WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca
WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca is a paved road racing track in central California used for both auto racing and motorcycle racing, built in 1957 near both Salinas and Monterey, United States. The racetrack is 2.238 miles long, with a 180 feet elevation change. Its eleven turns are highlighted by the circuit's signature turn, the downhill-plunging "Corkscrew" at Turns 8 and 8A. A variety of racing and entertainment events are held at the raceway, ranging from superkarts to sports car racing to music festivals; the name Laguna Seca is Spanish for "dry lagoon": the area where the track now lies was once a lake, the course was built around the dry lake bed. After the course was reconfigured, two artificial ponds were added; the earliest development of the local area occurred in 1867 with the founding of the nearby Laguna Seca Ranch, which has operated continuously for 140 years with grazing and equestrian uses. The track was built in 1957 at a cost of $1.5 million raised from local businesses and individuals on part of the US Army's Fort Ord after the nearby Pebble Beach Road Races were abandoned for being too dangerous.
Since 1974, the property was deeded over to the Monterey County Parks Department and continues to be part of the park system. The first race, held on November 9, 1957, was won by Pete Lovely driving a Ferrari. In the intervening years, the track has hosted USRRC, Can-Am, Trans-Am, Formula 5000, IMSA GT, CART, American Le Mans Series, Grand American, Monterey Historic Automobile Races, Speed World Challenge, AMA, WSBK Superbike World Championship and MotoGP motorcycle races; the day-to-day operations of the track, along with the management and promotion of major racing events, are handled by the Sports Car Racing Association of the Monterey Peninsula, a non-profit organization. With oversight by a board of local residents, SCRAMP operates with a professional staff on-site with the goal of generating income through the operations of the racetrack, redistributed to local charities; the track itself has undergone significant changes over the past two decades to meet evolving safety homologation requirements of the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme, Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and other sanctioning bodies.
Changes include the addition of the entire infield area in 1988 extending the track from its original 1.9-mile length to meet the minimum-track-length criteria of the FIM for MotoGP events, plus the more recent relocation of pedestrian bridges and embankments, the expansion of gravel pits outside turns 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 for additional runoff. The original media center was demolished in 2006 to make way for additional run-off room in Turn 1. In 2006, the'hump' at the top of the Rahal Straight was flattened to accommodate the MotoGP riders, though some claim that this increases the wind effects that can perturb a race motorcycle. Remnants of the old configuration can still be seen from the parking lot between turns five, they are found underneath a road leading to the parking area for entrant RVs. The famous Turn 8 and 8A combination, popularly referred to as'the Corkscrew', is considered one of the motorsport world's most challenging turns, due to the 18-metre drop in elevation as well as its blind crest and apex on the uphill approach.
Turn 2, with its difficult and technical double-apex, has been renamed the'Andretti Hairpin', in honor of former Formula 1 World Champion Mario Andretti, while Turn 9 has been renamed'Rainey Curve' in honor of 500cc Grand Prix motorcycle racing World Champion Wayne Rainey, a resident of nearby Salinas, California. The straight that runs between Turn 6 and Turn 7 has been renamed the'Rahal Straight' after four-time consecutive Champ Car race winner Bobby Rahal. A Champ Car World Series weekend had been a prominent event from 1983 through 2004, when its spot on the calendar was shifted to the San Jose Grand Prix. On the last lap of the 1996 CART race, Alex Zanardi passed Bryan Herta on the inside of the Corkscrew to take the victory. Uruguayan driver Gonzalo Rodríguez died during the practice session of the 1999 CART race after crashing at the same corner; because of the incident, runoff was installed at the end of the Rahal Straight. Champ Car announced on September 11, 2007 that they would be returning the Northern California race to Laguna Seca from San Jose over the May 16–18 weekend in 2008.
But the subsequent merger of Champ Car and IndyCar resulted in the race being canceled. The track is the site of the annual Rolex Monterey Motorsports Reunion known as the Monterey Historic Automobile Races; the event features an extraordinarily eclectic mixture of race cars on the course. Each year features a different marque. Considered one of the two greatest historic racing events, attendance rivals, or surpasses the professional racing events listed above. There are many permanent dry and hook-up camping facilities located at the raceway, which are available year-round as part of the Laguna Seca Recreation Area, the county park in which the racetrack is set; the track's primary corporate sponsor is WeatherTech which began April 2018. As part of the sponsorship, the track is now referred to as WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca; the sponsorship belonged to Mazda for 17 years with the track being known as Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca. A study by California State University, Monterey
Max Neukirchner is a professional motorcycle racer competing in the Endurance FIM World Championship aboard a Yamaha YZF-R1. In 2004 he competed in the Supersport World Championship riding for Klaffi Honda, finishing the season ranked 9th with 63 points. For 2005, along with the Klaffi Honda team, moved to the Superbike World Championship, he finished the season 12th with 123 points. He looked set to remain with Klaffi Honda in 2006 but the ride went to Alex Barros. Klaffi wasn't able to find the money to run a second bike for Neukirchner and he was left without a ride, he joined Pedercini Ducati but after a poor first half of the season Neukirchner and Pedercini announced their split. Neukirchner went on to replace Fabien Foret at Alstare Eng. Corona Extra, he finished the season 18th with 28 points. For 2007 Neukirchner finished the season ranked ninth overall; the team used the 2006-spec works Suzuki GSX-R1000 K6. For 2008 he rode a 2007-spec Suzuki GSX-R1000 motorcycle for Team Alstare Suzuki.
At Valencia he took his first career pole, lead until the final corner, where he was hit by Carlos Checa, Neukirchner breaking his collarbone. On 27 April 2008 at Assen he achieved his second World Superbike podium finish, finishing behind Troy Bayliss and Checa in the first race. Neukirchner took his maiden victory in the first race at Monza, his 70th race in SBK, he won by just 0.058 seconds from Noriyuki Haga. In race 2, he achieved another podium, finishing 2nd to Haga, missing out on victory by 0.009 seconds in a three-way blanket finish. At Miller Motorsport Park he was helped to learn the fastest line through the early part of the track by video of Suzuki's AMA Superbike champion Ben Spies, he did not score another podium that season, but consistent points finishes including four further fourth places allowed him to finish as the top Suzuki in 5th overall. At Monza he suffered a broken femur in a first-corner crash. Although Suzuki Alstare announced in May that he would remain with the team for 2009 and 2010, doubts surfaced over his future with the team.
On October 12, 2009, Suzuki Alstare announced that they would not be offering Neukirchner a contract extension for the 2010 championship after he failed to provide medical evidence that he was fit to race. On October 14, 2009, it was confirmed that Neukirchner would race for the HANNspree Ten Kate Honda team for the 2010 season. For the 2011 season, Neukirchner rode for the MZ Racing Team with a 2010 FTR chassis at the Moto2 World Championship under the technical direction of the Italian company Pro Ride Motorsports. For the 2012 season, he is riding for the Kiefer Racing Team with a Kalex chassis at the Moto2 World Championship, but left the series after sustained injury in Brno. Neukirchner achieved his best result and his only point scoring finish of the year at Le Mans with 7th place. 2003- 9th, IDM Supersport Championship #7 Honda CBR600RR 2004- 9th, Supersport World Championship #76 Honda CBR600RR 2005- 12th, Superbike World Championship #76 Ducati 999R 2006- 18th, Superbike World Championship #76 Ducati 999R / Suzuki GSX-R1000 2007- 9th, Superbike World Championship #76 Suzuki GSX-R1000 2008- 5th, Superbike World Championship #76 Suzuki GSX-R1000 2009- 16th, Superbike World Championship #76 Suzuki GSX-R1000 2010- 18th, Superbike World Championship #76 Honda CBR1000RR 2011- 20th, Moto2 World Championship #76 MZ-RE Honda 2012- 26th, Moto2 World Championship #76 Kalex 2013- 14th, Superbike World Championship #27 Ducati 1199 Panigale 2014- 2nd, IDM Superbike Championship #76 Ducati 1199 Panigale 2015- 6th, IDM Superbike Championship #76 Yamaha YZF-R1 2016- 7th, IDM Superbike Championship #76 / 6th, Endurance FIM World Championship #7 Yamaha YZF-R1 2017- Endurance FIM World Championship #7 Yamaha YZF-R1 * Season still in progress.
Max-neukirchner.de Official Website
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Carlos Checa is a Spanish former professional motorcycle road racer and winner of the 2011 Superbike World Championship. After racing in 500 cc and MotoGP for over a decade on Honda and Yamaha machinery with and without full manufacturer support, he moved to the Superbike World Championship on a Honda for 2008, he has two Grand Prix victories. He has a younger brother, David Checa a motorcycle racer who competed in the Superbike World Championship for 2008. Born in Barcelona, Checa made his debut in 125 cc and 250 cc motorcycle racing in 1993 for Honda. In 1995, he moved up to the Blue Riband 500 cc class as a replacement for Alberto Puig, a fellow Spaniard who broke both his legs in a horrifying crash in France. Checa shocked the paddock by nearly winning the Barcelona race, he continued with the team until 1998, the year he suffered near fatal injuries with a crash at Donington Park's Craner Curves and was thought to have suffered only scrapes and bruises before complaining of pain. Hours he had lost his vision, needed emergency surgery to remove his spleen and was listed in critical condition.
He fought back to ride that year, missing just one race, before racing for Yamaha as Max Biaggi's teammate on two-strokes and four-strokes. He nearly had a habit of crashing after taking the lead. One such race was at Rio de Janeiro in 2002 when he stalled on the starting line rode through the field to take the lead only to crash a corner later. Checa continued racing with the factory Yamaha team for the 2003 and 2004 seasons, before he moved to Ducati in 2005. In 2006 he returned to the Tech 3 Yamaha team, proving much steadier than in previous years and comfortably beating teammate James Ellison, but was not much a threat to the rest of the field, as they were on Dunlop tyres, he struggled as the sole LCR Honda rider in 2007, with the 800cc Honda proving uncompetitive for many riders. At the Sachsenring Checa got an updated frame, which other non-works Honda riders had found uncompetitive – this is believed to be due to Checa using the same Michelin tyres as the works team, the other Hondas being on Bridgestones.
Checa returned to the series in 2010, as replacement for Mika Kallio for the last two races of the season. For the 2008 season, Checa left MotoGP to join the Ten Kate Honda team in the Superbike World Championship as a replacement for 2007 champion James Toseland. At Valencia he challenged Max Neukirchner for the win at the final corner, resulting in a collision which broke Neukirchner's collarbone. Checa's first two wins – following four podium finishes – both came in the meeting at Miller Motorsports Park in Salt Lake City on 1 June 2008, he did not reach the podium again, but consistent results elsewhere allowed him to finish fifth in the championship. He won the Suzuka 8 Hours with teammate Ryuichi Kiyonari. In 2009, Checa struggled to compete for much of the season, securing just four podium finishes and finishing seventh in the riders' standings, 32 points behind satellite Honda rider Leon Haslam. During the 2009 season, Ten Kate Honda announced that they would be downsizing their operation from three riders to just two.
Both Checa and Ryuichi Kiyonari were released, with Jonathan Rea retained and Max Neukirchner joining the team from Suzuki. In November 2009, Checa was confirmed as a rider at the Althea Ducati team, where he would race alongside Shane Byrne, he scored Althea's first win at the season opening meeting at Phillip Island, was on course for victories in both races at Miller Motorsports Park in the United States before suffering mystery mechanical failures in both races. Checa went on to win the Italian round at Imola and finished the season in third place in the 2010 championship. Checa dominated the opening round of the 2011 season, winning both races comfortably at Phillip Island on his Ducati 1098R, he won thirteen more times and was crowned the 2011 World Superbike Champion at the penultimate round at the Magny-Cours circuit in France, becoming the first Spaniard & only the 3rd European rider from outside of the United Kingdom after Raymond Roche & Max Biaggi to have done so. Carloscheca.com Official website Media related to Carlos Checa at Wikimedia Commons
AMA Superbike Championship
MotoAmerica Superbike Championship is an American motorcycle racing series. It is the premier superbike racing series in the United States, part of the American Motorcyclist Association sanctioned events group; the AMA Road Racing Championship was created in 1976 to provide playing field for professional racing teams and a means for motorcycle manufacturers to showcase their sport-performance, production based models. Sanctioned by the AMA, they organised the series until 2008. From 2009 to 2014, the Daytona Motorsports Group was the organiser under supervision of the AMA; the AMA, not pleased with motorcycle counts and participation in international events, stripped the DMG organisation of professional road racing and awarded it to a new organisation led by Wayne Rainey, KRAVE, with assistance from Dorna, which renamed it the MotoAmerica Road Racing Series beginning in 2015. It was announced at the 2018 season-ending prizegiving banquet that AMA and KRAVE have renewed their deal to the 2024 season, with an option for five more seasons to the 2029 season.
Current MotoAmerica classes are aligned with the FIM, similar to the Spanish CEV championship, their names will be aligned with the FIM. Superbike Stock 1000 Supersport Twins Junior Cup The most successful riders included Doug Chandler, Scott Russell, Ben Spies, Miguel Duhamel and Mat Mladin, who holds several series records including seven championships. Five non-Americans won the title – Englishman Reg Pridmore, Australians Mat Mladin and Troy Corser, Canadian Miguel Duhamel, Spaniard Toni Elías. Starting in 2016, television rights are held by the Al Jazeera Media Network's beIN Sports brand. List of AMA Superbike champions AMA Pro Daytona Sportbike Championship AMA Supersport Championship Official website Superbike Champions at SportNetwork.net
Losail International Circuit
Losail International Circuit is a motor racing circuit located just outside in the town of Lusail, north of Doha, Qatar. Built in just under a year by 1,000 workers at the cost of $US 58 million, the track opened in 2004 to the inaugural Marlboro Grand Prix of Qatar, won by Sete Gibernau. In addition the circuit hosted; the track is 5.380 km in length, with a main straight of just over a kilometre at 1,068 metres. It is surrounded by artificial grass to stop the sand encroaching on the track, it happens to be somewhat similar to the Bahrain International Circuit in Sakhir. In 2007, Losail added permanent outdoor lighting for night races. At the time, the lighting of the Losail Circuit by Musco Lighting was the largest permanent venue sports lighting project in the world, a distinction that now belongs to another Gulf motorsport venue, Yas Marina Circuit in Abu Dhabi; the first night race in MotoGP history was the Commercialbank Grand Prix of Qatar in March 2008. In February 2009, a GP2 Asia Series nighttime race took place.
Best qualifying lap was achieved by Nico Hülkenberg in 1:35.741. The Superbike World Championship has visited Losail from 2014-present. In addition, the venue has hosted the opening round of the FIM Motocross World Championship since 2013. Official website MotoGP calendar brief on Losail Trackpedia's guide to driving the Losail International Circuit Google maps satellite view of Losail International Circuit
Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit
The Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit is a motor racing circuit located near Ventnor, on Phillip Island, Australia. The current circuit was first used in 1956. Motor racing on Phillip Island began in 1928 with the running of the 100 Miles Road Race, an event which has since become known as the first Australian Grand Prix, it utilised a high speed rectangle of local closed-off public roads with four similar right hand corners. The course length varied, with the car course 6 miles per lap, compared to the motorcycle circuit, 10 miles in length; the circuit was the venue for the Australian Grand Prix through to 1935 and it was used for the last time on 6 May 1935 for the Jubilee Day Races. A new 3.312 mile triangular circuit utilising the pit straight from the original rectangular course was subsequently mapped out and first used for the Australian Race Drivers' Cup on 5 November 1935. The final car event on the circuit was held on Cup Day 1938 and the final motorcycle race meeting was conducted on 30 January 1940.
Aside from the Australian Grand Prix races, other significant events staged at the Phillip Island road circuit included: 1934 Phillip Island 100 1934 Winter 100 1934 Victorian Centenary Grand Prix 1935 Centenary 300 1935 Winter 100 1935 Australian Race Drivers' Cup 1936 Victorian Sporting Car Club Trophy 1936 Australian Tourist Trophy 1937 Phillip Island Trophy In 1951, a group of six local businessmen decided to build a new track. About 2 km away from the original circuit, it still bears the corner name signs of the original circuit; as the piece of available land was on the edge of the coast, the track is known for its steep grades – the highest 57 metres – which caused cost overruns and delays in track opening. The new track was opened in 1956 and in 1960 the first Armstrong 500 production car race was held at the circuit. Extensive damage resulted from the running of the 1962 Armstrong 500, with the circuit owners unable to finance repairs, the circuit was closed and the race was moved to the Mount Panorama Circuit at Bathurst in New South Wales, to become known as the Bathurst 1000.
The circuit reopened in October 1967 and hosted the Phillip Island 500K endurance race, a round of the Australian Manufacturers' Championship, from 1971 to 1977. The race was a round of the Australian Touring Car Championship in 1976 and 1977, but again, due to its testing terrain, the circuit required significant maintenance and declined through the 1970s. It was farmed by its owners while closed and was sold in 1985 in preparation for reopening, but did not do so until 1988 after agreement on a long term lease and rebuild agreement. During the time the circuit deteriorated and closed, part of the main problem for its owners was that the main bridge from the island to the Australian mainland could not carry the heavy vehicles needed to resurface the circuit; this meant that the bitumen surface was a cold mix which broke up under the rigours of racing, instead of the standard hot mix which would have allowed a more durable surface. It would not be until the mid-1980s that the bridge would be rebuilt allowing the necessary equipment needed for resurfacing.
The circuit was refurbished with a reduced length of 4.445 kilometres and was reopened on 4 December 1988 for the final round of the 1988 Swann Insurance International Series for motorcycles. In 1989, the Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix joined the F. I. M. Road Racing World Championship calendar for the first time, was held at Phillip Island; the 1989 race saw a race long dice in the 500 cc division between local favourites Wayne Gardner and Kevin Magee, along with Wayne Rainey and Christian Sarron. The race was won by 1987 World Champion Gardner to the delight of the huge crowd. Gardner would make it two in a row at the Island in 1990 before the race moved to Eastern Creek in Sydney for 1991; the Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix would remain at Eastern Creek until it returned permanently to Phillip Island from 1997 onwards. Phillip Island hosted its first Superbike World Championship round in 1990, taking over from Sydney's Oran Park Raceway as the Australian round of the series. Local riders Peter Goddard and Rob Phillis won the two races for what was Round 12 of the season, with Goddard having secured pole position.
The World Superbike round continues to be held annually at Phillip Island to this day. In 1990, the Australian Touring Car Championship returned to the circuit for the first time since 1977, this time as a sprint round. Dick Johnson won the round in his Ford Sierra RS500, in what was to be his final round victory; the event was not held in 1991 or 1992, but was reinstated to the calendar in 1993, with the sprint format continuing every year until 2004. By the ATCC was known as V8 Supercars. After not appearing on the calendar in 2004, from 2005 to 2007, Phillip Island hosted the Grand Finale. In each year, the event decided that year's champion, including in controversial circumstances in 2006. From 2008 to 2011, Phillip Island returned to hosting a 500 km race, this time known for sponsorship reasons as the L&H 500; the Phillip Island 500 replaced Sandown's Sandown 500 as the annual V8 Supercar 500 km race, an event, reinstated for 2012. Since Phillip Island has returned to hosting a sprint round of the championship, which has become known as the Phillip Island Super Sprint.
The Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix has always been more of a promoter event than a profit-raiser in itself. The contract was prolonged until 2026, although tobacco advertising has been banned since 2007. 1951: A significant meeting of six local businessmen decided to re-establish