Real Oviedo is a Spanish football club based in Oviedo, Asturias. Founded on 26 March 1926 as a result of the merger of two clubs who had maintained a large sporting rivalry for years in the city: Real Stadium Club Ovetense and Real Club Deportivo Oviedo; the club plays in the second tier of the Spanish football league system. The club plays in blue shirts and white shorts in the Estadio Carlos Tartiere, which seats 30,500 spectators, opened on 30 September 2000, is the largest sports stadium in Asturias. In the all-time league table for the Spanish top division, Oviedo rank in 17th place. Founded in 1926 after a merger with Stadium Ovetense and Real Club Deportivo Oviedo, Oviedo first reached La Liga seven years later, their attacking quartet of Emilín, Galé, Herrerita and Isidro Lángara, as well as Casuco and Ricardo Gallart modernised the game with their pace and running off the ball tied with sharp passing and one-touch football, played in a style 30/40 years before its time, being dubbed Delanteras Eléctricas.
Lángara won the Pichichi Trophy three years in a row prior to the Spanish Civil War, as Oviedo broke all scoring records. With the outbreak of the conflict, the team broke up: Lángara emigrated to South America and Emilín signed with FC Barcelona, Galé with Racing de Santander and Gallart with Racing de Ferrol; when football in the country resumed in 1939, Oviedo were relegated to the second division, as their pitch was deemed unplayable – Francisco Franco's troops had used the stadium as an ammunition dump. During the following decades, the club bounced back between the first and second levels, the high point being a best-ever third position in 1962–63, while the lowest was the side's first relegation to Segunda División B, in 1978. With the FIFA World Cup to be held on home soil in 1982, the Carlos Tartiere Stadium was renewed, the first match being held with the Chilean national team. In 1984–85 Oviedo won the soon-to-be-defunct Spanish League Cup, after successively defeating UD Salamanca, Bilbao Athletic, CF Lorca Deportiva, CE Sabadell FC and Atlético Madrileño.
In 1988 Oviedo returned to the top division, after ousting RCD Mallorca in the promotion playoffs, remained in that level for 13 consecutive seasons – in 1990–91 it finished sixth, qualifying once again for Europe, being knocked out in the first round by Genoa C. F. C. of Italy. After that successful year, there were more brilliant seasons and others where relegation was narrowly dodged. In a nutshell, the Carbayones had an outstanding run in La Liga during the 1990s with a team which lined up top international players. In 1992 Real Oviedo as well as most Spanish football clubs were forced to become public limited sports companies; the initial capital stock for Real Oviedo amounted to €3.6 million. In 2000, the new Carlos Tartiere Stadium with 30,500 seats became Real Oviedo’s new ground, it was opened on 20 September 2000 with a match between Real Oviedo and Partizan Belgrade, where Real Oviedo lost 0-2 to the Serbian side. Three days before, Real Oviedo and UD Las Palmas had got a 2-2 draw on the first fixture in the 2000–01 season.
After being relegated two consecutive times, Real Oviedo suffered severe economic troubles, when coupled with a profound lack of institutional support from the city's government, resulted in the team's inability to pay its players. The club was forced to drop all the way to the fourth division of Spanish football, for the 2003–04 season. Oviedo lasted two further campaigns before dropping down a level again. In another playoff against a Mallorca team – this time the reserves, the club returned again to the third division, after a penalty shootout; the financial dire straits continued into the 2012–13 season, when Oviedo called on supporters to buy shares in the club. A few footballers, notably Santi Cazorla, Juan Mata and Adrián who all started their careers there, offered their financial support in an attempt to save the club from bankruptcy – the club had until 17 November to raise €2 million in order to prevent closure. On 17 November 2012 Carlos Slim, the second richest man in the world, invested $2.5 million in the club, therefore gaining a controlling stake.
On 31 May 2015, Oviedo confirmed their return to the Spanish Segunda División after a thirteen-year absence with a 2–1 aggregate victory over Cádiz in the 2015 Segunda División B play-offs. 38 seasons in La Liga 36 seasons in Segunda División 9 seasons in Segunda División B 4 seasons in Tercera División The numbers are established according to the official website: www.realoviedo.es As of 25 February 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate na
Club Deportivo Mirandés is a Spanish football team based in Miranda de Ebro, Province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León. Founded on 3 May 1927 it plays in Segunda División B – Group 2, holding home matches at Estadio Municipal de Anduva. Mirandés' origins can be traced to the beginnings of the 20th century, with clubs such as El Deportivo Mirandés, Sporting Club Mirandés, Deportivo SC and Miranda Unión Club all being its predecessors. Club Deportivo was founded as such on 3 May 1927, playing its first game on 4 June in the Saint John of the Mountain Festival, against Arabarra, winning 1–0 courtesy of a Fidel Angulo goal. From 1944–77 Mirandés competed in Tercera División, with the exception of three seasons spent in the regional leagues. In 1977–78 it moved to the newly created Segunda División B, lasting five years, twice unsuccessful in the promotion playoffs. On 28 December 1977 the team faced Mario Kempes and Valencia CF at home in the Copa del Rey, losing 2–4. In 1986, Mirandés was one of the founders of the La Rioja Football Federation.
Three years the club won its first major trophy, conquering the fourth level championship under 23-year-old manager Juan Manuel Lillo. The team went on to fluctuate between divisions three and four in the following years, again experiencing the odd visit to the regional levels. Mirandés returned to the third division in the 2008–09 campaign, following two seasons in which the club finished the regular season top of the table only to fall short in the playoffs. In the decisive match, the team won against Jerez Industrial CF 3–2 at home. In 2011–12, Mirandés started the league with a run of 833 minutes without conceding a goal losing its first match in the 18th game. In the season's domestic cup, the club reached the semifinals – becoming only the third third-tier team in history to reach that stage – after disposing of top level sides Villarreal CF, Racing de Santander and RCD Espanyol; the team was promoted for the first time to Segunda División, after defeating CD Atlético Baleares in the playoffs.
At the end of the 2016–17 season, Mirandés was relegated after spending five years in the second division. On 28 March 2019, Mirandés won the season's Copa Federación after beating Cornellà in the final. 5 seasons in Segunda División 15 seasons in Segunda División B 50 seasons in Tercera División As of 28 May 2018Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Segunda División B: 2011–12, 2017–18 Tercera División: 1988–89, 2002–03, 2006–07, 2007–08 Copa Federación de España: 2018–19 Castilla y León Cup: 2011, 2012 Mirandés plays home games at Estadio Municipal de Anduva. Owned by the Miranda de Ebro Town Hall, it was inaugurated on 22 January 1950, has a capacity of 6,000 spectators, with a dimension of 105×69 meters of natural grass. Additionally, it held other sporting events, most notably the under-21 match between Spain and Poland in 2006.
Prior to this stadium, the club played its matches in other settings. During its first year of life, it played at Campo de Kronne, located between the Carretera de Logroño and the Avenida República Argentina; the following year the team moved to another ground and, on 26 May 1928, the first game at Campo de La Estación took place, against Club Ciclista de San Sebastián, with the team remaining there until 1950. Note: this list includes players that have appeared in at least 100 league games and/or have reached international status. Francisco Prieto Randy Oussama Souaidy Iván Agustín Alain Arroyo César Caneda Iñaki Garmendia Pablo Infante Mikel Iribas Mikel Martins Aritz MújikaSee Category:CD Mirandés footballers Juan Manuel Lillo, José Ignacio Soler José María García de Andoin Ismael Urtubi Miguel Ángel Sola Julio Bañuelos Carlos Pouso Gonzalo Arconada Carlos Terrazas CD Mirandés B, reserve team. Club Deportivo Mirandés. From the Spanish-language Wikipedia. Retrieved 20 May 2007. Official website Futbolme team profile BDFutbol team profile Unofficial website
Sociedad Deportiva Compostela was a Spanish football team based in Santiago de Compostela, in the autonomous community of Galicia. Founded on June 26, 1962, they played; the team went banrupt in 2006, but principles had reorganized as SD Compostela to play in 2004. They play in Tercera División– Group 1, holding home matches at Estadio Vero Boquete de San Lázaro. Founded in 1962, Compostela spent the better part of that and the following decades playing regional football, its first promotion to a semi-national stage occurred in 1977, with a promotion to Segunda División B, which lasted just one season. Relegation in 1986 was compounded by off-field controversy surrounding the actions of president Francisco Steppe, he resigned amid allegations of receipt of payments to throw a game against Pontevedra CF, which would assure the opposition's maintenance in the category. The late 1980s saw a significant restructuring of the club both at board and management levels and, in 1990, Compostela regained third-level status.
The following campaign was to prove the club's most successful to date. On 23 June 1991, a capacity crowd of 8,000 at the Estadio Municipal Santa Isabel, saw goals from Juanito and Ochoa clinch a 3–1 victory in the final play-off match against CD Badajoz, for a first-ever Segunda División visit; the move to Estadio Multiusos de San Lázaro coincided with the continuing rise in the team's fortunes and, at the end of 1993–94, following a 3–1 play-off victory against Rayo Vallecano, Compostela reached La Liga. For a small regional club it did remarkably well, reached a best finish of 10th in 1995–96 courtesy of strikers Christopher Ohen and Bent Christensen, whom totalled 23 league goals. After four seasons at the top, Compostela was relegated after losing a relegation play-off match to Villarreal CF on the away goals rule, despite playing overall attractive football; the club was about to start a downward spiral. Off-field problems continued in 2003–04, with the pinnacle being the players, who had not been paid in several months, refusing to appear for a fixture at UB Conquense, with the subsequent loss of three points.
At the season's close, after the actual relegation, Compostela dropped further to the Galician Regional Preferente after failing again to meet the financial deadline. They played there for two seasons, folded after the 2005-06 season. Taken into court, a judge dissolved the institution and auctioned all the club's properties, including the brand name, the trophies and the teams's spot in the league. January 26, 2011, after everything was sold out, the court published the legal liquidation of the entity. Re-Branded in 2004 as SD Campus Stellae, with José Luís Balboa as president, enters competition in the 2005-06 season at the group 11 of the Galicia Terceira Autonómica league, where he finishes in 11th position; the following season, 2006-07, they played in group 12 of the same division, finished third out of 14 teams. In 2006, a former president of the dissolved SD Compostela, José María Caneda, bought the commercial name Sociedad Deportiva Compostela, became president of the SD Campus Stellae, changing the team's name at the beginning of the 2007-08 season to keep the former term.
In the 2007 -- 08 season, the new club returned to Tercera. In the following campaign, after finishing first in its group, the team beat Atlético Monzón with a 4–2 aggregate and won a second consecutive promotion. However, this would be a short-lived return, with relegation befalling at the season's end followed by another one due to overwhelming financial problems. Longtime president José María Caneda left the club. Tercera División: 2008–09, 2017–18 As of 18 September 2015Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: this list includes players that have appeared in at least 100 league games and/or have reached international status. Fernando Castro Santos Compostela play at the Estadio Multiusos de San Lázaro, which has a capacity of 14,000. Pitch dimensions are 105 x 68 metres. Compostela played their first season at Estadio da Residencia da Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, whilst work was completed on their first permanent ground, Estadio Municipal de Santa Isabel.
It was a basic enclosure and lacked a covered stand until 1969, when a tribune was erected and floodlights installed at a cost of 1 million pesetas. Compostela continued to use the ground for first team fixtures until the end of the 1993 season; the reserve team, Compostela B, played on at Santa Isabel until early 2003, when the ground was demolished and replaced with a municipal sports centre that bore the same name. Work started on the Multiusos de San Lázaro in 1991. Situated in the eastern suburb of San Lázaro, it was a multi-purpose arena, used for the football matches of its two resident clubs, Compostela and SD Ciudad de Santiago. Oval in shape and with a terracotta-coloured roof on the west side to incorporate the directors' seating and press facilities on a second tier, the pitch was surrounded by a 400m athletics track uncommon in Spanish stadiums; the inaugural match took place on 24 June 1993, when a four-way tournament was staged
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between multiple divisions based on their performance for the completed season. The best-ranked team in the lower division are promoted to the higher division for the next season, the worst-ranked team in the higher division are relegated to the lower division for the next season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings; this process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, so on. During the season, teams that are high enough in the league table that they would qualify for promotion are sometimes said to be in the promotion zone, those at the bottom are in the relegation zone. An alternate system of league organisation, used in the US and Canada is a closed model based on licensing or franchises; this maintains the same teams from year to year, with occasional admission of expansion teams and relocation of existing teams, with no team movement between the major league and minor leagues.
The number of teams exchanged between the divisions is always identical. Exceptions occur when the higher division wishes to change the size of its membership, or has lost one or more of its clubs and wishes to restore its previous membership size, in which case fewer teams are relegated from that division, or more teams are accepted for promotion from the division below; such variations cause a "knock-on" effect through the lower divisions. For example, in 1995 the Premier League voted to reduce its numbers by two and achieved the desired change by relegating four teams instead of the usual three, whilst allowing only two promotions from Football League Division One. In the absence of such extraordinary circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European sports league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. For example, in a higher league with a large geographical footprint and multiple feeder leagues each representing smaller geographical regions, should most or all of the relegated teams in the higher division come from one particular region the number of teams to be promoted or relegated from each of the feeder leagues may have to be adjusted, or one or more teams playing near the boundary between the feeder leagues may have to transfer from one feeder league to another to maintain numerical balance.
The system is said to be the defining characteristic of the "European" form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions, according to the relative strength of their teams, they maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian team's final games serve little purpose, in fact losing may be beneficial to such teams, yielding a better position in the next year's draft. Although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated; this occurs for one of two reasons: first, the club can't move underperforming players on, or second, the club is gambling on being promoted back straight away and is prepared to take a financial loss for one or two seasons to do so.
Some leagues offer "parachute payments" to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the prize money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. In some countries and at certain levels, teams in line for promotion may have to satisfy certain non-playing conditions in order to be accepted by the higher league, such as financial solvency, stadium capacity, facilities. If these are not satisfied, a lower-ranked team may be promoted in their place, or a team in the league above may be saved from relegation. While the primary purpose of the promotion/relegation system is to maintain competitive balance, it may be used as a disciplinary tool in special cases. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have been involved in match-fixing.
This occurred most in 2006, when the season's initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B, two other teams were relegated but restored to Serie A after appeal. In some Communist nations several in Europe after World War II, clubs were promoted and relegated for political reasons rather than performance; this was made evident in the late eighties by teams such as Romanian Steaua București and Yugoslav Red Star Belgrade, both winners of the European Champions League despite the rampant level of corruption in their Communist local leagues. Promotion and relegation may be used in international sports tournaments. In tennis, the Davis Cup and Fed Cup have promotion and relegation, with a'World Group' (split into two divisions in the Fe
Club Deportivo Toledo, S. A. D. is a Spanish football team based in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. Founded in 1928 it plays in Tercera División – Group 18, holding home games at Estadio Salto del Caballo, with a seating capacity of 5,300 spectators. Home kits consist of white shorts. 7 seasons in Segunda División 14 seasons in Segunda División B 40 seasons in Tercera División As of 1 September 2018Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: this list includes players that have played at least 100 league games and/or have reached international status. Club Deportivo Toledo B is the reserve team of C. D. Toledo, it plays in Tercera División. Official website Futbolme team profile Club & Stadium History at Estadios de España
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia