal, was defeated by conservative UMP candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. The Socialist party won most of regional and local elections and it won control of the Senate in 2011 for the first time in more than fifty years. On 6 May 2012, François Hollande, the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, was elected President of France, the next month, the party won the majority in the National Assembly; the PS formed several figures who acted at the international level: Jacques Delors, the eighth President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1994 and the first person to serve three terms in that office, was from the Socialist Party, as well as Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 2007 to 2011, Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 2005 to 2013. The party had 42,300 members in 2016, down from 60,000 in 2014 and 173,486 members in 2012.
The defeat of the Paris commune reduced the power and influence of the socialist movements in France. Its leaders were exiled. France's first socialist party, the Federation of the Socialist Workers of France, was founded in 1879, it was characterised as "possibilist". Two parties split off from it: in 1882, the French Workers' Party of Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue in 1890 the Revolutionary Socialist Workers' Party of Jean Allemane. At the same time, the heirs of Louis Auguste Blanqui, a symbol of the French revolutionary tradition, created the Central Revolutionary Committee led by Édouard Vaillant. There were some declared socialist deputies such as Alexandre Millerand and Jean Jaurès who did not belong to any party. In 1899, the participation of Millerand in Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet caused a debate about socialist participation in a "bourgeois government". Three years Jaurès, Allemane and the possibilists founded the possibilist French Socialist Party, which supported participation in government, while Guesde and Vaillant formed the Socialist Party of France, which opposed such co-operation.
In 1905, during the Globe Congress, the two groups merged in the French Section of the Workers International. Leader of the parliamentary group and director of the party paper L'Humanité, Jaurès was its most influential figure; the party was hemmed in between the middle-class liberals of the Radical Party and the revolutionary syndicalists who dominated the trade unions. Furthermore, the goal to rally all the Socialists in one single party was reached: some elects refused to join the SFIO and created the Republican-Socialist Party, which supported socialist participation in liberal governments. Together with the Radicals, who wished to install laicism, the SFIO was a component of the Left Block without to sit in the government. In 1906, the General Confederation of Labour trade union claimed its independence from all political parties; the French socialists were anti-war, but following the assassination of Jaurès in 1914 they were unable to resist the wave of militarism which followed the outbreak of World War I.
They suffered a severe split over participation in the wartime government of national unity. In 1919 the anti-war socialists were defeated in elections. In 1920, during the Tours Congress, the majority and left wing of the party broke away and formed the French Section of the Communist International to join the Third International founded by Vladimir Lenin; the right wing, led by Léon Blum, kept the "old house" and remained in the SFIO. In 1924 and in 1932, the Socialists joined with the Radicals in the Coalition of the Left, but refused to join the non-Socialist governments led by the Radicals Édouard Herriot and Édouard Daladier; these governments failed because the Socialists and the Radicals could not agree on economic policy, because the Communists, following the policy laid down by the Soviet Union, refused to support governments presiding over capitalist economies. The question of the possibility of a government participation with Radicals caused the split of "neosocialists" at the beginning of the 1930s.
They merged with the Republican-Socialist Party in the Socialist Republican Union. In 1934, the Communists changed their line, the four left-wing parties came together in the Popular Front, which won the 1936 elections and brought Blum to power as France's first SFIO Prime Minister. Indeed, for the first time in its history, the SFIO obtained more votes and seats than the Ra
2002 French legislative election
The French legislative elections took place on 9 June and 16 June 2002 to elect the 12th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, in a context of political crisis. The Socialist Prime Minister Lionel Jospin announced his political retirement after his elimination at the first round of the 2002 French presidential election. President Jacques Chirac was reelected, all the Republican parties having called to block far-right leader Jean-Marie Le Pen. Chirac's conservative supporters created the Union for the Presidential Majority to prepare for the legislative elections; the first round of the presidential election was a shock for the two main coalitions. The candidates of the parliamentary right obtained 32% of votes, the candidates of the "Plural Left" only 27%. In the first polls, for the legislative elections, they were equal; the UMP campaigned against "cohabitation", blamed for causing confusion profitable to the far-right and far-left. Jean-Pierre Raffarin, a low-profile politician who said he would listen to "France at the bottom", was chosen as the party's candidate for Prime Minister.
Without a real leader, staggered by the results of 21 April, the left was in difficulty. The Socialist chairman François Hollande tried to revive the "Plural Left" under the name of "United Left". Furthermore, the left-wing parties could not motivate their voters against an unrecognized and uncontroversial politician like Raffarin. In addition part of the left-wing electorate did not want a new "cohabitation"; the polls indicated a growing advantage for the Presidential Majority. The right won the UMP obtained a large parliamentary majority of 394 seats. For the third time under the Fifth Republic, a party acquired an absolute majority. Five months it became the Union for a Popular Movement. On the left, the Socialist Party achieved a better result than at the winning 1997 elections, but its allies were crushed; the far-left returned towards its usual level. In far-right, the National Front lost the half of its 5 May voters
Dominique Voynet is a French politician, a member of Europe Écologie–The Greens. She is the former mayor of Montreuil and was a French senator for the département of Seine-Saint-Denis. Dominique Voynet trained as a doctor as an anaesthetist. During her studies in the late 1970s, she began participating in environmental activism, she fought against the establishment of nuclear reactors in Fessenheim and Malville, the deforestation of the Vosges area on behalf of the Belfort Association for the Protection of Nature. She became a member of Amnesty International and the French Democratic Confederation of Labour. In her student years, she was a broadcaster for an independent radio station, "Radio ondes rouges", her pacifist and environmental efforts continued with her membership of Front de lutte antimilitariste and Friends of the Earth. Politics tempted her at this time, however the issues that were dear to her – social efforts and environmentalism – were not represented in France by any party at the time.
For this reason, she became one of the founding members of The Greens in France. In 1989 she was elected a Member of the European Parliament. From 1992 to 1994 she was a member of the conseil régional of Franche-Comté, she contested the 1995 presidential election. In the first round of voting, she won 3.32% of the vote. She was elected mayor of Montreuil sous bois in the Seine Saint Denis on the second round of Municipal elections, 16 March 2008, defeating Jean Pierre Brard longstanding communist mayor since 1984. From 1997 to 2001 she was Minister of the Environment and Regional Planning under the Lionel Jospin government, she resigned on 9 July 2001 and was replaced by Yves Cochet. In 2004, she was elected senator for the Seine-Saint-Denis département. Since the 2008 French municipal elections she is the elected mayor of Montreuil Dominique Voynet was designated the Green candidate for the 2007 presidential election on 19 July 2006. In the first round of the election, she garnered 576,666 votes.
On November 25, 2013, Voynet announced she would not seek a second term as mayor of Montreuil, complaining of the "degradation of political life" in Montreuil and elsewhere. Governmental function Minister of Planning and Environment: 1997-2001. Electoral mandates European Parliament Member of European Parliament: 1989-1991. Elected in 1989. Senate of France Senator of Seine-Saint-Denis: 2004-2011. Elected in 2004. General Council General councillor of Jura: 1998-2004. Regional Council Regional councillor of Franche-Comté: 1992-1994. Municipal Council Mayor of Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis: 2008-2014. Municipal councillor of Dole, Jura: 1989-2004. Reelected in 1995, 2001. Voix off L'eau, numéro 22 Qui êtes-vous, que proposez-vous? Dominique Voynet: Une vraie nature by Murielle Szac Dominique Voynet's official senatorial site Dominique Voynet's official campaign site for the 2007 presidential election http://dominiquevoynet.eelv.fr
French Communist Party
The French Communist Party is a communist party in France. Although its electoral support has declined in recent decades, the PCF retains a strong influence in French politics at the local level. In 2012, the PCF claimed 138,000 members including 70,000; this would make it the third largest party in France in terms of membership after the Republicans and the Socialist Party. Founded in 1920 by the majority faction of the socialist French Section of the Workers' International, it participated in three governments: in the provisional government of the Liberation, it was the largest party on the left in France in a number of national elections, from 1945 to 1960, before falling behind the Socialist Party in the 1970s. The PCF has lost further ground to the Socialists since that time. Since 2009 the PCF has been a leading member of the Left Front, alongside Jean-Luc Mélenchon's Left Party. During the 2017 presidential election, the PCF supported Mélenchon's candidature; the PCF is a member of the Party of the European Left, its MEPs sit in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group.
The French Communist Party originated in 1920, when a majority of members resigned from the socialist French Section of the Workers' International party to set up the French Section of the Communist International, with Ludovic-Oscar Frossard as its first secretary-general. The new SFIC defined itself as democratic centralist; the 1920s saw a number of splits within the party over relations with other left-wing parties and over adherence to Comintern's dictates. The party entered the French parliament, but promoted strike action and opposed colonialism. Pierre Sémard, leader from 1924 to 1928, sought alliances with other parties. With the rise of Fascism after 1934 the PCF supported the Popular Front, which came to power under Léon Blum in 1936; the party supported the Spanish Republicans, opposed the 1938 Munich agreement with Hitler. The party was banned by the government of Édouard Daladier as a result of the German–Soviet Non-aggression Pact, due to its membership in the Comintern, which opposed the War.
The leadership, threatened with execution, fled abroad. After the German invasion of 1940 the party began to organise opposition to the occupation. Shortly before Germany invaded the Soviet Union the next year, the PCF formed, in May 1941, the National Front movement within the broader Resistance, together with the armed Francs-Tireurs et Partisans group. At the same time the PCF began to work with de Gaulle's "Free France" government in exile, took part in the National Council of the Resistance. By the time the German occupation ended in 1944, the party had become a powerful force in many parts of France, it was among the leading parties in elections in 1945 and 1946, entered into the governing Tripartite alliance, which pursued social reforms and statism. However, amid concerns within France and abroad over the extent of communist influence, the PCF was excluded from government in May 1947. Under pressure from Moscow, the PCF thereafter distanced itself from other parties and focused on agitation within its trade union base.
For the rest of the Fourth Republic period the PCF, led by Thorez and Jacques Duclos, remained politically isolated, still taking a Stalinist line, though retaining substantial electoral support. Although the PCF opposed de Gaulle's formation of the Fifth Republic in 1958, the following years saw a rapprochement with other left-wing forces and an increased strength in parliament. With Waldeck Rochet as its new secretary-general, the party supported François Mitterrand's unsuccessful presidential bid in 1965. During the student riots and strikes of May 1968, the party supported the strikes while denouncing the revolutionary student movements. After heavy losses in the ensuing parliamentary elections, the party adopted Georges Marchais as leader and in 1973 entered into a "Common Programme" alliance with Mitterrand's reconstituted Socialist Party. Under the Common Programme, the PCF lost ground to the PS, a process that continued after Mitterrand's victory in 1981. Allotted a minor share in Mitterrand's government, the PCF resigned in 1984 as the government turned towards fiscal orthodoxy.
Under Marchais the party maintained its traditional communist doctrines and structure. Extensive reform was undertaken after 1994; this did little to stem the party's declining popularity, although it entered government again in 1997 as part of the Plural Left coalition. Elections in 2002 gave worse results than for the PCF. Under Marie-George Buffet, the PCF turned away from parliamentary strategy and sought broader social alliances. To maintain a presence in parliament after 2007 the party's few remaining deputies had to join others in the Democratic and Republican Left group. Subsequently a broader electoral coalition, the Left Front, was formed including the PCF, the Left Party, United Left, others; the FG has brought the French communists somewh
François Charles Armand Fillon is a retired French politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 2007 to 2012 under President Nicolas Sarkozy. He was the nominee of the Republicans, the country's largest centre-right political party, for the 2017 presidential election. Fillon became Jean-Pierre Raffarin's Minister of Labour in 2002 and undertook controversial reforms of the 35-hour working week law and of the French retirement system. In 2004, as Minister of National Education he proposed the much debated Fillon law on Education. In 2005, Fillon was elected Senator for the Sarthe department, his role as a political advisor in Nicolas Sarkozy's successful race for President led to his becoming Prime Minister in 2007. Fillon resigned upon Sarkozy's defeat by François Hollande in the 2012 presidential elections. Running on a platform described as conservative, Fillon entered the 2016 Republican presidential primary, he placed first in the first round on 20 November, defeating Alain Juppé in the primary run-off a week later.
Following his victory in the primary, opinion polls showed Fillon as one of the frontrunners for the 2017 presidential election along with Marine Le Pen and Emmanuel Macron. In March 2017, François Fillon became one of the first candidates of the most important French party to "be formally charged in a widening embezzlement investigation" due to allegations "that he had paid his wife and children hundreds of thousands of euros from the public payroll for little or no work" during the presidential race, in a case that became known as "Penelopegate", he decided not to withdraw from the race and continues to declare his innocence, denying that he embezzled any money. On 23 April 2017, he was eliminated at the first round of the presidential election, subsequently acknowledged that he did not have the legitimacy to lead the party through the legislative elections in June. Fillon was born on 4 March 1954 in Le Mans, France, his father, Michel, is a civil law notary, while his mother, Anne Soulet Fillon, is a celebrated historian of Basque descent.
His youngest brother, Dominique, is a jazz musician. Fillon received a baccalauréat in 1972, he studied at the University of Maine in Le Mans where he received a master's degree in public law in 1976. He subsequently received a master of Advanced Studies in public law from Paris Descartes University. Governmental functionsMinister of Higher Education and Research: 1993–1995. Minister of Information Technologies and Posts: May – November 1995. Minister responsible for Posts, Telecommunications and Space: 1995–1997. Minister of Social Affairs and Solidarity: 2002–2004. Minister of National Education, Higher Education and Research: 2004–2005. Prime minister: 2007–2012. February to May 2012: he assumed the functions of the Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing, after the resignation of Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet who became spokeswoman of Nicolas Sarkozy's presidential campaign. Electoral mandatesNational Assembly of France President of the Rally-UMP Group in the National Assembly: November 2012 – January 2013.
Member of the National Assembly for Paris: 2012–2017. Member of the National Assembly for Sarthe: 1981–1993. Elected in 1981, reelected in 1986, 1988, 1993, 1997, 2002, 2007. Senate of France Senator of the Sarthe: 2005–2007. Elected in 2004, remained as Minister. Reelected in 2005. Regional Council President of the Regional Council of Pays-de-la-Loire: 1998–2002. Vice-president of the Regional Council of Pays-de-la-Loire: 2002–2004. Regional councillor of Pays-de-la-Loire: 1998–2007. Reelected in 2004. Elected in Sarthe constituency. General Council President of the General Council of Sarthe: 1992–1998. Reelected in 1994. Vice President of the General Council of Sarthe: 1985–1992. General councillor of the Sarthe, elected in the canton of Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 1981–1998. Reelected in 1985, 1992. Municipal Council Mayor of Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 1983–2001. Reelected in 1989, 1995. Municipal councillor of Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 1983–2001. Reelected in 1989, 1995. Municipal councillor of Solesmes: 2001–2014. Reelected in 2008.
Community of communes Council President of the Communauté de communes of Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 2001–2012. Reelected in 2008. Member of the Communauté de communes of Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 2001–2014. Reelected in 2008; the day after Nicolas Sarkozy became President he appointed Fillon as Prime Minister of France, charging him with the task of forming a new cabinet, announced on 18 May 2007. By appointing as Secretary of State André Santini, indicted in the Fondation Hamon affair on charges of corruption, Fillon made the first break since 1992 with the so-called "Balladur jurisprudence", according to which an indicted governmental personality should resign until the case is closed. On 13 November 2010, Fillon resigned. One day Sarkozy reappointed Fillon as Prime Minister, allowing Fillon to formally name a new cabinet. Following the defeat of Nicolas Sarkozy to François Hollande in the 2012 presidential election, Fillon resigned on 10 May. Following the inauguration of Hollande as President on 15 May 2012, Jean-Marc Ayrault, Mayor of Nantes, was appointed to succeed Fillon as Prime Minister.
Aiming at building consensus within the diverging views at the UMP after Francois Hollande's victory in the French presidential