Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Nicolas Minassian is a French professional racing driver of Armenian descent. After finishing 2nd place in the 1993 Formula Renault Eurocup, Marseille-born Minassian graduated to the French Formula Three Championship where he finished runner-up to countryman Laurent Redon at his second attempt in 1995, he moved to the British series for another two years in a successful partnership with Promatecme and Renault UK that yielded a 4th place in 1996 and 2nd place the following year. He graduated to Formula 3000 with West Competition for 1998, but failed to impress whilst his teammate Nick Heidfeld mounted a strong challenge for overall honours; the following year, he moved to Kid Jensen Racing where he enjoyed more success, including an emphatic lights-to-flag triumph at Silverstone. He signed for the illustrious Super Nova Racing team in 2000 where he came a strong 2nd in the championship. Unable to secure a Formula One drive, Minassian drove in 2001 for Target Chip Ganassi Racing with F3000 title adversary Bruno Junqueira in CART and competed in the Indianapolis 500 before being released by the team.
In 2002 Minassian won the ASCAR oval racing series for RML before returning to endurance racing including the 24 Hours of Le Mans for such teams as Creation Autosportif and Pescarolo Sport. In 2007 he became a factory driver for the Peugeot 908 HDi FAP diesel Le Mans prototype in the European Le Mans Series. In 2008 he drove the Peugeot 908 diesel Le Mans prototype in the European Le Mans Series, he competed in the 24 Hours of Le Mans with the Peugeot 908. + Not Eligible for points Bathurst 1000 results Official Website
2009 Le Mans Series
The 2009 Le Mans Series season was the sixth season of Automobile Club de l'Ouest's Le Mans Series. It was contested over five events between 5 April and 13 September 2009. Aston Martin Racing trio Jan Charouz, Tomáš Enge and Stefan Mücke finished every race on the podium en route to the LMP1 championship. In LMP2, the pro-amateur pairing of Olivier Pla and Miguel Amaral won the title, with two class wins. Yann Clairay and Patrice Goueslard shared the honours in GT1, driving for former skier Luc Alphand's team. In the tightest battle out of the classes, Marc Lieb and Richard Lietz took GT2 honours by a single point ahead of JMW Motorsport pairing Rob Bell and Gianmaria Bruni. On 10 October 2008, the Automobile Club de l'Ouest announced a preliminary 2009 schedule consisting of five rounds; the 1000 km of Algarve in Portugal notionally replaced the 1000 km of Monza, while the rest of the events from 2008 remain. In a first for the Le Mans series, the Algarve ran at night. A second testing event was added to the schedule consisting of two days in April at the Bugatti Circuit in Le Mans, France.
Points were awarded to the top 8 finishers in the order of 10-8-6-5-4-3-2-1. One bonus point was awarded for winning pole position. Cars which failed to complete 70% of the winner's distance were not awarded points. Drivers who did not drive for at least 45 minutes did not receive points. Entries which changed an engine prior to the two race minimum were penalized two points, with a four-point penalty for every subsequent engine change; the top two finishers in each teams championship earned automatic entry to the 2010 24 Hours of Le Mans. Le Mans Series
José Pedro Mourão Lamy Viçoso, OIH, known as Pedro Lamy is a Portuguese professional racing driver racing in endurance races teaming up with Mathias Lauda and gentleman driver Paul Dalla Lana. He was the first Portuguese driver to score a point in a Formula One World Championship event, in the 1995 Australian Grand Prix, for Minardi. Born in Aldeia Galega, Portugal, Lamy graduated from karting and won the Portuguese Formula Ford Championship in his debut year, in 1989, at the age of 17. Taking on Domingos Piedade as a manager, Lamy moved to Formula Opel Lotus and won the championship in his second attempt, in 1991. With Piedade's help, Lamy went to Germany to race in the local Formula Three series. Signing for Willi Weber's team, he defeated Marco Werner in the fight for the Championship, in 1992 winning the Marlboro Masters in Zandvoort and finishing second in the Macau Grand Prix. In 1993 he raced for Crypton Engineering in Formula 3000 and finished second in the series, one point behind champion Olivier Panis, although he scored a win at Pau, a narrow street course considered more difficult than Monaco.
