Superbike World Championship
Superbike World Championship is a motorsport road racing series for modified production motorcycles known as superbike racing. The championship was founded in 1988; the Superbike World Championship consists of a series of rounds held on permanent racing facilities. Each round has two full length races and one ten lap sprint race known as the Superpole race; the results of all three races are combined to determine two annual World Championships, one for riders and one for manufacturers. The motorcycles that race in the championship are tuned versions of motorcycles available for sale to the public, by contrast with MotoGP where purpose built machines are used. MotoGP is the motorcycle world's equivalent of Formula One, whereas Superbike racing is similar to touring car racing. Europe is leading market. However, rounds have been held in the United States, New Zealand, Japan, Russia, Qatar and South Africa and the series plans on keeping extra-European circuits in rotation. An Indonesian race was proposed for the 2008 season, but this was canceled by the FIM.
The championship is regulated by the international governing body of motorcycle racing. As of 2013 the championship is organised by Dorna; the Superbike World Championship began in 1988, being open to modified versions of road bike models available to the public. For many years, the formula allowed for machines with 1,000 cc V-twin engines to go up against the 750 cc four-cylinder engines. For the first few seasons Honda won with the RC30, but the twins got the upper hand. Using 1,000 cc V-twin engines benefited Ducati and it was able to dominate the championship for many years, but the 750 cc was second or third each year between 1994 and 1999. Held under the FIM, the Formula TT from 1977 to 1989 once constituted the official motorcycle World Cup. Having proven itself both popular and commercially viable, it was decided by the end of the 1990 season to end the Formula TT and the Superbike World Championship would succeed it. From 1993 to 1999 Carl Fogarty and Ducati dominated, Fogarty won the title a record four times and finished as runner-up twice on factory Ducatis.
Troy Corser won the 1996 title and finished as runner-up in 1995, both times on a Ducati. Realizing that 1,000 cc V-twin engines suited the superbike racing formula more, Honda introduced its own V-Twin powered motorcycle the VTR1000 SPW in 2000; the result was clear right away as Colin Edwards won the championship in the bike's first year of competition. Ducati regained the title in 2001 with Troy Bayliss. Colin Edwards again reclaimed the title in 2002 on the same VTR1000 SPW bike. Colin Edwards won his second championship in what was arguably the most impressive comeback in the history of motorcycle racing; the season started with Troy Bayliss winning the first 6 races and by the end of race 1 at WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca he had 14 wins and was leading the championship by 58 points. Race 2 at WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca was the start of Colin Edwards' comeback, he went on to win all 9 remaining races and Edwards won the championship at the final race of the season at Imola; the final race of the season saw both riders fighting wheel to wheel for the entire race.
The race is known by fans as the "Showdown at Imola". The manufacturer's championship was won by Ducati. During these years the Superbike World Championship reached the zenith of its popularity, with global fan and full factory support. In 2003 the FIM changed the rules to allow 1,000 cc machines to race. Rule changes in MotoGP to allow four-stroke engines meant that the Japanese manufacturers focused their resources there, leaving the Superbike World Championship with limited factory involvement. 2003 saw the entry of Carl Fogarty’s Foggy Petronas FP1. The bike was developed under the previous regulations and was powered by a three cylinder 900 cc engine. With most of the field running Ducati motorcycles, the championship received the derogatory title "the Ducati Cup"; the factory Ducati Team entered the only two Ducati 999s in the field, taking 20 wins from 24 races in a season where all races were won by Ducati. Neil Hodgson won the title on a factory Ducati. In an effort to create a more competitive field in 2004 organizers announced a series of changes to the championship.
The most significant was that from 2004 the teams have had to run on ` spec' tyres. The decision to award the control tyre to Pirelli was controversial; the Pirelli tyres were considered to be below the standard of Dunlop and Michelin that most of the teams had been using. Dunlop looked to take legal action against the decision while Pirelli claimed that Michelin and Dunlop were asked if they would be interested in the one-make tyre rule contract; as a result of the control tyres, Motorcycle Sports Manufacturer Association announced that no MSMA teams would participate in the Superbike World Championship modifying their statement allowing Ducati to participate. A few privateers chose to run Japanese bikes in 2004. Ten Kate Honda with Chris Vermuelen as its rider, won races and contended for the title, won by James Toseland and Ducati. Following Ten Kate Honda's success Japanese motorcycles made a return in 2005 with major teams from all four Japanese manufacturers run through teams ran by European importers.
Troy Corser won the 2005 championship. 2006 saw the return of Austral
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Broc Parkes is an Australian motorcycle racer, best known for his success in the Supersport World Championship. He races in the Endurance FIM World Championship aboard a Yamaha YZF-R1. During 2015 he raced in British Superbikes for half the season competed in the Endurance FIM World Championship aboard a YART Yamaha YZF-R1, before being drafted-in to MotoGP on the ART machine for the last race of the season at Valencia, held on 8 November at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo, Spain, he was born on 24 December 1981, lives in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, resulting in the nickname'The Boy From the Bush'. Parkes was inspired to race as a four-year-old, when he saw countryman Wayne Gardner winning a race. Gardner became his manager. Parkes began racing on dirt tracks a year with great success, he raced junior motorcycle speedway and finished second in the 1997 Australian Under-16 Championship in Adelaide. He switched to circuit racing at the age of sixteen – the legal limit in Australia – going on to win the Australian 125cc title and Australian 250cc Production title in 1999, on Honda machinery.
Parkes spent a season in Japan with the Moriwaki squad's Honda equipment, finishing third in the All Japan X Formula series. Parkes moved to Europe to join the NCR Ducati team for the 2001 World Superbike Championship, he experienced a mechanical failure while running in one race, but he took 16th overall. In 2002 he finished up 11th. For 2003 he moved to the Supersport World Championship for the BKM Honda team, but the team was late getting race equipment, did not complete the year due to financial problems, he moved to the crack Ten Kate team for 2004, finishing as championship runner-up behind teammate Karl Muggeridge. For 2005 he joined Yamaha's factory team, struggling for most of 2005 but ending with a victory to come fifth overall. In 2006 he challenged for the title before a crash at Assen left him critically injured – although he returned before the end of the season to come third overall, he finished a distant second to Kenan Sofuoglu in 2007, with back-to-back wins at Brands Hatch and Lausitzring despite a broken collarbone early in the season, finished 4th in 2008 despite a series-high six poles and a season-opening victory in Losail For 2009 Parkes returns to World Superbike – on factory Kawasakis ran by Paul Bird Motorsport, teamed with former Grand Prix winner Makoto Tamada.
His team struggled for results, but he shone in a one-off appearance at the British Superbike Championship round at Brands Hatch. Parkes qualified second and finished second in all of the three races held there, only behind the dominant Leon Camier each time.2010 was a struggle for Parkes, who joined the new Echo CRS Honda team. He crashed in pre-season and missed the first three rounds, was a backmarker once he returned. Three races before the end of the season Parkes announced that he separated ways with Echo CRS Honda, he joined the Motocard Kawasaki team, as the replacement of the injured Joan Lascorz, he raced a few races at the end of the season in World Supersports with the same team. Parkes continued in Supersports the next two seasons riding a Kawasaki and a Honda, finishing top five both years. In 2013 Parkes returned to Australia and raced for the factory Yamaha team, winning the Australian FX-Superbike Championship. In December 2013, it was announced that Parkes would be riding for Paul Bird Motorsport alongside Michael Laverty for the 2014 MotoGP season.
He replaced his countryman Damian Cudlin and continued a 31-year streak of Australia's representation in the premier class of motorcycle racing. For the early part of 2015, Parkes rode for Shaun Muir Racing's Milwaukee Yamaha team in the British Superbike Championship, until he became unable to continue due to the after-effects of arm-pump surgery. Parkes competed in Endurance FIM World Championship races on a Yamaha Austria Racing Team machine, with his final race of the season, a one-off riding for ART at Valencia, held on 8 November at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo, when he retired after completing two-thirds of the race. Official website
Gregorio Lavilla is a Spanish former professional motorcycle road racer. He has raced in MotoGP, the Superbike World Championship, the British Superbike Championship, taking the British crown in 2005. For 2008 he raced in WSB for the Ventaxia Honda team, he raced in four rounds of the 2009 WSB series with the Guandalini Racing Ducati team. Born in Vandellòs i l'Hospitalet de l'Infant, Spain, Lavilla was the Spanish Superbike champion in 1994, raced in the 250cc Grand Prix World Championship the next year, he was runner-up on board a Ducati. In 1998 he first raced in the Superbike World Championship full-time, on a private Ducati, taking two outright podiums, he made a one-off appearance at the German Grand Prix in the 500 cc class riding for the Honda Movistar Team of former rider Sito Pons. He spent 3 years with Kawasaki's factory superbike team, finishing 8th overall despite experiencing many crashes in 1999 and finishing 10th overall in 2000 despite missing four rounds through injury, before a stronger 2001, in which he was the second-highest non-wildcard in Race 1 at Sugo.
