Football League (Greece)
It is It began in 1954 as regional championship, separated in two groups, North and South. Then, the teams were the champions of each Greek football clubs association. Every year the teams were different. In 1960, the Division took its name and some teams were permanent, from 1960 to 1984, there existed multiple groups, peaking in 1962 with ten groups. In 1962, the Division was made permanent, something that had as a condition the disengagement of the teams from their local championships. This change has led many statisticians to begin statistics from this period, for 21 periods, from 1962–63 to 1982–83, championship was carried out in groups. The subordinate system was introduced for first time in 1983–84 season, on August 3,2010, the change of divisions name to Football League was announced. At present, there are eighteen clubs that compete in the Football League, playing each other in a home, at the end of the season, the bottom four teams are relegated to the Football League 2. The top two teams gain automatic promotion, unlike the Superleague, clubs in the Football League do not get relegated if the club fails to obtain a license. All teams in the Football League take part in the Greek Football Cup, Football League official website Table, results and fixtures at Soccerway Promoted Teams Top Scorers Football League News
PAS Giannina F.C.
PAS Giannina F. C. or with its full name Panepirotikos Athlitikos Syllogos Giannina is a Greek football club based in the city of Ioannina, the capital of Epirus region. PAS Giannina was formed in 1966 as a result of the union of the two local teams – AO Ioanninon and PAS Averof. As emblem of the new team was chosen the bull, as appeared on the ancient coin of the Epirote League. The club have competed several times in the Superleague. The club is probably best known among Greek football spectators for its loyal support, PAS Giannina was a mid-table club of the Second Division until 1971. In 1966–67 the club finished 6th, in 1971 the Portuguese Gómez de Faria was signed as manager. In 1971–72 PAS Giannina finished 13th, in the middle of the season three Argentine players were signed, Alfredo Glasman, Jose Pasternac and Eduardos Kontogeorgakis. At the end of the three more Argentine players were signed, Juan Montes, Oscar Alvarez and Eduardo Lisa. PAS Giannina was in the race for promotion, in 1972–73 the club finished second. In 1973–74 it finished first and promoted to the First division, PAS Giannina was in the First Division for 10 years. The club finished several times near the top of the First Division table, often earning victories over more established Greek teams such as Olympiacos, Panathinaikos, AEK Athens, in 1974–75 PAS Giannina finished 9th. In 1975–76 PAS Giannina finished 5th for the first time and this position is the record high for the club. In 1976–77 it fiished 11th. In 1977–78 the club finished 5th again, the club qualified for the Balkans Cup for the first time in its history. In the middle of the season the former Poland national team coach Jacek Gmoch was signed from the Epirote club and it was a brief but reasonably successful tenure. In 1980–81 it finished 11th. In 1983–84 PAS Giannina finished 15th and it was in a tie with Panionios. There was a play out match in Larissa between the two clubs, PAS Giannina relegated in the Second Division. In 1984-85 the club finished first in the Second Division and promoted to the First Division, in 1986–87 it finished 16th and relegated to the Second Division In 1987-88 it finished 12th. The club qualified for the playoffs with Ethnikos, Apollon Kalamarias, Korinthos, Diagoras. In 1989–90 it finished third and promoted to the First Division, in 1990–91 the club finished 18th and relegated to the Second Division
Veria Football Club is a football club based in Veria, Imathia, Greece. Veria FC was founded in September 1960 when two teams merged. The club has competed in Superleague Greece since 2012 and it has the nicknames Queen of the North and Rossoblu. Veria, PAOK and Iraklis are the clubs left representing the region of Macedonia in the top-tier championship. In 1960 two local teams of Imathia, Hermes and Vermion, merged when their founders decided that this was the way to create a competitive club. Verias first appearance in football championships came in 1962–63, when it finished sixth in the fourth group of Beta Ethniki. Four years later, the club had a breakthrough, finishing first in the group of Beta Ethniki. Because of this accomplishment, Veria was nicknamed Queen of the North, the following season saw Veria underperform and be relegated after three play-off matches against Olympiakos Volou. Despite the relegation, Veria achieved promotion the season, again finishing first in Group C of Beta Ethniki. Veria finished 13th in Alpha Ethniki in the 1970–71 season, during which they suffered a heavy 8–2 defeat by AEK Athens, the following season saw them finish 15th and be relegated again. Despite the relegation, Veria celebrated some notable wins such as against AEK Athens with a score 1–0, Olympiacos with a score 2–1, from 1972 until 1977, Veria competed in Beta Ethniki. They finished mid-table until 1975 but in 1976–77 tied with Kavala for first place, Veria were relegated again in 1977–78, when they finished 16th. The relegation came after Veria attempted to bribe Christos Hatziskoulidis of Egaleo F. C. to underperform in a match, the team was suspended and deducted ten points. For the next eight years Veria played in Beta Ethniki, finishing mid-table for seven of them, for five of those seasons Veria faced the other Imathia team, Naoussa, which led to a rivalry between the fans of the two cities. In 1982–83, Naoussa was relegated and the rivality was forgotten, in 1985–86, Veria played again in Alpha Ethniki following promotion in the previous season. The campaign resulted in the clubs best ever position, finishing joint seventh with AEK. That season,12 out of 16 teams, including Veria, were docked six points due to a players strike. Despite the great season in Alpha Ethniki, the season saw Veria being relegated again
Diagoras FC is a football club based in Rhodes, Greece. Diagoras is named after the islands ancient boxer Diagoras, the team first played under Ottoman Rule until the short lived independence of the Dodecanese in 1912. No matches at all were held during the Balkan Wars and the team did not play with Greek teams until the Dodecanese joined with the rest of Greece in 1947. The club demonstrated rich social, cultural, sporting and especially patriotic activities, Diagoras reconstituted in 1945, just prior the liberation of Rhodes and the union with Greece. They played in Super League Greece between 1986-1989, in 1987 the club reached the semi-finals of the Greek Cup, losing to OFI. On 16 February 2012, Diagoras was expelled from the leagues by the Greek Professional Sports Committee
Agrotikos Asteras F.C.
Agrotikos Asteras is a Thessaloniki-based football club, currently playing in the Football League. It was founded in 1932 by refugees from Asia Minor, Agrotikos Asteras was founded from Greek refugees from Asia Minor, that formerly lived in Koukloutzas, Smyrni. The idea of the establishment was conceived by a group of teenagers living in Neos Koukloutzas, Thessaloniki. Its statute was handed to Greek court on 10 January 1930, the most important season for the teams history was 2005-2006, when the club won the trophy of Gamma Ethniki and achieved the semi finals of the Greek Cup. The best players this season were Nikos Kyzeridis and Nikos Sakellaridis, 2005-2006 was the most successful season in history of the club. Agrotikos finished 1st in Gamma Ethniki and achieved promotion to Beta Ethniki for the first time in its history, the team had many wins with big scores. It had built many times consecutive wins with producing great football, all Greek football was talking for Agrotikos Asteras. A small team in Euosmos were saying and this team, had achieved the semi-finals, an excellent journey. In second round, Agrotikos played with Vyzas Megaron, and won by 6-2, in third round, it won Kastoria F. C. 3-1. In fourth round, Agrotikos achieved a victory, winning in penalties 5-4 historical PAOK FC. In fifth round, Agrotikos met Ergotelis and won 2-0, in quarter finals, Agrotikos Asteras played Ethnikos Asteras in a two-leg round. Agrotikos goal scored by captain Nikos Kyzeridis, at home leg, Agrotikos won 4-0. Asteras was through in semi finals, then, the club was drawn with AEK Athens, the 3rd in cup conquests. In away leg ended 3-0 and at home ended 1-0 with Tsouklis goal, Football League 2 Winners, 2005-06, 2013-14 Delta Ethniki Winners, 1993-94 As of 18 February,2017. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Kallithea F. C. is a Greek professional football club based in Kallithea, currently competing in the Football League. The clubs full name is Gymnastikos Syllogos Kallithea, meaning Gymnastic Club of Kallithea, the club was founded on 18 August 1966, from the merger of five local clubs, Esperos, Iraklis, AE Kallitheas, Kallithaikos, and Pyrsos. The five stars in Kallitheas club logo represent the five founding clubs, Kallitheas first season of competitive football was in 1966–67 in the third tier of Greek football. In 1969, the club earned promotion to the second division, in 2002 Kallithea achieved promotion to top flight, for the first time. The first match there in the history was a 1–0 loss to Olympiacos at Georgios Kamaras Stadium. The clubs first win in the competition came on 14 September, after a 9th-place finish in 2004–05, Kallithea was relegated back the following season. In 2006–07 and 2007–08, the club finished 7th and 6th in the second level, Kallithea has reached as far as the quarterfinal stage of the Greek Cup on five occasions, in 1969–70, in 1978–79, in 1986–87, in 2001–02 and in 2009–10. Kallithea plays its matches at Gregoris Lambrakis Stadium in Kallithea. The stadium was built in 1970, and currently has a capacity of 4,250. The ground is referred to by its nickname, El Paso. The site of the used to be a quarry, explaining the tall rock lining the north end of the stadium. Third Division,31976,1993,2010 As of 24 January 2016, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Ethnikos Asteras F.C.
Ethnikos Asteras F. C. the National Star, is a professional football club based in Kaisariani, Athens, Greece, currently competing in Football League 2, the Greek third division. The club, originally named Ethnikos Astir, was founded in 1927 from the merger of Ethnikos and they participated in the Greek first division from 1998 until 2002. Ethnikos Asteras is also known as Asteras FC a name related to the Warriors, the clubs colors are red and white. Nikos Alefantos Spyros Livathinos Armandos Leimanis Official site
Ethnikos Piraeus F.C.
Ethnikos Piraeus 1923 F. C. is a Greek professional football club based in Piraeus. They have had a turbulent recent history, and are competing in the third division Football League 2. Colloquially referred to as Ethnikos Piraeus, is a club with teams competing in football, water polo. The clubs most significant teams, in terms of history and success, are their football and water polo teams, prior to 1959–60 Greek football was played in regional championships and then the top teams from each region would advance to play for the National Championship. In some pre-War years a traditional Final match was played between 2 regional champions, but generally the Panhellenic Championship was played as a final round-robin between at least 3 teams, Ethnikos was Piraeus Champion in 1927–28, but lost the National Championship to Aris. The following year Ethnikos was Piraeus Champion once again, but the National Championship was not played, in 1932–33 Ethnikos won the Greek Cup, the club’s only major title. Ethnikos eliminated Apollon in the Quarterfinals and Olympiacos in the Semifinals before meeting Aris in the Final, Ethnikos and Aris played to a 2–2 draw in Thessaloniki, but Ethnikos won the replay 2–1 and took the Cup. Ethnikos won another Piraeus Championship in 1938–39, but lost the South Division by 2 points, Ethnikos reached the Semifinals of the Greek Cup in 1938–39 and 1939–40, but lost to PAOK and Panathinaikos, respectively. The Ethnikos teams of the mid- to late-1950s are considered by many to be Ethnikos’ greatest teams, in 1955–56 Ethnikos finished 2nd in Greece, just 1 point behind champions Olympiakos. In 1956–57 a scandal robbed Ethnikos of the National Championship, with 4 matches left in the National Championship, Ethnikos was favorite for the title, and next on the schedule was Olympiakos, who Ethnikos had already defeated earlier in the season. Ethnikos was docked 4 points and not allowed to play the final 4 matches of the season, from 1959–60 the Greek championship changed to its modern form and the first division became known as Alpha Ethniki. Since 1959–60 Ethnikos is tied for the 8th-most first division participations with 36, along with OFI, ahead of Ethnikos are traditional powers Olympiakos, Panathinaikos, AEK and PAOK as well as Iraklis, Aris and Panionios. During the 1960s Ethnikos’ best league finishes were 5th in 1962–63 and 6th in 1960–61, from 1960–61 to 1968–69 Ethnikos never finished outside the top 10. Ethnikos reached the Semifinals of the Greek Cup twice during the 1960s, in 1967–68 Ethnikos lost in the Semifinals to Panathinaikos. The following year Ethnikos came desperately close to another Cup Final – after defeating PAOK 5–4 in the Quarterfinals, in 1974–75 Ethnikos made its best challenge for the league championship in the modern era. Though never making another challenge for the league championship, Ethnikos remained consistently competitive during the 1970s. Ethnikos’ two best runs in the Greek Cup in the 1970s were halted by PAOK, in 1972-72 Ethnikos lost to PAOK 3–2 in the Semifinals and in 1976–77 Ethnikos was defeated by PAOK in the Quarterfinals. Ethnikos made decent 7th-place finishes in 1979–80 and 1980–81, but the team would struggle through the rest of the 1980s
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean. It has the longest documented history of any living language, spanning 34 centuries of written records and its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history, other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic and many other writing systems. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, during antiquity, Greek was a widely spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world and many places beyond. It would eventually become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire, the language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, Turkey, and the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are used to coin new words for other languages, Greek. Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, the earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the worlds oldest recorded living language. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now extinct Anatolian languages, the Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods, Proto-Greek, the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age, Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Mycenaean civilisation. It is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards, Ancient Greek, in its various dialects, the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation. It was widely known throughout the Roman Empire, after the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin was established in the city of Rome and Koine Greek became a first or second language in the Roman Empire. The origin of Christianity can also be traced through Koine Greek, Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, the continuation of Koine Greek in Byzantine Greece, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Much of the written Greek that was used as the language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine. Modern Greek, Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period and it is the language used by the modern Greeks, and, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it. In the modern era, the Greek language entered a state of diglossia, the historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language is often emphasised. Greek speakers today still tend to regard literary works of ancient Greek as part of their own rather than a foreign language and it is also often stated that the historical changes have been relatively slight compared with some other languages. According to one estimation, Homeric Greek is probably closer to demotic than 12-century Middle English is to modern spoken English, Greek is spoken by about 13 million people, mainly in Greece, Albania and Cyprus, but also worldwide by the large Greek diaspora. Greek is the language of Greece, where it is spoken by almost the entire population
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Atromitos Athens Football Club is an association football club based in Peristeri, Athens that plays in the Superleague Greece. It was founded in 1923 and its ground is Peristeri Stadium. In recent years, Atromitos has been established itself as one of the most competitive and strong clubs in Greece. They were runners-up of the Greek Cup in 2011 and 2012 and have had breakthrough runs in the league, finishing 4th in 2011–12, 3rd in 2012–13, 4th in 2013–14 and 4th as well in 2014–15 season. Their best performance in the league has been the third place, in 1924, Atromitos was accepted into the Greek football league. At the time, Atromitos played at Aris Park, which was the ground of Panellinios and Panathinaikos. During their first season in the leagues first division, they ended in third place behind Panathinaikos, in 1928, they defeated Goudi 4–3 in the final game at Rouf Stadium to become champions of Athens. That same year, they part in the first Panhellenic Championship as Athens champions. On 24 May 1928, they were beaten 3–1 by Aris Thessaloniki in an away game, on 10 June, they managed a draw at home against Ethnikos, before losing again to Aris 3–1 seven days later. Overall in the championship, Atromitos finished third. During the following two years, Atromitos stayed in the part of the first division of Athens, and in 1929, they finished third behind Panathinaikos. They repeated the feat in 1930 but they were relegated from the first division of Athens in 1931, in 1932, Ioseph Chourouktsoglou and Nikolaos Epioglou decided to move Atromitos to Peristeri. Earlier, it was located in the area as Panathinaikos. There, they formed a merger with the team of Astir Peristeriou, from which comes the crest of Atromitos. Before occupation of Greece, they played again in Panhellenic championship in the season of 1938–39, Atromitos played in second division until May 1972 when, under the coaching of Savva Papazoulou, they were re-promoted to the first level. It proved a change too hard to handle, and they were demoted the following year, in 1975, a better-prepared Atromitos returned to the first division with a large fanbase, and ended the year in 13th place, securing their spot in the top flight. In 1976 they improved to end the season in 9th place, by 1981, Atromitos had succeeded in attracting renowned players such as Stylianopoulos, Álvarez, Toskas and Athanasopoulos. However, despite expectations, the club played for the last time in the top flight
AO Kavala, the Athletic Club Kavala, is a professional association football club based in the city of Kavala, Macedonia, Greece. The club was formed in 1965 from the merger of Phillipoi Kavala, Iraklis Kavala and they have had a few runs in the top division of the Greek League. They were promoted to Alpha Ethniki for the first time in 1969 and they returned to top division in 1976 and played again for six seasons. In 1982 the club were relegated to the Beta Ethniki, after 11 years in Beta Ethniki and one year in Gamma Ethniki they were promoted to Alpha Ethniki. There black period began for the team in which played only in Beta Ethniki. In 2009 they signed Miltiadis Sapanis and EURO2004 winner Fanis Katergiannakis, Kavala were promoted for the first time in 9 years to Greeces top division. In their quest to remain in the top flight they have signed Pepe Reinas back up at Liverpool, Charles Itandje, additional season signings include Craig Moore, Željko Kalac, Ebi Smolarek, Diogo Rincón, Sotiris Leontiou, Serge Dié, Wilson Oruma and Frédéric Mendy. This combined with coach Aad de Mos meant that Kavala set the league alight and they subsequently achieved notable victories in the 2009–2010 season against Iraklis FC, Panionios, AEK FC and Panathinaikos FC. Ending in 6th place, the team entered the transfer season, in July, the Spanish goalkeeper, Javier Lopez Vallejo was added to the roster. The teams owner sought the new manager throughout Europe and settled on the Serbian coach Dragomir Okuka who lasted until November, in Kasperczaks debut as a coach, Kavala beat AEK, 2–1, in what was considered a very good appearance. But in March 2011, Kasperczak, retired as the coach of team, and he was replaced by Ioannis Matzourakis. Kavala finished 7th and later faced the threat of relegation to Football League due to the match-fixing scandal, after an appeal, the team managed to avoid relegation by starting the new league with 8 points less. On 23 August, however, the Professional Sports Committee stripped both Kavala and Olympiakos Volou from their licence and demoted them to the Delta Ethniki. Kavala competed in Delta Ethniki Group 1, Ιn September 2013 Germans investors take the management of Kavala F. C. The agreement provides that the new investors will catch and a significant part of its debts to old players. Indeed, the Germans will be able to buy a majority stake of the shares of FC paying €500,000 clause of the first season and €700,000 for the second, respectively. The Anthi Karagianni Municipal Stadium, formerly the Kavala National Stadium, is a stadium in Kavala. It is the homebase of Kavala F. C, the stadium was built 1970, and currently has a seating capacity of 10,500. It is named after the athlete, Anthi Karagianni, who won three silver medals in the 2004 Paralympic Games
The Superleague Greece is the highest professional football league in Greece. It was formed on 16 July 2006 and replaced Alpha Ethniki at the top of the Greek football league system, the league consists of 16 teams and runs from August to May, with teams playing 30 games each. As of May 2013, Superleague Greece is ranked 12th in the UEFA ranking of leagues, the current champions are Olympiacos, who have won a total of 43 titles. Between 1905 and 1912, a Panhellenic Championship was organised by the Hellenic Association of Amateur Athletics and this championship was actually a local tournament among clubs from Athens and Piraeus. After the Balkan Wars and World War I, two associations were formed, one organising a football league in Athens and Piraeus. These were the Athens-Piraeus FCA and the Macedonia FCA, in 1923, a Panhellenic Champion was determined by a play-off game between the Athens-Piraeus and the Thessaloniki champions. Peiraikos Syndesmos won 3-1 against Aris Thessaloniki and this panhellenic final was not repeated the following year as the EPSAP was split into the Athens FCA and Piraeus FCA following a dispute. In 1927, a championship was organised in the form of a round-robin tournament between the champions of the three governing bodies. This time, Aris Thessaloniki won, finishing ahead of Ethnikos Piraeus and this national championship was set up again in 1929, and over the next years evolved into a tournament in which multiple teams took part. Still, these teams had to qualify for the championship through their local football competitions. In 1959 the Alpha Ethniki - the precursor of the current Superleague - was set up as a national round-robin tournament, at present,16 clubs compete in the Superleague, playing each other in a home and away series. At the end of the season, the three clubs are relegated to Football League. In their place, the top three teams from Football League are promoted, the number of teams to be relegated may change, depending on a licensing procedure that takes place at the end of the regular season. The league was reduced from 18 teams to 16 following the 2014–15 season, the Superleague is currently entitled to two entrants into the UEFA Champions League. The Superleague champion directly enters the stage of the UEFA Champions League. The second through fifth place teams in the Superleague enter a play-off for the second Greek entry, the play-off winner enters the UEFA Champions Leagues third qualifying round, a two-legged tie from which the winner advances to the play offs of the UEFA Champions League. The winner of the Greek Cup automatically qualifies for the UEFA Europa League, in the play-off for the UEFA Champions League, the teams play each other in a home and away round robin. However, they do not all start with 0 points, instead, a weighting system applies to the teams standing at the start of the play-off mini-league
Kastoria F. C. or AGSK Kastoria, the Athletic Gymnastic Club of Kastoria, is a Greek association football club based in the city of Kastoria, Macedonia, Greece. The club was established in 1963 when three local football clubs merged to form one team representing the town. In 1974, Kastoria played for the first time in the A Ethniki of the Greek National League, Kastoria have played in the A Division from 1974–1983 and again in season 1996-1997. Kastoria FC won the Greek Cup in 1980 by defeating Iraklis and its golden era was between 1974 and 1983, when the club remained for 9 consecutive years amongst Greece’s top elite clubs, achieving the most important trophy of its history, The Greek Cup. During this golden period, two Presidents distinguished themselves, Sotiris Sianos and Giorgos Chalkidis, another important presence in Kastoria’s history was Mr. Panagiotis Spyropoulos, one of the world’s largest furs trades, who handled the club’s affairs as owner, between 1999 and 2009. During Spyropoulos tenure, Kastoria failed to achieve the return to Greece’s highest football division. After Mr. Mr. Nikolaos Pepelidis, was elected President of the club
Gamma Ethniki, is the third highest football league in Greece. It began in 1965 as a championship, while in 1983 it was changed to professional. Although not literally national, Football League 2 is considered as a national division, on August 3,2010, it was announced that the division had been renamed Football League 2. From season 2013-14, the football League 2 is merged by fourth division championship, the new third division will be held in six groups, with the clubs divided basis of geographical criteria, while it will return in an amateur form. From season 2014-15 and onwards the league will be held in four groups, with the clubs divided basis of geographical criteria. The champion of each group will promote to Football League
Thrasyvoulos Fylis is a football club, based in Fyli, Attica, currently in the Greek Second Division. It was founded in 1938 and named after Thrasybulus, an ancient General who used Fyli as his base to liberate Athens from Sparta and they gained promotion to the Greek Super League for 2008–09. However, their inexperience caused relegation in their first season in Greek Super League
Panserraikos F. C. the All-Serres Football Club, is a football club, based in Serres in Central Macedonia, Greece. Panserraikos is one of the most important and well-supported clubs in northern Greece and had a presence in the First Division in the 1960s and 70s. Panserraikos was formed in 1964 in Serres, when two clubs, Iraklis and Apollon, merged. The club did come close to promotion a few times, missing out on 5 points in 1998, in 2008, Panserraikos managed to end a 16-year wait, gaining promotion to the Greek Super League. On 4 March 2009, Panserraikos won a match against Panathinaikos in the Olympic Stadium in Athens for the Greek Cup quarter finals with a score of 3–2 after being up 3–0 for 71 minutes. The first match leg ended at a 0–0 score and this amazing result landed Panserraikos a spot in the final 4 of the Greek Cup where they played against AEK Athens for a spot in the finals. What made this result so special was that many starters for the team were either injured and this was Panserraikos first time in the semifinals of the Greek Cup. However, Panserraikos was relegated and played again in the 2009–10 Beta Ethniki. Panserraikos finished 5th in 2009–10 Beta Ethniki, but took the 1st place in the play-offs, for one more season in Super League Panserraikos didnt escape the relegation to 2011–12 Football League. After a disappointing season, Panserraikos finished 7th in 2011–12 Football League, konstantin Vostrikov, a self-declared business tycoon who was claiming to construct a 10, 000-seat stadium. The club adopted the Lion of Amphipolis as their emblem, because it is one of the most important monuments in Serres regional unit and its position is next to the west bank of Strymon, close to the bridge of Strymon. It was restored on a pedestal in the position where it was discovered and it is an imposing marble lion in a position of a sited wildcat with its paws up. Lt is erected just outside Nea Kerdylia, on the old national motorway between Thessaloniki and Kavala, according to some archaeologists, the devastation of the monument took place at the end of the 4th century B. C. It is possible that the monument was destroyed by the Roman conquerors, however, the most probable version, seems to be the one that the Lion was destroyed by the Bulgarians in 1204 A. C. Many different opinions have been expressed for the purpose or the cause of the monument’s construction, french archaeologist J. Roger claimed that the monument was erected in honour of Nearchus, Admiral of Alexander the Great. Finally, according to version, the Lion of Amfipolis was erected as a symbolic monument, in order to reflect the tower’s power. The typical kit of the team is that of a shirt with red and white vertical stripes, the shirt has taken different forms during the history of the club, for example with thin or wider stripes. The second most common kit is the one or the all-white one
OFI Crete F.C.
Omilos Filathlon Irakleiou 1925, is a Greek association football club based in Heraklion, on the island of Crete. It is a part of the OFI multi sports club, outside Greece, the club is generally known as OFI Crete, however, the name Crete is not actually part of the clubs official title. The team competes in Gamma Ethniki, the division of the Greek football league system. OFI is the Cretan club with most appearances in the Greek first division and it has won one Greek Cup and one Balkans Cup, while they have competed seven times in UEFA competitions. The club was founded during the autumn of 1925 by a group of athletes that used to exercise in a gym in the city of Heraklion. The official name given to the club was Omilos Filathlon Irakleiou. The colours that OFI used were black and white, because none of the sports clubs had the same colour combination in Crete. The scope of the club, as had been written down in the first deed of association, was to participate in all kinds of events. During the first period of OFI’s existence most of the founders were also members. The years preceding World War II were a difficult period not only for Crete. Thus, it was difficult for OFI to travel and participate in national football tournaments. As a result, OFI was limited to matches around the island of Crete, strangely enough, these local matches were more frequent in comparison to the official ones of former periods. Even though official documentation does not exist, elderly fans of OFI believe that the team played around 400 matches before the Germans finally occupied Crete, after the German occupation of Greece had ended, football tournaments around the country started again. However, it was almost impossible for a team coming from the province to part in it. As a result, even though OFI was the top team in Crete. After 1956, the system in Greece changed slightly, one of those seasons was in 1957–58. OFI played preliminary games in a group of 4 teams, where finished in first place. Thus, OFI, for the first time in its history, however, the team could not stand the frequent trips around Greece and finished in last position
Doxa Drama F.C.
Founded as Peleus in 1918, the team was renamed Doxa in 1919. Initially, the colors were black and white with the logo of a black clover. After the war the teams logo was changed to a black eagle, while the team colours of black. The first formal match of Doxa was against AOK, the team of neighbouring city Kavala, in that first game Doxa won 3–0. Doxa Dramas is one of the founders of the Greek League Alpha Ethniki, Doxa reached the final of the Greek football Cup in 1953/54, 1957/58 and 1958/59, but lost all three finals to Olympiacos. Doxa Drama participated in Alpha Ethniki for 21 seasons, financial and administrative turmoil, however, led to the club being relegated to Greece’s amateur division, Delta Ethniki. In 2008–2009 Doxa had a year in the Third Division. Doxa returned to Beta Ethniki after 11 years for the 2009–2010 season, the stadium of Doxa Drama has a capacity of 7,000 people and it is situated in the western part of the town of Drama, in the district of Komninoi. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Northern regional group, 1953-54, 1954–55, 1956–57, 1958-59, 2nd Division, 1962-63, 1965–66, 1978–79, 1987–88, 1995–96, 2009-10, 2010–11, 2012–13, 2013-14. 3rd Division, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, 2005–2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008–2009, 2014-2015, 2015-16, national amateur division, 2000-01, 2001–02, 2002-03. Official Doxa Drama Website Unofficial Fan Website Information about the stadium
GS Ilioupolis is a multi-sport club based in Ilioupoli, Athens, Greece. The club was founded in 1953, and it has about 2,000 athletes competing in nine sports, GS Ilioupolis colours are red and blue and its logo features a setting sun on its nearby mountains and the ground. The second season in Beta Ethniki, Ilioupoli was punished about the scandal, known from the journalists as Koriopolis. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Ilioupolis has basketball team both mens and womens, the basketball team of GS Ilioupolis plays in the Athens local divisions. Biggest success of the club was winning the Gamma Ethniki championship and it plays for 2nd consecutive season in A1 Ethniki and has played again in the past, from 1995 to 1999. GS Ilioupolis water polo team plays in A1 Ethniki Water Polo and it won the ascension during the last season when it finished in the 2nd place in A2 Ethniki championship. 2012, 44th Ilioupoli had a futsal team and this team had won a Greek cup in 2009. In the same year it was the finalist of the championship, the next years, Ilioupoli Futsal team finished in the 5th or 6th place of the championship until 2012 when the team withdrew from the championship. Futsal team Hellenic Futsal Cup Winner,2009 GS Ilioupolis - Official site
Ilisiakos is an Athens-based football club that was founded in 1927 by Michalis Xydis, Lambropoulos, Evgenopoulos, Nikolaos Plessas, et al. They played in Delta Ethiniki until 2003, ilisiakoss spent the majority of its later history in the Greek second division however the footballing arm of the club merged with Egaleo F. C. in August 2009 and was renamed as Egaleo. This merger was cancelled by Greek Courts, ilisiakos will play into Delta Ethniki in the 2012–13 season. As of 31 October 2016 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Egaleo F. C. is a Greek football club based in Egaleo, a suburb of Athens. Founded in 1946, it uses all documents of previous club, it holds home matches at Stavros Mavrothalassitis Stadium, with a 14, Club colours are blue and white. Egaleo was founded in 1931 by Demetrios Haniotis and Georgios Aronis, in 1946, four clubs in the district merged with Ierapoleos to form Athletic Club Egaleo, which managed to reach for the first time the first division in 1961. In the league, the club finished sixth, trailing PAOK F. C. by just one point, after a disappointing 2006–07, Egaleo was relegated back to the second level. Another relegation followed in the year, and a third in 2008–09. In August 2009, a merger between Egaleo and Ilisiakos F. C. O, at the end of the 2009–2010 season, due to the merger being declared illegal by the Greek Council of State, Egaleo F. C. was relegated to the Delta Ethniki
Panetolikos F. C. or with its full name Panaetolikos Gymnastikos Philekpaideutikos Syllogos, is an association football club based in Agrinio, Greece. It was founded in 1926 and is considered one of the clubs in Greece. Some of the most well known players that started their career in the club are Stratos Apostolakis, former Greek recordman in international caps, and Petros Michos. The clubs symbol is Titormus, the ancient Aetolian hero and their motto is Τίτορμος Αιτωλός Ούτος Άλλος Ηρακλής, Panetolikos won an epic play-offs tie against fellow third tier side Rodos to win promotion to the Beta Ethniki for the 2009–10 season. The tie was played in Athens at the Nea Smyrni Stadium, in front of full house, after going down 1–0 early, the team staged an impressive fight back to win the game 2–1 with two goals in the last 5 minutes. Scenes of joy followed as one of the better supported teams in rural Greece won promotion, now in the Football League, Panetolikos continue to get terrific support, both home and away. After terrific performances inside and outside Agrinio, Panetolikos managed to win the last three matches and promoted to Superleague. The teams 2010 performances have set new records for the Football League championship, point record, Panetolikos had celebrated their promotion at home with a Friendly match against Panionios, a Superleague team, on 20 May 2011. After a very bad second round of results at Superleague, Panetolikos demoted to Football League, the chairman of the club, Mr. Kostoulas after seven years, resigned from his position. After this the board resigned. Most of the left the club, said that they wanted to return at their countries. After the end of the game the city of Agrinio celebrated the promotion until dawn, the team had its most successful year so far in the First Division, finishing in the 8th place. In 2014–15 season, form of the improved and finished First Division as 7th. Panetolikos Stadium is a stadium in Agrinio, Greece. A UEFA 4-star stadium, it is used for football matches. It is located at Prousiotissis Street and it holds 7,500 people and its highest attendance was 11,012 people during a match against Olympiakos in 1977. There are plans to increase the capacity of the stadium to 8,800 spectators. Nowadays the average attendance is 6,000 and it has been used as a football ground since 1930, however the first stand was not constructed until the mid-1950s
Apollon Kalamarias is a Greek sports club from Thessaloniki founded in 1926 it is the best supported team in Greece. The club is named after Apollo, the mythical Greek god and its colors are red and black. The clubs first emblem was the image of ancient Olympian god Apollo, Greek God of music and poetry. Growing in popularity amongst the inhabitants of Kalamaria, the club expanded with a theatrical department, and later. It was around this time the colors were chosen - red. Greek basketball womens Championship Winner,1974,1992 Greek basketball womens cup Winner,1997 Apollon Kalamarias V. C, Greek Volleyball League Cup Runners-up,2012 Apollon Kalamarias Official site
Anagennisi Karditsa F.C.
Anagennisi Karditsa, or Anagennisi Karditsa 1904, is a Greek association football club based in the city of Karditsa, Greece. The name of the club comes from the Greek word for Rebirth, playing in the independent Thessalian League from 1929 to 1962, it joined the newly established Greek second division in time for Season 1962-63. In 2008 Anagennisi Karditsa reach the Gamma Ethniki play-off and beat Ilioupoli F. C. 2-0 in Athens to win promotion to Beta Ethniki, Anagennisi Karditsa is a well-supported club by regional football standards, and their passion is very well known. They hold the record for the most fans to attend an away game for Gamma Ethniki in 2008. For many years, Anagennisi also maintained a local rivalry with AOK. In January 2010 the stadium capacity was extended to 9.500 seats, club training facilities are located in the nearby southern borough of Rousso. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. gr at anagenisi-karditsas. gr
Ionikos F. C. also known as Ionikos Nikaias, is a professional football club based in Nikaia, Piraeus, Greece, currently competing in Football League 2, the Greek third division. From 1989 to 2007 Ionikos spent 16 out of 18 seasons in Greek Super League, during that span Ionikos finished as high as 5th-place in the league, was a finalist in the Greek Cup, and participated in the UEFA Cup. The clubs colours are blue and white, Ionikos was established in 1965, from a merger of local clubs Nikaia Sports Union and Aris Piraeus, with Alex Meraklidis as new clubs first president. The clubs early years were not easy, but, with the support of its fans, Ionikos slowly improved through the 1970s and 1980s, fortunately, businessman Nikolaos Kanellakis stepped forward to provide the needed sum and become the clubs new chairman. Ionikos UEFA Cup appearance came in the 1999–00 season—the opposition was French side Nantes, Ionikos reached the Greek Cup Final later that same season, where they came up against traditional power AEK, and, despite a valiant Ionikos effort, AEK won the match, 3–0. On 21 April 2004 Ionikos experienced the most tragic moment of his history, when Nikolaos Kanellakis, hundreds of Ionikos supporters—as well as other sports fans—attended Kanellakis funeral, where the flag of Ionikos covered the coffin of the late chairman. Nikolaos son Christos took his fathers place as chairman, Ionikos long run in the top flight ended in the 2006–07 season, when the team finished in 16th-place in the Super League and was relegated back to Beta Ethniki. Ionikos has spent the last two seasons in Beta Ethniki, finishing 5th and 4th place, respectively, as the tries to rejoin the top flight. Ionikos plays its matches at Neapolis Public Stadium, located in Nikaia. The stadium was completed in 1965, and had its latest redevelopment in 2000 and it currently has a seating capacity of 4,999, but record attendance is 6,565 for a match against Olympiacos F. C. in 1990. Ionikos organized supporters gather in Gate 3 at Neapoli Stadium, while Ionikos was competing in the lower divisions there were two main supporters groups—the Association of Ionikos Nikaias Supporters and the Fan Club of Agios Georgios. On Ionikoss promotion to the top division the Association of Ionikos Nikaias Supporters Rangers Club was formed—or Rangers Club, two years later the supporters club offices moved to Neapolis, and then in 1996 to Nikaia, before returning to Neapolis in 1999. A second branch was established in Nikaia in 2004. Ionikos fans have a rivalry with the fans of the other club of Nikaia, Proodeftiki F. C. Ionikos fans have rivalries too with other nearby clubs, Egaleo F. C. Atromitos F. C. The football matches between Ionikos F. C. and Proodeftiki F. C. are called «The Derby of Kokkinia» or «The Derby of Nikaia», note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, for all Ionikos players with a Wikipedia article see Category, Ionikos F. C. players. – Official site Rangers – Supporters club site Neapolis Public Stadium – Stadium profile at Stadia. gr
Kalamata F. C. is a professional football club based in Kalamata, Greece, currently competing in Football League 2. Kalamata F. C. was formed in 1967 in a merger among Apollon Kalamata, the team has competed in the Greek first division seven times, in 1972-73, 1974–75, from 1995-96 to 1997-98, and from 1999-00 to 2000-01. Kalamata F. C. achieved its first two promotions to the first division, in 1972 and 1974, under President Lykourgos Gaitanaros and its first two promotions in the early 1970s are considered the teams first golden era. The team could not stick in the top flight though, businessman Stavros Papadopoulos bought the team in 1992, while the club was stuck in Gamma Ethniki, the third division. Upon his arrival, Papadopoulos began pouring an amount of money into the club. After Papadopoulos departure Kalamata fell to the division and has since stayed in the lower divisions. The Papadopoulos era of Kalamata F. C. saw the signing of international players from Ghana, such as Samuel Johnson, Afo Dodoo, Ebenezer Hagan, Peter Ofori-Quaye. Kalamata F. C. is credited with starting the trend among Greek clubs of signing African talent since the late 1990s. After being demoted to the division in 1997, they eventually started to bring in young Brazilian talent. The Brazilians helped the gain promotion to the first division right away in 1998. One of them, Hilton Assis, turned out to be the first cousin of Brazil, Hilton was once a promising player in Brazil who starred for Internacional of Porto Alegre, but serious knee operations curtailed his career. When he was healthy he was Kalamatas top goal scorer, Kalamatas long-standing rivals are Paniliakos and Egaleo F. C. a poor and industrial suburb of Athens. Kalamata FC is also claimed to have some of the most passionate, Kalamata F. C. s official colours are black and white, and the team is known in Greece as the Black Storm. Kalamata plays its matches at Kalamata Metropolitan Stadium in Kalamata. The stadium was completed in 1976, and currently has a capacity of 5,400. Kalamata F. C. s most famous club is the Bulldogs Fan Club. Kalamatas long-standing rivals are Paniliakos, located in Pyrgos in the western Peloponnese, Messiniakos is Kalamatas cross-town rival, but Messiniakos generally competed in lower leagues. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
AOK Kerkyra, is a Greek association football club based in Corfu, Greece, which competes in the Superleague Greece The clubs colours are Maroon and Blue. The National Stadium of the town of Corfu, E. A. K. K. is the ground of the club. Such was named officially, was founded in 1969, for many years played in local championship of Corfu. But the season 1988–89 played in Gamma Ethniki, in 2002 the club was promoted in Beta Ethniki and the season 2004–05 played in A Ethniki for first time in history. The club played 5 times totally in A Ethniki, the seasons 2005,2007,2011,2012 and 2013, Kassiopi was the football club of the village Kassiopi in north-east Corfu. The club was founded in 1984 and in 2012, it became champion of Delta Ethniki Group 5 and was promoted to Football League 2 for the first time in history. The next season it was finished in the place of the championship of football. In the same season Kerkyra F. C. was relegated from Super League to Football League, on account of a lot of debts, Kerkyra F. C. couldnt play in the professional league of Football League. So the owners of the club of Corfu agreed with the owners of Kassiopi F. C. for the merge of two clubs in order to Kerkyra F. C continue its presence in professional leagues without debts. The intention was the new club to be named PAE Kerkyra, Kerkyra was dismissed by Superleague Greece and automatically got relegated to Football League as they were accused and proved to commit fake transfer of shares. Kerkyra was given the last position on the league table. Next season Kerkyra got 2nd place and gained promotion into Superleague Greece along with the 1st place team AE Larissa FC. Built in 1961 Capacity of 2,685 Biggest attendance 5,000 The stadium has two stands, the one has a roof and is where the players and officials emerge from. The second stand is situated directly opposite and this stand was constructed in 1973. As of 31 August 2016 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Olympiacos Volou 1937 F.C.
Olympiacos Volou Football Club, is a Greek football club based in the city of Volos. They were participating in Football League before they withdraw from the league in February 2016 due to economic problems, currently they participate in Football League 2. In 1938 Olympiacos achieves the biggest distinction made from a team at the time. In 1947 Olympiacos wins its first Thessalian championship, the year 1954 is very successful for the team. Due to the city being damaged and due to lack of media information. However, the team managed to arrive in the Greek capital city and even eliminated AEK by beating them 0–1. In 1960 the team reached the round of 16 in Greek Cup, in 1961 it merged with local club Ethnikos Volos, with Ethnikos-Olympiakos Volou being the new denomination, despite this the team is still commonly referred as Olympiakos Volou. In the same year Olympiakos wins the Central Greece championship and had the opportunity to win the promotion in A Ethniki through a play-off match, in 1962–63 Olympiakos completed the B Ethniki league in a remarkable fifth place. In the following season the team ended first, together with Trikala, the first top flight campaign for the club was however not successful, as Olympiakos was relegated in B Ethniki. Despite this, the club managed to recover from that. The same year Olympiakos reached the Greek Cup round of 16, another relegation followed in 1968, after the club ended the league in 16th place. In the year 1970 Olympiakos won again B Ethniki and returned in the A Ethniki for the third time, in 1971–72 the club finished in 13th place its top flight campaign, a result confirmed also in 1972–73 ends in the 13th place. In the year 1975–76 Olympiakos ended in third place and even eighth the next season, in 1977 the club had a much more impressive season, losing the promotion only in the final game to Larissa. The club returned to the second tier only 1986, and even returned to the top flight in 1988, Olympiakos returned to the second tier only the following season, ending the 1989–90 season in 17th place. In the 1990s, the club did not achieve any success, being relegated once again to third division. In 2000 Olympiakos made good appearances but due to some unlucky results at the end of the year, it ended up in seventh place. At the same time the administration began facing financial problems. As a result of that, the club had to start from fourth division, a first time in such a lower tier for the club in 2003
Pierikos or Pierikos Syndesmos Filathlon Katerinis is a Greek football club based in Katerini, Greece. The club was founded on 11 April 1961 from the merger between Megas Alexandros Katerinis and Olympos Katerinis, unification of the two clubs has seen as the only way for the city of Katerini to have a team in the 1st Division. In its first season Pierikos took the place of Megas Alexandros in the 2nd Division and it played in the Group of Western and Central Macedonia and finished 1st. Therefore, it was able to play in the 2nd Division play-offs, in the final Pierikos won 2–0 in a match against Olympiakos Kozanis and gained promotion to the 1st Division. In this season Pierikos scored 108 goals and conceded 28. In its first season in the 1st division Pierikos finished in the 9th position scoring 36 goals and his biggest win was a 4–0 against Aris Thessaloniki F. C. Pierikos also played in the Greek Cup final this season. The club suffered a 3–0 defeat by Olympiacos CFP, in the 1963–64 season Pierikos finished in the 7th position. Its biggest wins were, a 5–1 against Doxa Dramas and a 4–0 against Ethnikos Piraeus. The club scored 34, Pierikos also played in the Greek Cup Semi-Final this season where was suffered a 3–1 defeat by AEK Athens FC. This was as Final because the other Semi-Final between Olympiacos CFP and Panathinaikos FC never ended and therefore AEK Athens FC was awarded the Greek Cup by E. P. O, the 1964–65 season is, probably, the best season in the History of Pierikos. Pierikos finished in the 5th position scoring 39 and conceding 39 and its biggest win was a 4–0 against Niki Volou. In the 1965–66 season Pierikos finished in the 8th position and its biggest win was a 5–1 against AO Trikala. The club scored 40 and conceded 40 goals, in the 1966–67 season Pierikos finished in the 14th position. Its biggest win was a 4–1 against Vyzas Megaron, the club scored 36 and conceded 51 goals. In the 1967–68 season Pierikos finished in the 5th position and its biggest win was a 9–1 against Olympiakos Nicosia. This is the biggest victory of the club, in the 1st Division, ever. The club scored 42 and conceded 46 goals, in the 1968–69 season Pierikos finished in the 9th position. Its biggest win was a 5–1 against Apollon Smyrnis, the club scored 31 and conceded 37 goals. In the 1969–70 season Pierikos finished in the 7th position and its biggest win was a 3–0 against Olympiakos Nicosia. The club scored 45 and conceded 44 goals, in the 1970–71 season Pierikos finished in the 14th position. The club didnt manage to win any game by more than one goal
Attica is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of Greece. The historical region is centered on the Attic peninsula, which projects into the Aegean Sea, the modern administrative region of Attica is more extensive than the historical region and includes the Saronic Islands, Cythera, and the municipality of Troizinia on the Peloponnesian mainland. The history of Attica is tightly linked with that of Athens, Attica is a triangular peninsula jutting into the Aegean Sea. It is naturally divided to the north from Boeotia by the 10 mi long Cithaeron mountain range, to the west, it is bordered by the sea and the canal of Corinth. The Saronic Gulf lies to the south, and the island of Euboea lies off the north, mountains separate the peninsula into the plains of Pedias, Mesogaia, and Thriasion. The mountains of Attica are the Hymettus, the portion of the Geraneia, the Parnitha, the Aigaleo. Four mountains—Aigaleo, Parnitha, Penteli and Hymettus —delineate the hilly plain on which the Athens-Piraeus metroplex now spreads, Athens water reservoir, Lake Marathon, is an artificial lake created by damming in 1920. Pine and fir forests cover the area around Parnitha, Hymettus, Penteli, Myrrhinous and Laurium are forested with pine trees, whereas the rest are covered by shrubbery. The Kifisos is the longest river of Attica, according to Plato, Atticas ancient boundaries were fixed by the Isthmus, and, toward the continent, they extended as far as the heights of Cithaeron and Parnes. The boundary line came down toward the sea, bounded by the district of Oropus on the right, during antiquity, the Athenians boasted about being autochthonic, which is to say that they were the original inhabitants of the area and had not moved to Attica from another place. The traditions current in the classical period recounted that, during the Greek Dark Ages, Attica had become the refuge of the Ionians, who belonged to a tribe from the northern Peloponnese. Supposedly, the Ionians had been forced out of their homeland by the Achaeans, supposedly, the Ionians integrated with the ancient Atticans, who, afterward, considered themselves part of the Ionian tribe and spoke the Ionian dialect. Many Ionians later left Attica to colonize the Aegean coast of Asia Minor, during the Mycenaean period, the Atticans lived in autonomous agricultural societies. The main places where prehistoric remains were found are Marathon, Rafina, Nea Makri, Brauron, Thorikos, Agios Kosmas, Eleusis, Menidi, Markopoulo, Spata, Aphidnae, all of these settlements flourished during the Mycenaean period. According to tradition, Attica comprised twelve small communities during the reign of Cecrops, strabo assigns these the names of Cecropia, Tetrapolis, Epacria, Decelea, Eleusis, Aphidna, Thoricus, Brauron, Cytherus, Sphettus, Cephisia, and possibly Phaleron. These were said to have been incorporated in an Athenian state during the reign of Theseus. Modern historians consider it likely that the communities were progressively incorporated into an Athenian state during the 8th. Until the 6th century BC, aristocratic families lived independent lives in the suburbs, only after Peisistratoss tyranny and the reforms implemented by Cleisthenes did the local communities lose their independence and succumb to the central government in Athens