In 1993, Lamy got the chance to race in the final four Formula One races of the season, replacing injured Alessandro Zanardi in the Lotus team. He was signed for the team to drive the full 1994 season. Lamy drove the first four races, before suffering a serious crash in private testing at Silverstone, breaking both legs and wrists and sitting in the sidelines for over a year. After intense physical therapy, Lamy signed a contract to race in the second half of the 1995 season for Minardi, replacing Pierluigi Martini, scoring the team's only point of the season in Adelaide, despite a spectacular spin and struggling to get going again halfway through the race. Lamy stayed with Minardi for 1996, but the team's lack of resources meant the car received little development, the Portuguese driver finished his F1 career, after 32 Grand Prix starts. Afterwards, Lamy moved to the FIA GT Championship, where he won the GT2 class in 1998 in an Oreca Chrysler Viper GTS-R, he raced in the Le Mans 24 Hours and the DTM for the works Mercedes team, but was unhappy with his treatment within the team.
Switching to the Zakspeed outfit, he won the 24 Hours Nürburgring twice in a row, taking the V8Star Series crown as well, in 2003. In 2004 he drove for BMW Motorsport in a few selected events including the 24 Hours Nürburgring that he won again, he won the GTS class in the Le Mans Endurance Series in a Larbre Compétition Ferrari 550 Maranello. For 2005, Lamy was an Aston Martin works driver for the Sebring 12 Hours and Le Mans racing for BMW at the 24 Hours Nürburgring where he won again, for the Larbre team in the FIA GT Championship. In 2005, Lamy was announced as the driver of A1 Team Portugal in the 2005 A1 Grand Prix. However, Lamy never went beyond testing, Álvaro Parente was appointed the main driver's seat. Instead, Lamy remained with the Aston Martin Racing squad, taking part in the American Le Mans Series and 24 Hours of Le Mans. In 2007, Lamy became a factory driver for the Peugeot 908 HDi FAP in the Le Mans Series, as well as driving the diesel-powered prototype in the 24 Hours of Le Mans.
Lamy became LMP1 champion in the LMS in the first season. In 2010, driving for BMW Motorsport, he won the 24 Hours Nürburgring for the fifth time, to tie with Marcel Tiemann for the most wins at the race; as of present time he is still official driver for the Peugeot 908 HDi FAP in the Le Mans Series and the 24 Hours of Le Mans. In 2012, Lamy participated in the FIA World Endurance Championship, driving a Larbre Competition Corvette C6. R in GTE-Am. † Driver was classified as he completed over 90 % of the race distance. † Not eligible for points Notes^1 – Lamy competed for the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, no points awarded for the Le Mans Series. † Rank indicates standings in Drivers' World Championship. * Season still in progress. * Season still in progress. Pedro Lamy official website
Judd is a name brand of engines produced by Engine Developments Ltd. a company founded in 1971 by John Judd and Jack Brabham in Rugby, England. Engine Developments was intended to build engines for Brabham's racing efforts, became one of the first firms authorised by Cosworth to maintain and rebuild its DFV engines, but has since expanded into various areas of motorsport. Judd has provided engines for many major series, including Formula One and other smaller formula series, sports car racing, touring car racing, they have been associated with manufacturers such as Yamaha, MG, Honda, although they have been a privateer-engine supplier. As a result of Jack Brabham's long standing relationship with Honda, Judd was hired by them to develop an engine for the company's return to Formula Two in association with Ron Tauranac's Ralt team. After the demise of Formula Two at the end of the 1984 season, Judd continued to develop new engines for Honda; the first was a turbocharged V8 engine built for Honda's CART campaign.
It was first used on the CART circuit midway through the 1986 season, fielded by Galles Racing and driver Geoff Brabham. It was badged as the Brabham-Honda, scored a fourth-place finish at the 1986 Michigan 500. In 1987, the engine was used for the first time at the Indianapolis 500. Brabham scored second-place finishes in 1987 at Pocono and Road America, as well as a third at the season finale at Miami; the engine became known for its superior fuel mileage. However, it was at a decided power disadvantage compared to the top engine of the time, the Ilmor Chevrolet. In 1988, Truesports with driver Bobby Rahal took over as the primary team, the "Honda" name was dropped from the powerplant. During the 1988 season, Rahal took advantage of the engine's reliability in the 500-mile races, finishing fourth at Indy and second at the Michigan 500, he scored the first and only Indycar victory for the Judd engine, at the Pocono 500. His ten top-10 finishes led to a third-place finish in the season points standings.
Judd continued to build upgrades to the AV into the early 1990s after Honda had stopped badging the engines. When Honda moved into the new Formula 3000 series, Judd again developed the company's engine. Based on the architecture of the AV, the new BV V8 was a aspirated variant, would form the basis for the Judd CV Formula One engine. After the company's departure from Formula One, Judd returned to Formula 3000 in 1995 with the development of the 3-litre KV V8 engine. Judd built the engines that every Formula 3000 team used, although Zytek was tasked with maintaining the over 80 engines after they were built. Judd stopped production of the KV and the Formula 3000 series ended in 2004. In 1988, in conjunction with March Engineering, Judd made the move into the reintroduced aspirated variant of Formula One, which would replace turbocharged cars in 1989. By using the existing BV V8 as the starting point for their new F1 engine, Judd saved cost while at the same time producing a customer engine that could compete on track and in the marketplace with the Ford-Cosworth V8s that were standard equipment for the teams competing to the new rules.
The first Formula One engine developed by Judd, the CV, was built to the 3.5 litre engine formula for aspirated engines. The engine was expanded to 3.5 litres. March Engineering were the first team who signed to use the Judd CV. Reigning World Constructors' champion Williams was forced to turn to Judd, after they lost their supply of Honda engines for 1988. In addition, Ligier bought CVs for use in the 1988 season. Judd powered cars finished in podium positions four times during their debut season, with Williams' lead driver, Nigel Mansell, scoring Judd's first podium when he finished second at the 1988 British Grand Prix. During the 1988 season the 600 bhp Judd V8 was the fastest of the non-turbo engines, the Marches of Ivan Capelli and Maurício Gugelmin recorded higher speeds through the speed trap than the Cosworth DFR- and DFZ-powered cars with Gugelmin recording the fastest'atmo' speed trap of the season when he hit 312 km/h during qualifying for the German Grand Prix at Hockenheim. At the 1988 Japanese Grand Prix Capelli's Judd powered March 881 became the first aspirated car to lead a lap of a Grand Prix since 1983, when he passed the McLaren of two time World Drivers' champion Alain Prost for the lead on lap 16 of the 51 lap race.
For the 1989 season, Judd developed the all-new narrow-angle Judd EV, with a more compact, 76 degree, vee angle, rather than the more conventional 90 degrees of the Judd AV/BV/CV, the Cosworth DFV series. Construction of the CV continued as a cheaper alternative for smaller teams, however. Team Lotus and EuroBrun were the only CV customers, with Lotus finishing sixth in the Constructors' Championship. EuroBrun was the only team to continue with the CV unit into 1990, but Life bought CV units to replace their failed in-house W12 engine design; the previous Judd CV was designed with a conventional 90-degree engine block. Following the 1988 season it was decided that a narrower vee-angle would be adopted to give a more compact engine.
Total S. A. is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company founded in 1924 and one of the seven "Supermajor" oil companies in the world. Its businesses cover the entire oil and gas chain, from crude oil and natural gas exploration and production to power generation, refining, petroleum product marketing, international crude oil and product trading. Total is a large scale chemicals manufacturer. Total has its head office in the Tour Total in La Défense district in west of Paris; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. The company was founded after World War I, when French President Raymond Poincaré rejected the idea of forming a partnership with Royal Dutch Shell in favour of creating an French oil company. At Poincaré's behest, Col. Ernest Mercier with the support of ninety banks and companies founded Total on 28 March 1924, as the Compagnie française des pétroles the "French Petroleum Company". Petroleum was seen as vital in the case of a new war with Germany.
As per the agreement reached during the San Remo conference of 1920, the French state received the 25% share held by Deutsche Bank in the Turkish Petroleum Company as part of the compensation for war damages caused by Germany during World War I. The French government's stake in TPC was transferred to CFP, the Red Line agreement in 1928 rearranged the shareholding of CFP in TPC to 23.75%. The company from the start was regarded as a private sector company in view of its listing on the Paris Stock Exchange in 1929; the company during the 1930s was engaged in exploration and production from the Middle East. Its first refinery began operating in Normandy in 1933. After World War II, CFP engaged in oil exploration in Venezuela and Africa while pursuing energy sources within France. Exploration in Algeria a French colony, began in 1946, with Algeria becoming a leading source of oil in the 1950s. In 1954, CFP introduced its downstream product – Total brand of gasoline in the African continent and Europe.
In 1980, Total Petroleum Ltd. a company controlled 50% by CFP, bought the American refining and marketing assets of Vickers Petroleum as part of a sell-off by Esmark of its energy holdings. This purchase gave Total refining capacity, a network of 350 service stations in 20 states; the company renamed to build on the popularity of its gasoline brand. In 1991, the name was changed to Total, when it became a public company listed on the New York Stock Exchange; the French government, who used to control more than 30 percent of the company's stock in 1991, reduced its stake in the firm to less than 1 percent by 1996. In the time period between 1990 and 1994, foreign ownership of the firm increased from 23 per cent to 44 per cent. Meanwhile, Total continued to expand its retail presence in North America under several brand names. In 1989, Colorado, based Total Petroleum, Total CFP's North American unit, purchased 125 Road Runner retail locations from Texarkana, Texas-based Truman Arnold Companies.
By 1993, Total Petroleum was operating 2,600 retail stores under the Vickers, Road Runner, Total brands. That year, the company began remodeling and rebranding all of its North American gasoline and convenience stores to use the Total name. Only four years Total sold its North American refining and retail operations to Ultramar Diamond Shamrock for $400 million in stock and $414 million in assumed debt. After Total's takeover of Petrofina of Belgium in 1999, it became known as Total Fina. Afterwards it acquired Elf Aquitaine. First named TotalFinaElf after the merger in 2000, it was renamed back to Total on 6 May 2003. During that rebranding, the current globe logo was unveiled. In 2003, Total signed for a 30% stake in the gas exploration venture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – South Rub' al-Khali joint venture along with Royal Dutch Shell and Saudi Aramco; the stake was bought out by its partners. In May 2006, Saudi Aramco and TOTAL signed a MOU to develop the Jubail Refinery and Petrochemical project in Saudi Arabia which targeted 400,000 barrels per day.
On 21 September 2008, the two companies established a joint venture called SAUDI ARAMCO TOTAL Refining and Petrochemical Company - in which a 62.5% stake was held by Saudi Aramco and the balance 37.5% held by TOTAL. During the 2009-2010 Iraqi oil services contracts tender, a consortium led by CNPC, which included TOTAL and Petronas was awarded a production contract for the "Halfaya field" in the south of Iraq, which contains an estimated 4.1 billion barrels of oil. As of 2010, Total operated in more than 130 countries. In September 2010, Total announced plans to pull out of the forecourt market in the United Kingdom. In November 2012, Total announced it was selling its 20% stake and operating mandate in its Nigerian offshore project to a unit of China Petrochemical Corp for $2.5 billion. In 2013, Total started the operation at Kashagan with North Caspian Operating Company, it is the biggest discovery of oil reserves since 1968. In 2013, Total increased its stake in Novatek to 16.96%. In September 2013, Total and its joint venture partner agreed to buy Chevron Corporation’s retail distribution business in Pakistan for an undisclosed amount.
In January 2014, Total became the first major oil and gas firm to acquire exploration rights for shale gas in the UK after it bought a 40 percent interest in two licences in the Gainsborough Trough area of northern England for $48 million. In July 2014, the company disclosed it was in exclusive talks to sell its LP
Gibson Technology is an automotive and motorsport company based at Repton, England. It was founded by Bill Gibson as'Zytek Engineering' in 1981. In 1981 Gibson founded'Zytech Group' with two main divisions: Zytek Automotive, based at Fradley, Staffordshire. In 2014, Zytek Automotive was sold to German engineering company Continental AG, whereas Zytek Engineering remained under Gibson's leadership and was renamed Gibson Technology. Zytek Automotive is a specialist powertrain and vehicle engineering enterprise, part of Continental AG, a German engineering company, since 2014, it designs and integrates electric motors into a range of cars and commercial vehicles. The current family of electric motors ranges up to 170 kW; the UK facility can accommodate up to 6,000 E-Drive integrations a year in batches as low as 100. Zytek has designed electric engines for the initial 100 smart fortwos, which took part in a market trial by selected British customers as lease vehicles from 2007 to 2009; the 70 kW integrated drivetrain installed in the Modec electric vehicle is designed and manufactured in house by Zytek, as well as the drivetrain in the E Vito Taxi.
Gordon Murray Design and Zytek Automotive developed an all-electric three-seater city car, the T.27, made possible through a GB£4.5 million investment from the government-backed Technology Strategy Board. With a total cost of £9m, the research and development project allowed the consortium to develop a prototype, unveiled at the Royal Automobile Club in June 2011; the T.27 road debut was held in November 2011 at the RAC Future Car Challenge. Gordon Murray Design is negotiating with three possible manufacturers for production of the T.27. Zytek Motorsport is the brand name used for the Zytek Groups motorsport product range and applications. In 1987, Zytek bought the British Alan Smith Racing outfit in order to expand its motorsports involvement; the team supported the Jordan Grand Prix team in Formula 3000 before the team chose to concentrate on engine development. Zytek would return to running a motorsports team in 2004 when the company entered the Le Mans Endurance Series with their first sports car, the Zytek 04S, able to finish second in the team championship in 2005 due to two overall victories.
Zytek Engineering continues to campaign in the Le Mans Series as well as in the American Le Mans Series and 24 Hours of Le Mans. In 2002, Zytek bought some of the remains of the defunct Reynard Motorsport from International Racing Management; these assets included the rights to the Reynard 02S Le Mans Prototype, of which only one had been completed since the company's demise. Zytek supplied an engine to the existing chassis, would therefore built further copies under the name Zytek 04S, offering both the chassis and engine as a complete package. Due to changes in the prototype regulations in 2006, Zytek upgraded one of their existing 04S chassis while building a third all-new car, named the 06S. Further regulation changes in 2007 required the team to build an new car, the Zytek-07s, which campaigned in both the LMP1 and LMP2 classes of the Le Mans Series. Zytek's GZ09S proved an immediate success in 2009, taking the LMP2 Le Mans Series Team Championship with Quifel-ASM and the Driver's Championship with Miguel Amaral and Olivier Pla.
In 2009 Zytek Engineering became the first manufacturer to score a podium with a hybrid LMP. The car, run by Corsa Motorsports, finished on the podium on its debut at Lime Rock; the Zytek Q10 Hybrid is a non-invasive parallel hybrid system, consisting of a motor-generator and inverter. Its purpose is to recover energy wasted during deceleration and subsequently use this energy to assist the internal combustion engine during acceleration; the Z11SN has won the LMP2 category of the 24 Hours of Le Mans in both 2011 and 2014, the Le Mans Series in 2011, in the hands of Greaves Motorsport and Team Jota. In 2017 the rebranded company became the supplier of a 4.2-litre, normally-aspirated V8 engine, producing 600 hp, for the LMP2 Class for the European Le Mans Series, FIA World Endurance Championship and WeatherTech SportsCar Championship. Two of the many LMP2 cars powered by Gibson engines finished on the overall podium, one had led the race overall for some time until a recovering factory Porsche reclaimed the lead.
In 2018, Gibson's new LMP1 engine, the 4.5 litre aspirated GL458, was installed into Rebellion Racing's pair of Rebellion R13s and DragonSpeeds BR Engineering BR1. The engine brought Rebellion's R13s to a 3-4 finish behind the Toyota TS050 Hybrids. In February of 2019, ByKolles Racing announced that they would be switching to the Gibson GL458, dropping the Nissan Nismo VRX30A 3.0 litre twin-turbo V6, for their CLM P1/01. Gordon Murray Zytek Automotive Gibson Technology