For 2002 and 2003 he raced a factory Suzuki, doing what he could on a 750cc 4-cylinder bike which lagged behind the 1000cc Ducatis, finishing 5th overall in the weak 2003 championship with 19 top-six finishes including seven podiums, although still not taking a race win. Suzuki did not enter a WSBK team in 2004, Gregorio remained with them as a factory test rider, substituting for Yukio Kagayama in the BSB series once, doing 4 MotoGP races for the team, he was released at the end of the season, leaving the way clear for his fairytale 2005. His victory in the 2005 British Superbike Championship was a major surprise because he had never raced in the championship full-time before, only got his ride a few days before the season started to replace the injured James Haydon in the Airwaves Ducati team, he started so that the team chose to retain him. He soon established himself ahead of teammate Leon Haslam, the main rival to the Honda bikes, before a run of 6 wins and 5 second places in the final 11 races saw him take the crown.
He started 2006 in stronger form, with 6 wins in the first 8 races. His championship lead dropped after he crashed out of race 12 at Snetterton. Croft was not a successful meeting for him - a technical problem in race 1 and a fall in race 2 saw his championship lead down to 11 points over Haslam and 20 over Ryuichi Kiyonari's Honda. Further struggles meant that he lost the championship lead, the final meeting was a disaster - he failed to score in either race, slipped to 3rd in the championship behind Kiyonari and Haslam, his totals of 8 wins and 10 further podiums were still impressive for a third-place overall finish. He started 2007 spectacularly, winning the first four races, winning race 7; however his form faded and he finished 4th overall. For 2008 he moved to the Superbike World Championship riding a Honda CBR1000RR for Ventaxia VK Honda as part of the Paul Bird team; the team failed to run near the front, but Lavilla scored points in all but two races, peaking with fourth place in a chaotic first race at Donington Park but more finishing between 11th and 15th.
For 2009 he joined the Pro Ride Honda team, before sponsorship losses forced them to part company with Lavilla and only run a partial schedule. In May 2009 Lavilla returned to WSBK with the Guandalini Racing team in a one-race deal to replace the injured Brendan Roberts, it was subsequently reported that Lavilla would race with Guandalini for the rest of the season, but after four rounds, he was replaced at the team by Italian Matteo Baiocco. In 2012, he joined the Avintia Blusens MotoGP CRT team as crew chief, from the second round of testing onwards. In 2013 he became a member of the new Dorna WorldSBK Orangisation, to become the WorldSBK Sporting director later, his sporting heroes are Wayne Rainey and Lance Armstrong. He lives in L'Hospitalet de l'Infant. Gregoriolavilla.com Official site
Supersport World Championship
The Supersport World Championship, short WorldSSP, is a motorcycle racing competition on paved surfaces, based on mid-sized sports motorcycles. Competition machines are based on 600-750cc - depending on the number of cylinders - production-based motorcycles; the championship runs as a support class to the Superbike World Championship, based on large production-based sports motorcycles. The championship and promoted as its parent series by FGSport—renamed Infront Motor Sports in 2008—until 2012 and by Dorna from the 2013 season onwards, is sanctioned by the FIM. Supersport was introduced as a support class to the Superbike World Championship in 1990 as a European Championship; the series allows four-cylinder engines up to 600 cubic centimetres, three-cylinder engines up to 675 cubic centimetres, twin-cylinder power plants up to 750 cubic centimetres. In 1997 the championship became a "World Series" and the European title was given to the European Motorcycle Union's European Road Racing Championship.
The full title Supersport World Championship was introduced in 1999. Supersport racing has been one of the most popular classes of national racing for many years. Several riders who were successful in World Supersport have moved on to high-level competitions, Cal Crutchlow, Chaz Davies, Chris Vermeulen, though others such as Fabien Foret and Kenan Sofuoğlu have spent several years in this championship. Competition in the championship is fierce, season domination by a single competitor is unusual; the 2001 championship was notable in this respect, the champion being Andrew Pitt who did not win a single race, but amassed a championship-winning total of points by finishing near the front of the field in every race. In 2012, to be eligible for Supersport World Championship, a motorcycle must satisfy FIM's homologation requirements and have a four-stroke engine in one of the following configurations: Between 400 and 600 cubic centimetres – 4 cylinders Between 500 and 675 cubic centimetres – 3 cylinders Between 600 and 750 cubic centimetres – 2 cylindersAs of 2015, the homologated motorcycles are Honda CBR600RR, Kawasaki ZX-6R, MV Agusta F3 675, Suzuki GSX-R600, Triumph Daytona 675 and Yamaha YZF-R6.
Supersport regulations are much tighter than in Superbikes. The chassis of a supersport machine must remain as standard, while engine tuning is possible but regulated. For instance, the displacement capacity and stroke must remain at the homologated size. Modifying the bore and stroke to reach class limits is not allowed; as in World Superbike, a control tyre is used, although World Supersport regulations dictate that the tyres must be road legal and therefore slicks are not allowed. A Supersport World Championship race takes place at every Superbike World Championship round. Starting positions are decided by the riders' fastest laps from two 45-minute qualifying sessions; each race is 100 kilometres long. The race takes place between the two Superbike races; the points system is the same for the riders' championship and the manufacturers' championship, but only the highest-finishing motorcycle by a particular manufacturer is awarded the points for the latter championship. Superbike racing Grand Prix motorcycle racing Isle of Man TT Official website
Rubén Xaus is a retired motorcycle road racer. During his career he competed in both the Superbike World Championship and the MotoGP, he is nicknamed ` Spider-Man'. His father, who competed in amateur mountain bicycle races, gave Xaus his first motorcycle at the age of five, a Montesa 25cc. Aged 14 he was racing dirt-bikes, but his father convinced him to turn his attentions towards road racing. Xaus took part in the 125cc Catalan Championship, the 125cc Solo Moto Criterium, that same year he took victory in the 80cc Catalonia Supermoto Championship. In 1994 he competed in the Open Ducados Supersport series in Spain – finishing 17th place, improving to third the following year. In 1995 he contested four 250cc Grand Prix. Xaus finished sixth in Thunderbike in 1996. In 1998 he rode in the German Pro-Superbike series. In 1999 he finished fifth in the Supersport World Championship, taking his first victory at Misano. In 2000 he rode one of the official Ducati factory team Supersport bikes, finishing seventh and taking one victory.
For 2001 he moved to the factory Ducati Superbike team in partnership with then-champion Troy Bayliss. He struggled early in the season, with a best result of 5th from the first 8 meetings. However, in race 2 at Oschersleben he became the first Spaniard to take victory in the Superbike World Championship. A pair of 2nds at Assen and a second win at Imola gave him sixth in the championship. Sixth place in 2002 was followed by fifteen podiums and seven victories in 2003, finishing runner up to team mate Neil Hodgson Xaus made his move into the MotoGP World Championship in 2004 as part of the satellite D'Antin Ducati team; the team was grossly under funded and could not afford testing time, but Xaus adapted better to the situation than team mate Hodgson. Consistent points-scoring performances and a first podium at Qatar saw him snap up the ‘Rookie of the Year’ title and 11th place overall in the championship standings. In 2005 he moved to the Fortuna Yamaha Team to ride alongside his friend Toni Elías.
But a more pronounced power delivery and difficult chassis and Xaus's charging/forced riding style meant he looked a different rider to the one of 2004. He crashed numerous times. For 2006 he returned to the Superbike World Championship, with a ride for the new Italian satellite Ducati team Sterilgarda Berik, alongside team owner Marco Borciani, he twice set the fastest lap, but his fast charges ended in crashes, he was only 14th overall. He ended scoring the team's first victory in Valencia. For 2008 Xaus was joined by Max Biaggi on a Ducati 1098R for Sterilgarda-GoEleven, under the team management of Borciani, he finished 2nd in race 2 at the season-opening event in Qatar and took a victory at Misano in Race 2 in front of Biaggi and Bayliss, but has had no further podiums. At Donington Park he believed he had finished 3rd in a race stopped by heavy rain, but found out before the podium celebration that he had been disqualified for not returning to the pits enough after crashing before the race was stopped.
He refused to leave the podium and verbally assaulted the marshals, including the rider who inherited the third spot on the podium - his team-mate Max Biaggi. With three rounds remaining he lies 10th in the standings. On 26 June 2008, Xaus signed to ride the BMW S1000RR bike for the factory BMW Motorrad team in the 2009 WSB Championship. On 16 March 2007 Xaus married long term partner Mariona; the wedding was held in Andorra, where the couple live with their daughter Julia, born in November 2006. Xaus' hobbies include mountain biking and golf, he weighs 74 kg. Official WSBK riders page
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac