Steven Stamkos is a Canadian professional ice hockey player and captain for the Tampa Bay Lightning of the National Hockey League. Stamkos was the first overall pick in the 2006 OHL Entry Draft, from the Markham Waxers of the Ontario Minor Hockey Association. Playing with the Sarnia Sting of the Ontario Hockey League, he scored 100 goals over two years. After a successful OHL career, Stamkos was selected first overall in the 2008 NHL Entry Draft by the Tampa Bay Lightning, he is a two-time Maurice Richard Trophy winner as the NHL's leading goal-scorer, is a two-time NHL Second Team All-Star and has been named to six NHL All-Star Games. Stamkos is of Scottish descent, he grew up in Unionville and played for the Markham Waxers in the Eastern AAA Hockey League of the Ontario Minor Hockey Association. During one of his seasons with the North York Canadiens, he was teammates with current NHLer P. K. Subban. Stamkos won eight OMHA titles in a row in minor hockey and led his Waxers club to the OHL Cup title in March 2006.
He played in the 2003 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with the Markham Waxers. Stamkos attended Central Park Public School and St. Brother André Catholic High School in Markham, Ontario. After being drafted by the OHL's Sarnia Sting, he attended Northern Collegiate Institute and Vocational School in Sarnia. Following a season with the minor Waxers in which he scored 197 points over 66 games, Stamkos was selected first overall in the 2006 OHL Draft by the Sarnia Sting. Stamkos played with other notable current and former NHLers in his minor and junior hockey career, including Logan Couture, John Tavares, Michael Del Zotto, Cameron Gaunce, Cody Hodgson and P. K. Subban during his minor hockey career in the Greater Toronto Area. Joining the Sting in 2006–07, he recorded 92 points over 63 games as a junior rookie, he was named to the OHL Second All-Rookie Team. Stamkos won the Bobby Smith Trophy as the OHL's scholastic player of the year for his academic efforts off the ice; the following season, Stamkos improved to 105 points over 61 games.
He was named to the OHL Second All-Star Team, but was selected to the CHL First All-Star Team, which encompasses all three national major junior leagues. Playing in his NHL draft-eligible season in 2007–08, Stamkos was top-ranked throughout the campaign by the NHL Central Scouting Bureau and International Scouting Services, he won the CHL's Top Draft Prospect Award. As the 2008 NHL Entry Draft approached, Stamkos was seen as the best available centre, his primary competition for the top overall pick were defencemen Drew Doughty and Zach Bogosian, as well as Russian winger Nikita Filatov. The Tampa Bay Lightning, by virtue of their 2007–08 campaign in which they won an NHL-worst 31 games, owned the first pick; as expected, Stamkos was selected first overall by Tampa Bay. On July 29, 2008, he signed a three-year, entry-level contract with the Lightning in which he could earn as much as $8.55 million in performance bonuses. Leading up to the start of the 2008–09 season, the Lightning centered their promotional efforts around Stamkos, including a website with the slogan "Seen Stamkos?"
Stamkos played in his first NHL game in Czech Republic, at the start of the 2008 -- 09 season. The Lightning fell to the New York Rangers 2–1 and were swept in Prague, he recorded his first point — a secondary assist — in his eighth game, against his hometown Toronto Maple Leafs. Following the game, Stamkos commented that his hometown support was "louder than when the Leafs scored", he scored his first goal the next game against Ryan Miller of the Buffalo Sabres. After 54 games, Stamkos recorded the first NHL hat-trick of his career, on February 17, 2009; the Lightning held a 3–1 lead midway through the second period on the strength of Stamkos' natural hat-trick, but were still beaten by the visiting Chicago Blackhawks, 5–3. The three goals enabled Stamkos to become the first rookie in Lightning history to score three goals in a game, he became the second-youngest player in NHL history to record a hat-trick. Though Stamkos was criticized for his lack of production during the first half of the season, in which he was limited to less than ten minutes of ice time some games, he finished the season with 19 points in his final 20 games.
In his rookie season, Stamkos totalled 46 points, as well as a − 13 plus-minus rating. Prior to the 2009–10 season, Stamkos spent the summer training extensively with former NHL player Gary Roberts, working on adding strength and endurance. Roberts got to know Stamkos in the 2008–09 season, his last in the NHL, he oversaw Stamkos' off-season workouts north of Toronto in Roberts' in-house gym, a quick drive from Stamkos' family home in Unionville. Stamkos spoke regarding the workouts: "It helped me a lot," Stamkos said. "I learned a lot about. There are certain aspects of my game that have improved because of that, I'll be there again this summer working hard, it gave me that extra jump for this season."In his second year with the Lightning, Stamkos began to find his range as an NHL sharpshooter and had a breakout season. Playing the bulk of the season on a line with Martin St. Louis and Steve Downie, Stamkos started the 2009–10 campaign with 10 goals in his first 11 games. Through the months of January and Feb
The Ottawa Senators are a professional ice hockey team based in Ottawa, Ontario. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League; the Senators play their home games at the 17,373-seat Canadian Tire Centre, which opened in 1996 as the Palladium. Founded and established by Ottawa real estate developer Bruce Firestone, the team is the second NHL franchise to use the Ottawa Senators name; the original Ottawa Senators, founded in 1883, had a famed history, winning 11 Stanley Cups, playing in the NHL from 1917 until 1934. On December 6, 1990, after a two-year public campaign by Firestone, the NHL awarded a new franchise, which began play in the 1992–93 season; the current team owner is Eugene Melnyk, in 2018, the franchise was valued by Forbes magazine at $435 million. The Senators have won four division titles and, in the Presidents' Trophy. Ottawa had been home to the original Senators, a founding NHL franchise and 11-time Stanley Cup champions. After the NHL expanded to the United States in the late 1920s, the original Senators' eventual financial losses forced the franchise to move to St. Louis in 1934 operating as the Eagles while a Senators senior amateur team took over the Senators' place in Ottawa.
The NHL team was unsuccessful in St. Louis and planned to return to Ottawa, but the NHL decided instead to suspend the franchise and transfer the players to other NHL teams. Fifty-four years after the NHL announced plans to expand, Ottawa real estate developer Bruce Firestone decided along with colleagues Cyril Leeder and Randy Sexton that Ottawa was now able to support an NHL franchise, the group proceeded to put a bid together, his firm, Terrace Investments, did not have the liquid assets to finance the expansion fee and the team, but the group conceived a strategy to leverage a land development. In 1989, after finding a suitable site on farmland just west of Ottawa in Kanata on which to construct a new arena, Terrace announced its intention to win a franchise and launched a successful "Bring Back the Senators" campaign to both woo the public and persuade the NHL that the city could support an NHL franchise. Public support was high and the group would secure over 11,000 season ticket pledges.
On December 12, 1990, the NHL approved a new franchise for Firestone's group, to start play in the 1992–93 season. The new team hired former NHL player Mel Bridgman, who had no previous NHL management experience, as its first general manager in 1992; the team was interested in hiring former Jack Adams Award winner Brian Sutter as its first head coach, but Sutter came with a high price tag and was reluctant to be a part of an expansion team. When Sutter was signed to coach the Boston Bruins, Ottawa signed Rick Bowness, the man Sutter replaced in Boston; the new Senators were placed in the Adams Division of the Wales Conference, played their first game on October 8, 1992, in the Ottawa Civic Centre against the Montreal Canadiens with lots of pre-game spectacle. The Senators defeated the Canadiens 5–3 in one of the few highlights that season. Following the initial excitement of the opening night victory, the club floundered badly and tied the San Jose Sharks for the worst record in the league, winning only 10 games with 70 losses and four ties for 24 points, three points better than the NHL record for futility.
The Senators had aimed low and considered the 1992–93 season a small success, as Firestone had set a goal for the season of not setting a new NHL record for fewest points in a season. The long-term plan was to finish low in the standings for its first few years in order to secure high draft picks and contend for the Stanley Cup. Bridgman was fired after one season and Team President Randy Sexton took over the general manager duties. Firestone himself soon left Rod Bryden emerged as the new owner; the strategy of aiming low and securing a high draft position did not change. The Senators finished last overall for the next three seasons. For the 1993–94 season, the team now played in the Eastern Conference's Northeast Division. Although 1993 first overall draft choice Alexandre Daigle wound up being one of the greatest draft busts in NHL history, they chose Radek Bonk in 1994, Bryan Berard in 1995, Chris Phillips in 1996 and Marian Hossa in 1997, all of whom would become solid NHL players and formed a strong core of players in years to come.
Alexei Yashin, the team's first-ever draft selection from 1992, emerged as one of the NHL's brightest young stars. The team traded many of their better veteran players of the era, including 1992–93 leading scorer Norm Maciver and fan favourites Mike Peluso and Bob Kudelski in an effort to stockpile prospects and draft picks; as the 1995–96 season began, star centre Alexei Yashin refused to honour his contract and did not play. In December, after three straight last-place finishes and a team, ridiculed throughout the league, fans began to grow restless waiting for the team's long-term plan to yield results, arena attendance began to decline. Rick Bowness was fired in late 1995 and was replaced by the Prince Edward Island Senators' head coach Dave Allison. Allison would fare no better than his predecessor, the team would stumble to a 2–22–3 record under him. Sexton himself was replaced by Pierre Gauthier, the former assistant GM of Anaheim. Before the end of January 1996, Gauthier had resolved the team's most pressing issues by settling star player Alexei Yashin's contract dispute, hiring the regarded Jacques Martin as head coach.
While Ottawa finished last overall once again, the 1995–96 season ended with renewed optimism, due in part to the upgraded management and coaching, also
Canadian Tire Centre
Canadian Tire Centre is a multi-purpose indoor arena in Ottawa, Canada, located in the western suburb of Kanata. It opened in January 1996 as The Palladium and was known as Corel Centre from 1996 to 2006 and Scotiabank Place from 2006 to 2013; the arena is used for ice hockey, serving as the home arena of the Ottawa Senators of the National Hockey League since its opening in 1996, as a temporary home for the Ottawa 67's of the Ontario Hockey League during renovations at its arena. The arena is used for music concerts and has hosted events such as the Canadian Interuniversity Sport men's basketball championship and the 2009 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships; as part of its bid to land a NHL franchise for Ottawa, Terrace Corporation unveiled the original proposal for the arena development at a press conference in September 1989. The proposal included a hotel and 20,500-seat arena, named the Palladium, on 100 acres surrounded by a 500-acre mini-city, named "West Terrace"; the site itself, 600 acres of farmland, on the western border of Kanata, had been acquired in May 1989 by Terrace.
The large site had been a possible location for a new home for the Central Canada Exhibition, but the Exhibition's option on the property had expired. The site was required a rezoning to proceed with construction; the then-City of Kanata supported the rezoning, but the provincial government and some local residents opposed the rezoning, forcing public hearings into the proposal by the Ontario Municipal Board. Rezoning approval was granted by the Board on August 1991, with conditions; the conditions imposed by the board included a scaling down of the arena to 18,500 seats, a moratorium on development outside the initial 100-acre arena site, that the cost of the highway interchange with highway 417 be paid by Terrace. A ground-breaking ceremony was held in June 1992 but actual construction did not start until July 7, 1994; the two-year period was used seeking financing for the interchange by Terrace Corporation. The corporation received a $6 million grant from the federal government, but needed to borrow to pay for the rest of the costs of construction.
On August 17, 1993, Bruce Firestone, the Senators owner, was replaced by Rod Bryden, a former high tech tycoon, who assumed control of Terrace Corporation. Bryden managed to borrow enough to pay for the $188 million project through a consortium of U. S. banks and Ogden Entertainment, but could not find financing for the highway interchange. Only after the provincial government provided a loan guarantee for the highway interchange financing did construction proceed. Actual construction took 18 months, finishing in January 1996; the Palladium opened on January 1996 with a concert by Canadian rocker Bryan Adams. The first NHL game took place two days with the Montreal Canadiens defeating the Senators 3-0. On February 17, 1996, the name'Palladium' was changed to the Corel Centre, when Corel Corporation, an Ottawa software company, signed a 10-year deal for the naming rights; when mortgage holder Covanta Energy went into receivership in 2001, Terrace was expected to pay off the whole debt. The ownership was not able to refinance the arena leading to Terrace filing for bankruptcy in 2003.
However, on August 26, 2003, billionaire businessman Eugene Melnyk finalized the purchase of the Senators and the arena. The arena and club became owned by Melnyk through a new company, Capital Sports Properties. In 2004, the ownership applied to expand its seating; the City of Ottawa amended its bylaws in December 2004, in 2005, the venue was allowed to increase its seating capacity to 19,153 and total attendance to 20,500 when including standing room. In 2005, the arena became home to the Ottawa Sports Hall of Fame, with a display on the second-floor concourse. Information of over 200 inductees is detailed on individual plaques; the exhibits display had been located at the Ottawa Civic Centre since 1967. The space is donated by Scotiabank Place. In 2011, it was announced that the Hall of Fame exhibit will be moving to permanent space at the Heritage Building of Ottawa City Hall. On January 19, 2006, the arena became known as Scotiabank Place after reaching a new 15 year naming rights agreement with Canadian bank Scotiabank on January 11, 2006.
In 2012, Scotiabank Place hosted the 2012 NHL All-Star Game and installed a new high-definition scoreboard. From 2012 through 2014, the arena was a temporary home for the Ottawa 67's, due to renovations occurring at TD Place Arena. Following the 2012-13 season, Melnyk sought to end the arena's relationship with Scotiabank as the bank was not a financial backer of his team, Scotiabank agreed not to contest the deal's termination provided the club did not sell the naming rights to one of its competitors. On June 18, 2013, the Ottawa Senators announced that it had sold naming rights to the arena to the Canadian Tire Corporation: the arena was renamed Canadian Tire Centre on July 1, 2013. On September 7, 2017, it was announced that the capacity of Canadian Tire Centre had been decreased to 17,373. Team president Tom Anselmi argued that the venue was "probably a little bit too big for the market" and that reducing the capacity would lead to more sell-outs. After one season of the reduction, the Senators decided to again open up the covered seats, increasing the capacity to 18,652 for hockey.
The arena has games which are held regularly. The arena has hosted indoor lacrosse; the arena has different configurations for concerts, with half arena seating arrangements. The building has
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Zachary M. Bogosian is an American professional ice hockey defenseman, an alternate captain for the Buffalo Sabres. Bogosian was regarded as a complete, physical defenseman who could contribute on both offense and defense. Bogosian first played in an international tournament when he joined the American national team at the 2009 IIHF World Championship. In 2004, Bogosian entered high school at a prep school in Massachusetts; the assistant coach of the school's hockey team was Ray Bourque, a former NHL defenseman, elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame. Bogosian's teammates at Cushing included his older brother and Bourque's son, Ryan. While at Cushing he was used as a fifth or sixth defenseman and played few minutes as a result. After his second year at the school, Bogosian was selected 19th overall in the 2006 Ontario Hockey League Priority Draft by the Peterborough Petes Bogosian's decision to play in the OHL rather than go to the NCAA differed from most of his teammates, including his brother; as his father and uncle had played college football in the NCAA, it was expected that Bogosian would follow them in going to university.
He cited watching Ottawa 67's games at age nine as a major influence in deciding to play in Canada. Bogosian began playing for the Petes in the 2006–07 season, he played 67 games for the team and finished with 7 goals and 26 assists for 33 points, second on the team in points for both rookies and defensemen. In recognition of his season, he was named to the OHL's Second All-Rookie Team, as one of the top four rookie defensemen in the league; the next season, Bogosian appeared in 60 games for the Petes. He led his team in scoring with 61 points, the only defenseman in the league do so; the Petes reached the playoffs after missing the previous year, Bogosian added another three assists in five games. During the season, he participated in both the OHL All-Star Classic and the CHL Top Prospects Game, an all-star game of prospects from the three leagues in the Canadian Hockey League. At the conclusion of the season, Bogosian was named one of the five draft-eligible finalists for the Red Tilson Trophy as most outstanding player in the OHL, was named to the OHL First All-Star Team as one of the two best defensemen in the league.
Prior to the 2008 NHL Entry Draft, Bogosian was ranked by the NHL Central Scouting Bureau as the second best North American skater for the draft and the third ranked prospect out of the OHL. He was drafted third overall by the Atlanta Thrashers behind Drew Doughty, he was noted by his coach in Peterborough, Vince Malette, to be a "very physical defenseman, a complete player" and defensively solid who could skate well with the puck and not lose speed. Thrashers general manager Don Waddell liked the physical aspect Bogosian brought to a game, as well as his ability to help score goals while at the same time stop other teams' top players. Bogosian had been noted prior for the draft for his dedication to training, as he drove more than 90 minutes to Ottawa to get a better work out. In July 2008, Bogosian attended the Thrashers prospect development camp; the youngest player of the 32 at the camp, he stood out as one of the best players there and assured himself a roster spot on the team. On September 4, 2008, Bogosian signed a three-year, entry-level contract worth $2.625 million with the Thrashers.
He was named to the team's opening day lineup, made his NHL debut in the first game of the season on October 10 against the Washington Capitals. Bogosian became the youngest person to play for the Thrashers that night at 18 years and 87 days, surpassing Ilya Kovalchuk. Twenty-four seconds into his first shift, Bogosian was called for a holding penalty, while in the contest, he had a fight with Capitals enforcer Donald Brashear. Eight games into the season, however, on October 28, Bogosian broke his left leg in a game against the Philadelphia Flyers. Prior to rejoining the Thrashers, Bogosian was sent to their American Hockey League affiliate, the Chicago Wolves, for conditioning. After playing five games with the Wolves, including scoring his first professional goal on January 3, 2009, against the Rockford IceHogs, Bogosian rejoined the Thrashers for the remainder of the season, he scored his first NHL goal and recorded his first assist in his twelfth game on January 17, 2009, against Pekka Rinne of the Nashville Predators.
Bogosian finished his first professional season with 19 points in 47 NHL games and 1 goal in 5 AHL games as the Thrashers finished out of the playoffs. Throughout the 2009–10 season Bogosian was bothered by an injury. During a game against the Ottawa Senators on October 31, 2009, Bogosian fell behind his team's net; the impact injured his wrist. Though he did not miss any time from the injury, it had an effect on his offensive play. In the first 17 games of the season, he had scored 8 goals went 29 contests without scoring. In the final 64 games, he only scored 2 goals. After he recovered, Bogosian admitted he did not play at his full capacity, but had decided not to disclose the injury to the team until the season finished in April 2010. Regardless of his injury, Bogosian only missed one game throughout the season, a game on March 14 against the Phoenix Coyo
The Stanley Cup is the championship trophy awarded annually to the National Hockey League playoff winner. It is the oldest existing trophy to be awarded to a professional sports franchise, the International Ice Hockey Federation considers it to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport"; the trophy was commissioned in 1892 as the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup and is named after Lord Stanley of Preston, the Governor General of Canada who donated it as an award to Canada's top-ranking amateur ice hockey club. The entire Stanley family supported the sport, the sons and daughters all playing and promoting the game; the first Cup was awarded in 1893 to Montreal Hockey Club, winners from 1893 to 1914 were determined by challenge games and league play. Professional teams first became eligible to challenge for the Stanley Cup in 1906. In 1915, professional ice hockey organizations National Hockey Association and the Pacific Coast Hockey Association reached a gentlemen's agreement in which their respective champions would face each other annually for the Stanley Cup.
It was established as the de facto championship trophy of the NHL in 1926 and the de jure NHL championship prize in 1947. There are three Stanley Cups: the original bowl of the "Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup", the authenticated "Presentation Cup", the spelling-corrected "Permanent Cup" on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame; the NHL has maintained its associated trademarks. The NHL has registered trademarks associated with the name and likeness of the Stanley Cup, although there has been dispute as to whether the league has the right to own trademarks associated with a trophy that it does not own; the original bowl is 18.5 centimetres high and 29 centimetres wide. The current Stanley Cup is topped with a copy of the original bowl, made of a silver and nickel alloy, it weighs 15.5 kilograms. A new Stanley Cup is not made each year, unlike the trophies awarded by the other major professional sports leagues of North America; the winners kept it until a new champion was crowned, but winning teams get the Stanley Cup during the summer and a limited number of days during the season.
Every year since 1924, a select portion of the winning players, coaches and club staff names are engraved on its bands, unusual among trophies. However, there is not enough room to include all the players and non-players, so some names must be omitted. Between 1924 and 1940, a new band was added every year that the trophy was awarded, earning the nickname "Stovepipe Cup" due to the unnatural height of all the bands. In 1947, the cup size was reduced. In 1958, the modern one-piece Cup was designed with a five-band barrel which could contain 13 winning teams per band; the oldest band is removed when the bottom band is full and preserved in the Hockey Hall of Fame in order to prevent the Stanley Cup from growing, a new blank band added to the bottom. It has been referred to as The Cup, Lord Stanley's Cup, The Holy Grail, or facetiously as Lord Stanley's Mug; the Stanley Cup is surrounded by numerous legends and traditions, the oldest of, the winning team drinking champagne from it. Since the 1914–15 season, the Cup has been won a combined 101 times by 18 current NHL teams and 5 defunct teams.
It was not awarded in 1919 because of a Spanish flu epidemic or in 2005 because of the 2004–05 NHL lockout. It was held by nine different teams between 1893 and 1914; the Montreal Canadiens have won it a record 24 times and are the most recent Canadian-based team to win it, doing so in 1993. After the Lord Stanley of Preston was appointed by Queen Victoria as Governor General of Canada on June 11, 1888, he and his family became enthusiastic about ice hockey. Stanley was first exposed to the game at Montreal's 1889 Winter Carnival, where he saw the Montreal Victorias play the Montreal Hockey Club; the Montreal Gazette reported that he "expressed his great delight with the game of hockey and the expertise of the players". During that time, organized ice hockey in Canada was still in its infancy and only Montreal and Ottawa had anything resembling leagues. Stanley's entire family became active in ice hockey. Two of his sons and Algernon, formed a new team called the Ottawa Rideau Hall Rebels. Arthur played a key role in the formation of what became known as the Ontario Hockey Association, became the founder of ice hockey in Great Britain.
Arthur and Algernon persuaded their father to donate a trophy to be "an outward and visible sign of the hockey championship". Stanley sent the following message to the victory celebration held on March 18, 1892, at Ottawa's Russell House Hotel for the three-time champion Ottawa Hockey Club: I have for some time been thinking that it would be a good thing if there were a challenge cup which should be held from year to year by the champion hockey team in the Dominion. There does not appear to be any such outward sign of a championship at present, considering the general interest which matches now elicit, the importance of having the game played and under rules recognized, I am willing to give a cup which shall be held from year to year by the winning team. I am not quite certain that the present regulations governing the arrangement of matches give entire satisfaction, it would be worth consid
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h