New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
1999 Rugby World Cup
The 1999 Rugby World Cup was the fourth Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial international rugby union championship. It was principally hosted by Wales, was won by Australia; this was the first Rugby World Cup. Although the majority of matches were played outside Wales the opening ceremony, the first match and the final were held in Cardiff. Four automatic qualification places were available for the 1999 tournament. Qualification for the final 16 places took place between 63 other nations; the tournament was expanded to 20 teams, divided into five pools of four teams, a scenario that necessitated a quarter-final play-off round involving the five runners-up and best third-placed team to decide who would join the pool winners in the last eight. The 1999 tournament saw the introduction of a repechage a second chance for teams that had finished runners-up in each qualifying zone. Uruguay and Tonga were the first nations to profit from the repechage, took their places alongside fellow qualifiers Australia, Ireland, Italy, Fiji, Romania, Namibia, Japan and the United States.
The tournament began with the opening ceremony in the newly-built Millennium Stadium, with Wales beating Argentina 23–18, Colin Charvis scoring the first try of the tournament. Australia won the tournament, becoming the first nation to do so twice and to date the only team to win after having to qualify for the tournament, with a 35–12 triumph over France, who were unable to repeat their semi-final victory over pre-tournament favourites New Zealand; the overall attendance for the tournament was 1.75 million. The following 20 teams, shown by region, qualified for the 1999 Rugby World Cup. Of the 20 teams, only four of those places were automatically allocated and did not have to play any qualification matches; these went to the champions, runners-up and the third-placed nations at the 1995 and the tournament host, Wales. A record 65 nations from five continents were therefore involved in the qualification process designed to fill the remaining 16 spots. Wales won the right to host the World Cup in 1999.
The centrepiece venue for the tournament was the Millennium Stadium, built on the site of the old National Stadium at Cardiff Arms Park at a cost of £126 million from Lottery money and private investment. Other venues in Wales were the Racecourse Stradey Park. An agreement was reached so that the other unions in the Five Nations Championship hosted matches. Venues in England included Twickenham and Welford Road, rugby union venues, as well as Ashton Gate in Bristol and the McAlpine Stadium in Huddersfield, which host football. Scottish venues included the home of the Scottish Rugby Union. Venues in Ireland included Lansdowne Road, the traditional home of the Irish Rugby Football Union and Thomond Park. France used five venues, the most of any nation, including the French national stadium, Stade de France, which hosted the final of both the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the 2007 Rugby World Cup. With the expansion of the Rugby World Cup from 16 to 20 teams an unusual and complex format was used with the teams split into five pools of four teams with each team playing each other in their pool once.
Pool A was played in Scotland Pool B was played in England Pool C was played in France Pool D was played in the principal host nation Wales Pool E was played in Ireland with matches played in both the Republic of Ireland & Northern IrelandPoints system The points system, used in the pool stage was unchanged from both 1991 and 1995: 3 points for a win 2 points for a draw 1 point for playingThe five pool winners qualified automatically to the quarter-finals. The five pool runners-up and the best third-placed side qualified for the quarter-final play-offs. Knock-out stage The five pool runners-up and the best third-placed team from the pool stage contested the quarter-final play-offs in three one-off matches that decided the remaining three places in the quarter-finals, with the losers being eliminated; the unusual format meant. From the quarter-final stage it became a simple knockout tournament; the semi-final losers played off for third place. The draw and format for the knock-out stage was set.
Quarter-final play-offs draw Match H: Pool B runner-up v Pool C runner-up Match G: Pool A runner-up v Pool D runner-up Match F: Pool E runner-up v Best third-placed teamQuarter-finals draw Match M: Pool D winners v Pool E winners Match J: Pool A winners v Play-off H winners Match L: Pool C winners v Play-off F winners Match K: Pool B winners v Play-off G winnersSemi-finals draw Match J winners v Match M winners Match L winners v Match K winnersA total of 41 matches were played throughout the tournament over 35 days from 1 October 1999 to 6 November 1999. The tournament began on 1 October 1999 in the newly built Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, with Wales beating Argentina in a hard fought game 23–18 to get their campaign off to a positive start; the Pool stage of the tournament played out as was expected with the Tri Nations teams of New Zealand, South Africa and Austra
Uruguay national rugby union team
The Uruguay national rugby union team, nicknamed Los Teros, is governed by the Unión de Rugby del Uruguay. One of the older test sides in the world, Uruguay has qualified three times for the Rugby World Cup, in 1999, 2003 and most 2015; as of March 2018 they are ranked 18th in the world, are ranked 3rd in the Americas region, behind rivals Argentina and the United States. Uruguay has been one of the better fringe international sides in rugby union, having beaten Tier 2/3 competition from across the globe. Uruguay won the South American Rugby Championship in 1981, the only time that a team other than Argentina won the tournament, they came second on 19 occasions and third the remaining 9. As of 2012, Uruguay has been classified as a Tier 2 nation, which allows them to receive more funding from World Rugby, their home stadium holds up to 14,000 people. Estadio Domingo Burgueño has been used for some fixtures in the Americas Rugby Championship. Rugby union has been played on Uruguayan soil as as early as the 19th century, with reports of rugby football being played as early as 1865, though the origins of rugby in Uruguay remain controversial.
Regardless of whom played the first rugby match in Uruguay, it is clear that rugby was introduced in Uruguay by British immigrants in the 19th century, with the game being more popularized by the Congregation of Christian Brothers, who were of Irish origin. Because of this, Uruguay has one of the oldest rugby cultures outside the British Isles, one of the most established in the South America. Uruguay made their official international debut in 1948, in a game against Chile, which Uruguay lost 21–3. Following their debut match, they return to competition in the Pan American Games, first against the more experienced Argentina, resulting in a 0–62 loss. Uruguay faced Chile for the second time, defeating them by 8–3; the final match of the competition was a 17–10 win over Brazil. Uruguay thus became runners up in the first unofficial South American Rugby Championship. Uruguay, after a four years hiatus, played Chile in 1956, who defeated them by 6–3. In 1958, they played for the first official South American Rugby Championship, in a pool of three countries.
They first played Chile, this time losing by 9–34. The "Teros" met again Argentina, having another loss, this time by 3–50. Uruguay managed to defeat Peru in the last game. In 1960, Uruguay faced for the first time one of the powers of the Northern Hemisphere rugby, France XV, losing by 0–59 in Montevideo during a South American tour. Uruguay after this match entered their second South American Rugby Championship, they first won Brazil in a close game, losing to Chile and Argentina, in the closest result to between both countries. The 1970s started off with a win over Paraguay in 1971, followed by a win and loss against Chile and a win against Brazil, they played Argentina twice in the 1970s. However, they won all their matches except for those against Argentina, as well as losing one game against Chile and drawing another. However, the next game against Argentina, two years in 1979, Uruguay came close to defeating the Pumas, going down by just three points, the final score being 19 to 16; the 1980s started off with a 54 to 14 win over Paraguay, which resulted in a winning streak, stopped by Argentina in 1983.
In 1985, France visited Montevideo for a second time to play the Teros, beating the locals 34–6. Another short undefeated streak occurred over 1987/1989, broken by a 19 to 17 loss against Chile; this was followed by a sound loss to loss to a new opponent, the United States Eagles. The 1990s started off with wins against of Chile and Paraguay; this was followed by more wins over their traditional opponents, though Uruguay still lost to Argentina, they played Canada in a competitive 28–9 loss in 1995. Uruguay played some of the bigger nations such as Argentina and the United States, although the Canada and U. S. games were a lot closer than some of their previous encounters. A huge success for them was qualifying for the 1999 Rugby World Cup in Wales, they won their pool fixture against Spain, Uruguay finished third in their pool. Uruguay came within 10 points of Argentina in 2001, played nations such as Italy in the same year. Uruguay won most of their matches against their traditional Americas opponents in the early 2000s.
In 2002, Uruguay defeated Canada, winning 25–23. They followed this up with a 10–9 win over the United States, they again qualified for the 2003 World Cup. They won their pool fixture against Georgia 24–12. Uruguay's qualification for the 2007 World Cup started in Americas Round 3a, where they were grouped with Argentina and Chile. After losing their first match 26–0 to Argentina, they defeated Chile 43–15 in Montevideo, which saw them enter Round 4. In round 4 they faced the United States, Uruguay lost on aggregate, moved onto the repechage round as Americas 4. Uruguay played Portugal in the repechage over two legs — losing the first in Lisbon and winning the second in Montevideo — but lost on aggregate points and failed to qualify. Uruguay lost the 2011 Rugby World Cup qualification. Uruguay had won the 2009 South American Rugby Championship "A" by defeating Brazil and Chile at the Estadio Charrúa. Uruguay lost to the United States 22–27 and 6–27. In the repechage, Uruguay defeated Kazakhstan 44–7, but in the battle for the 20th and final spot at the 2011 Rugby World Cup, Uruguay tied Romania at home 21–21 and lost 12–32 in Bucharest.
During the 2015 Rugby World Cup qualifying, Uruguay won the 2013 South American Rugby Championship "A", getting wins at the Estadio Charrúa against Brazil and Chile. In March 2014, Urugua
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
2011 Rugby World Cup qualifying
2011 Rugby World Cup qualifying began at the 2007 tournament in France, where twelve teams earned a place in the finals of the tournament, this automatically qualified them for the 2011 Rugby World Cup in New Zealand. After much speculation, it was confirmed on 30 November 2007 that 20 teams would contest the next edition of the tournament; the qualification system for the remaining eight places was region-based, with Europe and the Americas allocated two qualifying places, Africa and Oceania one place each, the last place determined by a playoff. With 79 teams participating in regional qualifying competitions, 12 teams qualifying automatically, 91 nations were involved in the process. Africa Namibia South Africa Americas Argentina Canada United States Asia Japan Europe England France Georgia Ireland Italy Russia Romania Scotland Wales Oceania Australia New Zealand Fiji Tonga Samoa Eight nations qualified from regional competitions: seven qualified directly through their region, the eighth from a four-nation repechage play-off for the final spot.
The twentieth place at the 2011 tournament was determined by a repechage play-off which involved the third-place teams from the American and European qualifying tournaments. On a home and away basis, Romania prevailed by winning 32–12 in Bucharest, preceded by a 21–21 draw in Montevideo, it competed in Pool B. Both nations had won the repechage semi-finals; those were conducted as single matches, with the European and African qualifiers drawn into one semi-final and the Asian and Americas qualifiers drawn into the other. Romania beat Tunisia 56–13 and Uruguay had the upper hand over Kazakhstan winning 44–7. Both matches were hosted by the team with the higher IRB World Ranking when the two teams to play became known. RWC 2011 qualifying overview. IRB.com 2011 Rugby World Cup Qualifier, Repechage – Bucharest, 27 November 2010. ESPN 2011 Rugby World Cup Qualifier, Repechage – Montevideo, 13 November 2010. ESPN
1987 Rugby World Cup
The 1987 Rugby World Cup was the first Rugby World Cup. New Zealand and Australia agreed to co-host the tournament. New Zealand hosted 20 matches – 17 pool stage matches, two quarter-finals and the final – while Australia hosted 12 matches – seven pool matches, two quarter-finals and both semi-finals; the event was won by co-hosts New Zealand, who were the strong favourites and won all their matches comfortably. France were losing finalists, Wales surprise third-place winners: Australia, having been second favourites, finished fourth after conceding crucial tries in the dying seconds of both the semi-final against France and the third-place play-off against Wales. Sixteen teams competed in the inaugural tournament. Seven of the 16 places were automatically filled by the International Rugby Football Board members – New Zealand, England, Ireland and France. South Africa was unable to compete because of the international sporting boycott due to apartheid. There was no qualification process to fill the remaining nine spots.
Instead invitations were sent out to Argentina, Italy, Romania, Japan and the United States. This left Western Samoa controversially excluded, despite their better playing standard than some of the teams invited; the USSR were to be invited but they refused the invitation on political grounds due to the continued IRFB membership of South Africa. The tournament witnessed a number of one-sided matches, with the seven traditional IRFB members proving too strong for the other teams. Half of the 24 matches across the four pools saw. New Zealand defeated France 29–9 in the final at Eden Park in Auckland; the New Zealand team was captained by David Kirk, included such rugby greats as Sean Fitzpatrick, John Kirwan, Grant Fox and Michael Jones. The tournament was proved that the event was here to stay, it led to many countries joining the International Rugby Football Board which in turn led the IRFB to become the true authority for the running of international rugby union. There was no qualification for the inaugural World Cup so the tournament comprised the seven members of the IRFB, with the remaining nine places filled by teams invited by the IRFB.
South Africa was excluded due to its pro-apartheid policies. Soviet Union were to be declined. Western Samoa was not invited despite having a better record than some of the other invited nations. Pool 1 was played in Australia Pool 2 was played with five matches held in New Zealand and one in Australia Pool 3 was played in New Zealand Pool 4 was played in New ZealandThe inaugural World Cup was contested by 16 different nations. There was no qualifying tournament to determine the participants, instead the 16 nations were invited by the International Rugby Football Board to compete; the simple 16 team pool/knock-out format was used with the sixteen nations divided into four pools of four nations, with each nation playing their other pool opponents once, every nation playing three times during the pool stages. Nations were awarded 2 points for a win, 1 for a draw and zero for a loss: teams finishing level on points were separated by tries scored, rather than total points difference The top two nations of every pool advanced to the quarter finals.
The runners-up of each pool faced the winners of a different pool in the quarter finals. The winners moved on to the semi finals, with the winners moving onto the final, the losers of the semi finals contesting a third/fourth place play off. Points system The points system, used in the pool stage was: 2 points for a win 1 point for a draw 0 points for a lossA total of 32 matches were played in the tournament over 29 days from 22 May 1987 to 20 June 1987; the event was broadcast in Australia by ABC and in the United Kingdom by the BBC
2015 Rugby World Cup
The 2015 Rugby World Cup was the eighth Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial rugby union world championship. The tournament was hosted by England from 18 September to 31 October. Of the 20 countries competing in the World Cup in 2011, there was only one change: Uruguay replaced Russia; this was the first World Cup with no new teams to the tournament. Reigning champions New Zealand won the cup and defended their title by defeating Australia in the final 34–17; this was the first Rugby World Cup. New Zealand were the first team to retain their title, the first to win for a third time; the contested match between Japan and South Africa in the opening weekend, which Japan scored the winning try in the added minutes over favoured South Africa, was considered as the "biggest upset" in the history of rugby. As a result, much media attention was drawn right from the beginning of this tournament. Hosts England were eliminated at the pool stage, after defeats by Australia; the International Rugby Board requested that any member unions wishing to host this tournament or the 2019 Rugby World Cup should indicate their interest by 15 August 2008.
This would be purely to indicate interest. A record ten unions indicated formal interest in hosting the 2015 and/or the 2019 events: Australia, Ireland, Jamaica, Russia, South Africa and Wales. Argentina had been reported in early 2008 as having given preliminary consideration to bidding, but did not formally indicate an interest in bidding. Of the 10 nations that had expressed formal interest, many withdrew their candidacy in early 2009. Jamaica was the first to withdraw its candidacy. Russia withdrew in February 2009 to concentrate on bidding for the 2013 Rugby World Cup Sevens and Ireland withdrew in spring 2009 due to financial reasons. Scotland withdrew in April 2009 after they were unable to secure co-hosting partners for the tournament. Wales was the last nation to pull out after they failed to submit a bid by 8 May 2009, but Wales backed England's bid and some games were played at Cardiff's Millennium Stadium; the final nations that bid for the right to host the 2015 Rugby World Cup were England, South Africa and Italy.
Four confirmed. On 28 July 2009, the IRB confirmed that England would host the 2015 Rugby World Cup, Japan would host the 2019 event, having voted 16–10 in favour of approving the recommendation from Rugby World Cup Ltd that England and Japan should be named hosts. RWCL chairman Bernard Lapasset revealed the result on 28 July 2009 at IRB headquarters. In September 2007, The Guardian reported. BBC News reported in February 2009 that the intent was for a solo bid from the RFU, but with the possibility of some matches being played in Scotland, Wales or Ireland, it was hoped that the 2015 World Cup would add to Britain's "Decade of Sport". It was claimed that the bid had a strong chance of success due to the IRB's belief that the 2011 tournament might make a loss, therefore making it important to ensure a profit, considered a strong point of England's proposed bid; the chief executive of the Rugby Football Union, Francis Baron, said that the tournament would target sales of 3 million tickets. England's package was projected to generate £300m for the IRB – £220m in commercial returns from broadcasting and merchandising, the £80m tournament fee.
Italy stated its desire to host, an Italian bid to host the Rugby World Cup in 2015 or 2019 was confirmed on 20 July 2008. Italy declared that it wanted to host "For the Enlargement of the Frontiers of Our Sport", it was a slogan relevant to the then-current landscape of World Cup rugby, given that 2007 was the first time that the Rugby World Cup was hosted by a non-English-speaking country. The Italian bid offered the largest cities and stadiums in the country and promised a fast domestic train system; the Italian Rugby Federation included the importance of the population and the growth of rugby since Italy joined the Six Nations in 2000 as reasons for hosting a World Cup. Rugby had been growing popular in Italy in recent years, with improved crowds at international matches; the Stadio Olimpico in Rome had been proposed as the venue to host the final and the first match of the tournament. Milan and Naples were included as the other large venues; the entire list was a selection of large stadiums spread across the country.
Stade Vélodrome in Marseille, France was included as the tenth proposed venue. The Japan Rugby Football Union submitted its tender to the IRB in May 2009. Japan was seen as a favourite to host after finishing as runner-up in the bidding for the 2011 event. Japan was seen as having a lot to offer rugby's growth in Asia, its population of 127 million, its large economy, its ability to place rugby before a new Asian audience made it a front-runner for hosting rights. Furthermore, rugby in Japan had developed a following, with 126,000 registered players, Japan had more players than some of the Six Nations. Japan's Top League was a showcase for Japanese rugby, there was excitement about Japan's entry into the RWC. Japan's experience in co-hosting the 2002 FIFA World Cup was seen as a boost, with Japan possessing the