United States presidential election
The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U. S. states or in Washington, D. C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U. S. Electoral College, known as electors; these electors in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; the Electoral College and its procedure are established in the U. S. Constitution by Article II, Section 1, Clauses 2 and 4. Under Clause 2, each of the states casts as many electoral votes as the total number of its Senators and Representatives in Congress, per the Twenty-third Amendment ratified in 1961, Washington, D. C. casts the same number of electoral votes as the least-represented state, three.
Under Clause 2, the manner for choosing electors is determined by each state legislature, not directly by the federal government. Many state legislatures selected their electors directly, but over time all of them switched to using the popular vote to help determine electors, which persists today. Once chosen, electors cast their electoral votes for the candidate who won the plurality in their state, but at least 21 states do not have provisions that address this behavior. In modern times and unpledged electors have not affected the ultimate outcome of an election, so the results can be determined based on the state-by-state popular vote. Presidential elections occur quadrennially with registered voters casting their ballots on Election Day, which since 1845 has been the first Tuesday after November 1; this date coincides with the general elections of various other federal and local races. The Electoral College electors formally cast their electoral votes on the first Monday after December 12 at their respective state capitals.
Congress certifies the results in early January, the presidential term begins on Inauguration Day, which since the passage of the Twentieth Amendment has been set at January 20. The nomination process, consisting of the primary elections and caucuses and the nominating conventions, was not specified in the Constitution, but was developed over time by the states and political parties; these primary elections are held between January and June before the general election in November, while the nominating conventions are held in the summer. Though not codified by law, political parties follow an indirect election process, where voters in the 50 U. S. states, Washington, D. C. and U. S. territories, cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elect their party's presidential nominee. Each party may choose a vice presidential running mate to join the ticket, either determined by choice of the nominee or by a second round of voting; because of changes to national campaign finance laws since the 1970s regarding the disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns, presidential candidates from the major political parties declare their intentions to run as early as the spring of the previous calendar year before the election.
Article Two of the United States Constitution established the method of presidential elections, including the Electoral College. This was a result of a compromise between those constitutional framers who wanted the Congress to choose the president, those who preferred a national popular vote; each state is allocated a number of electors, equal to the size of its delegation in both houses of Congress combined. With the ratification of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in 1961, the District of Columbia is granted a number of electors, equal to the number of those held by the least populous state. However, U. S. territories are not represented in the Electoral College. Constitutionally, the manner for choosing electors is determined within each state by its legislature. During the first presidential election in 1789, only six of the 13 original states chose electors by any form of popular vote. Throughout the years, the states began conducting popular elections to choose their slate of electors.
In 1800, only five of the 16 states chose electors by a popular vote. This gradual movement toward greater democratization coincided with a gradual decrease in property restrictions for the franchise. By 1840, only one of the 26 states still selected electors by the state legislature. Under the original system established by Article Two, electors could cast two votes to two different candidates for president; the candidate with the highest number of votes became the president, the sec
1904 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1904 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 8, 1904. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted for the Democratic nominee, former Chief Judge of New York Court of Appeals Alton B. Parker, over the Republican nominee, President Theodore Roosevelt. Parker won South Carolina by a landslide margin of 90.74 percent, due to the nearly complete disfranchisement of the black majority, the Republican Party’s sole support in the state
1884 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1884 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 4, 1884, as part of the 1884 United States presidential election. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted for the Democratic nominee, Grover Cleveland, over the Republican nominee, James G. Blaine. Cleveland won the state by a wide margin of 51.84%
2004 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 2004 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 2, 2004, as part of the 2004 United States presidential election which took place throughout all 50 states and D. C. Voters chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina was won by incumbent President George W. Bush by a 17.1% margin of victory. Prior to the election, all 12 news organizations considered this a state Bush would win, or otherwise considered it as a safe red state. No Democrat had won this state since 1976. On election day, Bush won a majority of congressional districts in the state; the results were similar to the state's results in 2000, although Democratic Senator John Edwards of the bordering state of North Carolina was chosen as the vice presidential nominee. Bush won both of the two largest counties of South Carolina, although the Democratic nominee carries the largest county in the state. For both parties in 2004, South Carolina's was the first primary in a Southern state and the first primary in a state in which African Americans make up a sizable percentage of the electorate.
The Democratic primary was held on February 3, with 45 delegates at stake. It was held on the same day as caucuses. South Carolina's 45 delegates to the 2004 Democratic National Convention were awarded proportionally based on the results of the primary; the state sent ten superdelegates. General Wesley Clark of Arkansas Former Governor Howard Dean of Vermont Senator John Edwards of North Carolina Senator John Kerry of Massachusetts Representative Dennis Kucinich of Ohio Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut, 2000 Democratic Party vice-presidential candidate Reverend Al Sharpton of New York Representative Dick Gephardt of Missouri, former House Minority Leader Former Senator and Ambassador Carol Moseley-Braun of Illinois There were 12 news organizations who made state-by-state predictions of the election. Here are their last predictions before election day. D. C. Political Report: Solid Republican Associated Press: Solid Bush CNN: Bush Cook Political Report: Solid Republican Newsweek: Solid Bush New York Times: Solid Bush Rasmussen Reports: Bush Research 2000: Solid Bush Washington Post: Bush Washington Times: Solid Bush Zogby International: Bush Washington Dispatch: Bush Bush won every pre-election poll, each with a double-digit margin and with at least 49% of the vote.
The final 3 poll average showed Bush leading 55% to 41%. Bush raised $3,113,641. Kerry raised $533,966. Neither campaign visited this state during the fall election. South Carolina part of the Solid South, has become a Republican stronghold in the past few presidential elections. Since Barry Goldwater carried the state in 1964, the only Democratic presidential nominee to win it was Jimmy Carter of neighboring Georgia in 1976. Since the Palmetto State has been a safe bet for the Republicans; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Charleston County voted for the Republican candidate. Bush won 5 of 6 congressional districts including a district won by a Democratic representative Technically the voters of South Carolina cast their ballots for electors: representatives to the Electoral College. South Carolina is allocated 8 electors because it has 2 senators. All candidates who appear on the ballot or qualify to receive write-in votes must submit a list of 8 electors, who pledge to vote for their candidate and his or her running mate.
Whoever wins the majority of votes in the state is awarded all 8 electoral votes. Their chosen electors vote for president and vice president. Although electors are pledged to their candidate and running mate, they are not obligated to vote for them. An elector who votes for someone other than his or her candidate is known as a faithless elector; the electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 13, 2004, to cast their votes for president and vice president. The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols; the following were the members of the Electoral College from the state. All 8 were pledged for Bush/Cheney. Katon Dawson Buddy Witherspoon Wayland Moody Thomas McLean Brenda Bedenbaugh Edwin Foulke Robert Reagan Drew McKissick
1868 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1868 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 3, 1868, as part of the 1868 United States presidential election. Voters chose six representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president; this would be the first time in South Carolina's history where the popular vote was used in the state during the presidential election. South Carolina voted for the Republican nominee, General Ulysses S. Grant, over the Democratic nominee, former Governor of New York Horatio Seymour. Grant won the state by a margin of 15.86%
1920 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1920 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 United States Presidential Election, held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted for the Democratic nominee, Governor James M. Cox of Ohio, over Republican nominee, Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio. Cox ran with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York, while Harding ran with Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts. Cox won South Carolina by a landslide margin of 92.14%. In the midst of a massive nationwide Republican landslide, South Carolina was a staggering 118.3% more Democratic than the national average
1992 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1992 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina was won by incumbent President George H. W. Bush with 48.02 percent of the popular vote over Governor Bill Clinton with 39.88 percent. Businessman Ross Perot finished with 11.55 percent of the popular vote. Clinton won the national vote, defeating both incumbent President Bush and Perot; this election marked the completion of South Carolina's transformation from one of the strongest Democratic states in the country to a reliably Republican one. For every election from 1880 to 1960, South Carolina had voted for the Democratic nominee always by wide margins and by percentages of over nine-tenths in every election from 1900 to 1944; however since Barry Goldwater carried the state in 1964, the state had lost its "Safe Democratic" status and moved towards the Republicans, being carried by them in five out of the preceding six elections and being won only by native Southerner Jimmy Carter.
As liberal and secular New England states such as Vermont trended towards the Democrats with the conservative movement in the 1980s, South Carolina, a conservative and religious Southern state, would trend towards the Republicans along with other states of the Deep South. From this election onward, it and the others would be considered safe red states. At the time of the election, Clinton was only the second Democrat to win without carrying South Carolina, along with Lyndon B. Johnson; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Edgefield County voted for a Democratic Presidential candidate. This is the first election in which any South Carolina county cast more than one hundred thousand votes, namely Greenville and Richland. With 48.02% of the popular vote, South Carolina would probe to be Bush's second strongest state in the 1992 election after Mississippi