111th United States Congress
The One Hundred Eleventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government from January 3, 2009, until January 3, 2011. It began during the last two weeks of the George W. Bush administration, with the remainder spanning the first two years of Barack Obama's presidency, it was composed of the House of Representatives. The apportionment of seats in the House was based on the 2000 U. S. Census. In the November 4, 2008 elections, the Democratic Party increased its majorities in both chambers, giving President Obama a Democratic majority in the legislature for the first two years of his presidency. A new delegate seat was created for the Northern Mariana Islands; the 111th Congress had the most experienced members in history: at the start of the 111th Congress, the average member of the House had served 10.3 years, while the average Senator had served 13.4 years. This Congress has been considered one of the most productive Congresses in history in terms of legislation passed since the 89th Congress, during Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society.
January 2009: Two Senate seats were disputed when the Congress convened: An appointment dispute over the Illinois seat vacated by President Barack Obama arose following Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich's solicitation of bribes in exchange for an appointment to the Senate. Roland Burris was appointed to the seat on December 31, 2008 but his credentials were not accepted until January 12, 2009. An election dispute over the Minnesota seat held by Norm Coleman, between Coleman and challenger Al Franken, was decided in June 30, 2009 in favor of Franken. Franken's admission gave the Senate Democratic caucus sixty votes, enough to defeat a filibuster in a party-line vote. January 8, 2009: Joint session counted the Electoral College votes of the 2008 presidential election. January 20, 2009: Inauguration of President Barack Obama. February 24, 2009: President's speech to a Joint Session April 28, 2009: Senator Arlen Specter switched from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party. September 9, 2009: President Obama addressed a joint session of Congress to promote health care reform, which Representative Joe Wilson interrupted by shouting at the President.
January 21, 2010: Citizens United v. FEC: The U. S. Supreme Court struck down limits on campaign contributions by nonprofits, labor unions and other associations. January 25, 2010: 2010 State of the Union Address February 4, 2010: Republican Scott Brown's election to the Senate ended the Democratic supermajority. April 20-September 19, 2010: Deepwater Horizon oil spill November 2, 2010: 2010 general elections, in which Republicans regained control of the House while the Democrats remained in control of the Senate. January 29, 2009: Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–2 February 4, 2009: Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act, Pub. L. 111–3 February 17, 2009: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–5 March 11, 2009: Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, Pub. L. 111–8 March 30, 2009: Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–11 April 21, 2009: Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act, Pub. L. 111–13 May 20, 2009: Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009, Pub.
L. 111–21 May 20, 2009: Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–22 May 22, 2009: Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–23 May 22, 2009: Credit CARD Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–24 June 22, 2009: Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, as Division A of Pub. L. 111–31 June 24, 2009: Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2009 including the Car Allowance Rebate System, Pub. L. 111–32 October 28, 2009: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, including the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, Pub. L. 111–84 November 6, 2009: Worker and Business Assistance Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–92 December 16, 2009: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. 111–117 February 12, 2010: Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act, as Title I of Pub. L. 111–139 March 4, 2010: Travel Promotion Act of 2009, as Section 9 of Pub. L. 111–145 March 18, 2010: Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act, Pub. L. 111–147 March 23, 2010: Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Pub.
L. 111–148 March 30, 2010: Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, including the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act, Pub. L. 111–152 May 5, 2010: Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–163 July 1, 2010: Comprehensive Iran Sanctions and Divestment Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–195 July 21, 2010: Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Pub. L. 111–203 July 29, 2010: Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010 August 3, 2010: Fair Sentencing Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–220 August 10, 2010: Securing the Preservation of Our Enduring and Established Constitutional Heritage Act, Pub. L. 111–223 September 27, 2010: Small Business Jobs and Credit Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–240 December 8, 2010: Claims Resolution Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–291 December 13, 2010: Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–296 December 17, 2010: Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–312, H. R. 4853 December 22, 2010: Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010, Pub.
L. 111–321, H. R. 2965 January 2, 2011: James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–347, H. R. 847 January 4, 2011: Shark Conservation Act, Pub. L. 111–348, H. R. 81 January 4, 2011: Food Safety and Modernization Act, Pub. L. 111–353, H. R. 2751 At the encouragement of the Obama administration, Congress devoted significant time considering health care reform. In March 2010, Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law, the first comprehensive health
2016 United States House of Representatives election in Guam
The 2016 United States House of Representatives election in Guam was held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016, to elect the non-voting Delegate to the United States House of Representatives from Guam's at-large congressional district. The election coincided with the elections of other federal and state offices, including the larger 2016 Guamanian general election, the 2016 United States House of Representatives elections, the 2016 United States general elections; the non-voting delegate is elected for a two-year term. Incumbent Democratic Delegate Madeleine Bordallo, who has represented the district since 2003, is seeking re-election for an 8th term, she announced her re-election campaign on January 2016, at the Plaza de Espana in Hagåtña. She is being challenged by Republican Felix Perez Camacho, who served as the Governor of Guam from 2003 to 2011; the primary elections were held on Saturday, August 27, 2016. Anthony "Tony" Babauta, former Assistant Secretary of the Office of Insular Affairs Madeleine Bordallo, incumbent Delegate Felix Perez Camacho, former Governor of Guam Margaret Metcalfe, Republican National Committeewoman and nominee for Delegate in 2014 An election poll conducted by the University of Guam in September 2016 showed incumbent Delegate Madeleine Bordallo leading with 56%, while Republican Felix Camacho placed second with 44%.
The general election was held on November 8, 2016
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
2010 Guamanian gubernatorial election
The Guam gubernatorial election of 2010 was held on November 2, 2010. Republican Governor Felix P. Camacho ineligible to run for re-election. In January 2009, the website D. C.'s Political Report predicted. Republican Eddie Calvo won the election; the Democratic and Republican primary elections were held on September 4, 2010. This is the first gubernatorial election in 40 years in which there was no contested Democratic primary election. Former Governor Carl Gutierrez Previously served as Governor for two terms from January 2, 1995 until January 6, 2003. Senator Frank Aguon is Gutierrez's running mate. Ran for Lt. Governor as the running mate of gubernatorial candidate Robert Underwood in the 2006 election. Attorney Mike Phillips Amanda L. G. Santos - Mother of the late politician and Chamorro activist Senator Angel Santos. Withdrew to run for a Senate seat in the Legislature of Guam. Dr. Vince Akimoto – Santos' announced running mate before their ticket withdrew from the gubernatorial race. Robert A. Underwood – former Delegate to the U.
S. House of Representatives and current President of the University of Guam. Senator Eddie B. Calvo announced team candidacy on July 16, 2009. Senator Ray Tenorio is Calvo's running mate. Lieutenant Governor Michael W. CruzSenator James Espaldon was Cruz's running mate. Eddie Calvo and Ray Tenorio official 2010 campaign Carl Gutierrez and Frank Aguon Jr. official 2010 campaign
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives are representatives of their territory in the House of Representatives, who do not have a right to vote on proposed legislation in the full House but have floor privileges and are able to participate in certain other House functions. Non-voting members may vote in a House committee of which they are a member and introduce legislation. There are six non-voting members: a delegate representing the federal district of Washington D. C. a resident commissioner representing Puerto Rico, one delegate for each of the other four permanently inhabited US Territories: American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the US Virgin Islands. As with voting members, non-voting delegates are elected every two years, the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is elected every four years. Non voting members serve in the House of Representatives—not the Senate. All delegates serve a term of two years, they receive compensation and franking privileges similar to full House members.
Since 1993, the rules governing the rights of a non-voting member have changed three times, current delegates—along with the resident commissioner—enjoy privileges that they did not have previously. Territorial delegates existed before the ratification of the United States Constitution; the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 allowed for a territory with "five thousand free male inhabitants of full age" to elect a non-voting delegate to the Continental Congress. After the ratification of the Constitution, the first United States Congress reenacted the Ordinance and extended it to include the territories south of the Ohio River. In 1790, the state of North Carolina—having ratified the constitution, becoming the 12th state—sent its congressional delegation to what was the federal capital at New York City. Among them was former State of Franklin Governor John Sevier, whose district comprised the "counties beyond the Alleghenies", he took office June 16, 1790, the government of North Carolina had ceded his district to the federal government on February 25, 1790 and it was organized into a territory on August 7, 1790.
He remained a member of the House until March 3, 1791 when he was appointed brigadier general of the militia. On September 3, 1794, James White was elected by the Southwest Territory, which contained Sevier's former district, to be their delegate to Congress. A resolution was put forth in the House to admit him to Congress, but as a delegate was not a position stated in the Constitution, the House debated what, if any, privileges White would have; as the Northwest Ordinance had only stated that a delegate is to sit "in Congress" the first debate was which chamber a delegate would sit in. Resolutions that he sit in both chambers and that his right to debate be limited to territorial matters were defeated; the House voted to allow him a non-voting seat in the House. Following his placement, representatives debated. Representative James Madison stated "The proper definition of Mr. White is to be found in the Laws and Rules of the Constitution, he is not a member of Congress, so cannot be directed to take an oath, unless he chooses to do it voluntarily."
As he was not a Member, he was not directed to take the oath, though every delegate after him has done so. He was extended franking privileges, which allowed him to send official mail free of charge, compensation at the same rate as members. In 1802 Congress passed a law that extended franking privileges and pay to delegates. An act passed in 1817 codified the term and privileges of delegates: n every territory of the United States in which a temporary government has been, or hereafter shall be established...shall have the right to send a delegate to Congress, such delegate shall be elected every second year, for the same term of two years for which members of the House of Representatives of the United States are elected. Similar to delegates are resident commissioners, who represented the large areas acquired during the Spanish–American War, for much of the 20th century were considered colonies, not territories and unlike the acquired areas which would become the contiguous U. S. or Alaska and Hawaii, did not have residents with the rights of, or to U.
S. citizenship. Unlike incorporated territories, they have the right to secede from the Union, in the case of the Philippines, they have. Puerto Rico, a U. S. Commonwealth, has been represented by a non-voting Resident Commissioner since 1901; the resident commissioner holds a status similar to that of a delegate within the House, but serves a four-year term. The resident commissioner is the only individual elected to the House. From 1907 until 1937, while it was a U. S. territory, the Philippines elected two non-voting resident commissioners to serve in the U. S. House of Representatives. From 1937 until 1946, while it was a U. S. Commonwealth, the Philippines sent one non-voting resident commissioner to the House. Upon independence in 1946, the Philippines ceased to be represented in Congress. In the mid-1960s, a number of small territories which had no prospects of becoming states began to petition for representation in Congress. Starting in 1970, the House of Representatives started to grant representation to these territories, but with limited voting rights.
American Samoa, an insular area since 1929, first elected a delegate, A. U. Fuimaono, in 1970. However, A
2018 Guamanian gubernatorial election
The 2018 Guam gubernatorial election took place on Tuesday, November 6, 2018, to elect the Governor of Guam. Incumbent Republican Governor Eddie Baza Calvo was barred from re-election, after his win in 2014, since Guam does not allow governors more than two consecutive terms; the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of Guam are elected on the same ticket. Five candidates declared their bids. After the August 25 primaries, the Republican party nominated Lieutenant Governor Ray Tenorio, while the Democratic party nominated former territorial senator Lou Leon Guerrero. Democratic primary second-placer Frank Aguon Jr. initiated a write-in campaign in hopes of becoming Guam's first write-in elected governor. Lou Leon Guerrero won the general election with 50.7 % of votes, becoming the first female governor in Guamanian history and the first Democrat to win the Governorship of Guam since 1998. Incumbent Lieutenant Governor Ray Tenorio Lt. Governor Tenorio declared his bid for governor and has chosen former Senator Vicente Anthony "Tony" Ada as his running mate in the upcoming gubernatorial election.
The lieutenant governor and former senator proclaimed their gubernatorial bid in January, days after election posters of the two were spotted at the Republican Party of Guam headquarters in Maite. Tenorio, along with Ada, were former senators of the Guam Legislature with Tenorio serving in the 27th-30th legislature and Ada in the 29th-33rd legislature. Ada won his seat in 29th legislature in a special election after the resignation of former Democratic senator Matt Rector; the Tenorio/Ada ticket was unopposed in the Republican primaries. The following candidates have declared their bids to run in 2018 Gubernatorial Elections. Sen. Frank B. Aguon, 24th-33rd serving in the 34th Guam Legislature He announced his bid to be the Governor of Guam in February, just within weeks of winning his ninth legislative term and has chosen the former US attorney for Guam Alicia Limtiaco as his running mate in the primary and general election. Aguon ran for Lt. Governor in 2006 under the Underwood-Aguon ticket and lost.
He ran again as Lt. Governor in 2010 with Governor Carl T. C. Gutierrez in which he lost. Former Senator Lou Leon Guerrero, 23rd-24th, 26th-28th Guam Legislature She announced her bid to run for governor in February while attending a wedding at Plaza de España in Hagatña. In a video, she declared her candidacy and chose Joshua "Josh" Tenorio, the new vice president of Guam Autospot, to be her running mate in the 2018 primary and general election. Leon Guerrero once ran for Lt. Governor under the Ada/Leon Guerrero ticket in the 1998 Democratic primary and lost against the incumbent ticket of Governor Carl T. C. Gutierrez and Lt. Governor Madeleine Z. Bordallo. Leon Guerrero serves as the chair of the board of directors at the Bank of Guam. Josh Tenorio served as the deputy chief of staff under the administration of former governor Carl T. C. Gutierrez, running once again for Governor of Guam. Former Governor Carl T. C. Gutierrez, serving from 1995 to 2003 Governor Gutierrez declared his bid for governor in his home in Agaña Heights.
He has selected former Guam Police Department chief Fred Bordallo as his running mate. Bordallo once lost, he ran again as governor in 2006 under the Gutierrez/Cruz ticket but lost in the primaries against former Delegate Robert A. Underwood and Senator Frank B. Aguon, he ran once again as Governor of Guam in 2010, with Frank B. Aguon as his running mate, they were narrowly defeated by the Republican Calvo-Tenorio ticket by 487 votes. In 2014, former Governor Gutierrez and his running mate Gary Gumataotao ran against the re-election bid of Republican Governor Eddie Baza Calvo and Lt. Governor Ray Tenorio, they lost the election and gave their support to the re-elected leaders. Sen. Dennis G. Rodriguez Jr. 31st-33rd serving in the 34th Guam Legislature In January, Senator Rodriguez announced his bid for the Governor of Guam, selecting former educator and military veteran David Cruz Jr. as his running mate. Rodriguez's running mate, David Cruz Jr. faced challenges in his bid for Lt. Governor due to an employment contract with the Guam Department of Education.
Laws on Guam prohibit government employees from running for public office. Cruz was fired by the Department of Education by late June 2018, after serving for years as a Air Force Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps instructor at the John F. Kennedy High School; the general elections were held on Tuesday, November 6, 2018. Democratic candidate Lou Leon Guerrero garnered 18,081 votes against Ray Tenorio's 9,419 votes. Guam law requires gubernatorial candidates to attain more than 50% of the total votes to be elected governor. Leon Guerrero passed the necessary threshold by a razor-thin margin, winning the election with 50.7% of the vote against Tenorio's 26.41% and Aguon's 22.81%. Official governor campaign websitesRay Tenorio for Governor
Guam's at-large congressional district
Guam's at-large congressional district comprises the entire area of the United States territory of Guam. Guam has been represented in the United States House of Representatives by a non-voting delegate since 1972, it is represented by Democrat Michael San Nicolas who has represented the district since 2019