Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, Scotland, which plays in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Their home ground, Ibrox Stadium, is in the south-west of the city, Rangers were the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final and won the European Cup Winners Cup in 1972 after being runner-up twice in 1961 and 1967. A third runners-up finish in Europe came in the UEFA Cup in 2008, Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm. The four founders of Rangers – brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell, Rangers first match, in May that year, was a goalless friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. David Hill was also a founder member, in 1873, the club held its first annual meeting and staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had its first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales. In 1877 Rangers reached a Scottish Cup final, after drawing the first game, Rangers refused to turn up for the replay, Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2–1, their first major cup. The first-ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtics establishment, Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly to a team composed largely of guest players from Hibernian. The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, the clubs first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2, Rangers first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two titles and three Scottish Cups. During William Wiltons time as secretary and then team manager. Taking over as manager from William Wilton in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers most successful manager, on 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Years Day Old Firm match. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League, Rangers also lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1. Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal after extra time to Bayern Munich. The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on an exit at the culmination of the New Years Day Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs
Inverness Caledonian Thistle F.C.
Inverness Caledonian Thistle Football Club is a professional football club from Inverness, Scotland who compete in the Scottish Premiership. They are currently managed by Richie Foran, Caledonian Thistle F. C. were formed in August 1994 by the merger of Caledonian and Inverness Thistle, both members of the Highland Football League. The new club was formed with a view to applying for one of the two vacancies in the Scottish Football League, created when the league restructured in 1994 to four divisions of ten teams each. They were successful and were elected to the Scottish Third Division along with Highland derby rivals Ross County, the clubs name was amended to Inverness Caledonian Thistle F. C. in 1996 at the request of Inverness District Council. Inverness also knocked other SPL teams out of cup competitions, including Motherwell, over the first ten years of their existence the club had been responsible for a total of 12 shocks and as a result had gained themselves a reputation as being giant killers. On 25 February 2007, Invernesss run of cup victories over Celtic came to an end following two goals in the last two minutes of their fifth round tie at Caledonian Stadium. Having led 1–0 for the majority of the thanks to a Graham Bayne goal. A significant event in the history was the signing of Romanian international Marius Niculae. Niculae was involved in the clubs 2007–08 campaign and played at UEFA Euro 2008 and he later became involved in a dispute with the club over a share of the transfer fee that was not paid to him when he left. As a result, Inverness were ordered by FIFA to pay £133,000 to the player, the club appealed against the decision to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, and in November 2011, the club won their appeal. Having won the 2009–10 First Division title in their first year back in the division since 2003–04, Season 2014–15 saw the club finish in their best ever placing of third. After a promising start to their campaign in 1994–95, the club eventually finished sixth in the Third Division. The following season, Inverness CT showed improvement with a third-place finish, in Season 1996–97, they won the Third Division Championship following a 4–1 home win over Albion Rovers in front of nearly 3,000 fans. This was just 5 months after moving into the Caledonian Stadium, the club spent two seasons in the Second Division. After a closely fought campaign, they finished runners-up to Livingston in Season 1998–99, Season 2003–2004 could be regarded as the clubs most successful up to that point. This made the club eligible for promotion to the Scottish Premier League, however, SPL rules at that time stated that all member clubs must have a stadium with a minimum capacity of 10,000 seats. Caledonian Stadium did not meet this criterion, leaving the clubs Board with a dilemma, either to remain in the First Division or to groundshare with Aberdeen, over 100 miles away. After consulting with supporters, the Board decided the sacrifice of one season in Aberdeen would be a compromise to ensure Premier League participation for the club
Stirling Albion F.C.
Stirling Albion Football Club is a Scottish football club based in the city of Stirling. The club was founded in 1945 following the demise of Kings Park after World War II, the club currently competes in the Scottish League Two as a member of the Scottish Professional Football League. Its highest league came in 1958–59 with a 12th-placed position in the top flight. Its only major success is in the league where it has won the tier of Scottish football on four occasions. The club has recently competed in the third tier following its re-creation in 1975. Stirlings home ground is Forthbank Stadium, a 3,808 capacity stadium in the east of the city near the banks of the River Forth. Before the stadium was opened in 1993 the club was based at Annfield Stadium which had been the home of the club since it was founded in 1945, Stirling Albion was founded in 1945 after the towns previous football team Kings Park had failed to survive the Second World War. Kings Parks ground had been damaged during the war, having been hit by a German bomb on 20 July 1940 and this was one of only two bombs to fall on the town during the Second World War. The new club was the brainchild of local businessman Thomas Fergusson, a coal magnate. Annfield was situated within a quarter of a mile from the town centre, the name Albion supposedly came from the make of Fergussons coal trucks. This unfortunately is an urban myth, Albion Coal lorries were used as grandstands but the Club was named at a meeting of fans long before a ball was kicked. For a time it was a saying in Scotland that something or somebody was going up, in 1966 the club became the first British team to play in Japan. A period of decline set in during the late 1960s and early 1970s as the Albion were consigned to the bottom league, League reconstruction in the mid-1970s brought about a new 3 tier system and The Binos found themselves in the lowest division until 1977. A four-year spell in the 1st Division ended in humiliation in 1981 when the failed to score a league goal for eight months. Surprisingly they still finished 2nd bottom of the league, even missing penalties, relegation to Division 2 in 1981 almost killed the club as the team struggled under manager Alex Smith and dwindling gates led the club to the brink of bankruptcy. The clubs only way of escape was to sell Annfield to the local council, during this period, the team were responsible for the 20th centurys record Scottish Cup score, inflicting a 20–0 defeat on Selkirk in 1984. As the 1980s progressed the club continued to struggle, surprisingly still under the management of Alex Smith, george Peebles took charge of the team and would be the first Scottish manager to manage a team who played on Astroturf. The council had decided to make as much money as possible from Annfield, the main stand which was also demolished after being declared an unsafe building
Livingston Football Club, is a Scottish football club based in Livingston, West Lothian. Livingston currently play in the Scottish League One and were founded in 1943 as Ferranti Thistle, the club was admitted to the Scottish Football League and renamed as Meadowbank Thistle in 1974, and played its matches at Meadowbank Stadium in Edinburgh. In 1995, the club was relocated to Livingston, West Lothian, since then Livingston have played their home games at the Almondvale Stadium. However, the club hit financial problems in 2004, and was relegated to the Scottish First Division in 2006, in July 2009 the club faced further financial problems and were on the verge of suffering a liquidation event before a deal was struck. Livingston were subsequently demoted to the Scottish Third Division, but the club achieved consecutive promotions, the club began life as Ferranti Amateurs in 1943. A works team of the Ferranti engineering company, they played in the Edinburgh FAs Amateur Second Division. During this period the club won the East of Scotland Qualifying Cup in 1963, in 1969 the club moved to the City Park ground in Edinburgh. In 1972 the club members of SFA which allowed them to enter the Scottish Qualifying Cup which they won in 1973 which previously had not been open to them. The clubs first match in the Scottish Cup was on 16 December 1972 against Duns. In 1974, as a result of the demise of Third Lanark seven years earlier, after beating off competition from four Highland League sides, Hawick Royal Albert and Gateshead United, Ferranti Thistle were accepted into the league by a vote of 21–16 over Inverness Thistle. The local council offered use of Meadowbank Stadium, a stadium built in 1970. After an Edinburgh Evening News campaign to find a name for the club and this was approved by the SFL in time for the new season. Having had little time to form a squad from the existing Ferranti squad, Meadowbank played their first competitive match in the League Cup, eventually losing 1–0 to Albion Rovers. In 1983 the club achieved promotion to the First Division but ultimately were relegated back to the Second Division at the end of the 1984–85 season, in the 1986–87 season, Meadowbank won the Second Division championship and won promotion to the First Division. They finished runners-up in the First Division in the following season, the part-time club began to struggle, and it became a limited company in 1993 but was relegated a short time after at the end of the 1992–93 season to the Second Division. Meadowbank suffered a relegation in 1994–95, finishing second from bottom in the Second Division. After this, Chairman Bill Hunter claimed Meadowbank had run into financial difficulties and were facing closure as a result. C. In their first season as Livingston they were crowned champions of the Third Division for the 1995–96 season, Three years later, in 1998–99, they won promotion again as Second Division champions
Dundee United F.C.
Dundee United Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in the city of Dundee. Formed in 1909, originally as Dundee Hibernian, the changed to the present name in 1923. United are nicknamed The Terrors or The Tangerines and the supporters are known as Arabs, the club has played in tangerine kits since the 1960s and have played at the present ground, Tannadice Park, since their foundation in 1909. United were founder members of the Scottish Premier League in 1998 and were ever-present in the competition until it was abolished in 2013 to make way for the SPFL structure, United were relegated in 2016 to the Scottish Championship, which is the second tier of the SPFL. Domestically, the club has won the Scottish Premier Division on one occasion, the Scottish Cup twice, United appeared in European competition for the first time in the 1966–67 season, going on to appear in Europe in 14 successive seasons from 1976. They also reached the European Cup semi-finals in 1984 and the UEFA Cup final in 1987, the club has a 100% record in four matches against Barcelona in competitive European ties. The club was formed as Dundee Hibernian in 1909, playing from the outset at Tannadice Park and they were voted into the Scottish Football League in 1910. After being saved from going out of business in October 1923, between 1925 and 1932 United were promoted and then relegated three times, winning the Second Division title in 1925 and 1929. The club achieved little success until Jerry Kerr became manager in 1959. Kerrs team won promotion in his first season in charge and became established in the top flight, Jim McLean took over from Kerr in 1971 and his youth policy led to the most successful era in the clubs history. United won the Scottish League Cup in 1979 and 1980 and then the Premier Division title in 1982–83, the club were also successful in Europe, reaching the European Cup semi-finals in 1984 and the 1987 UEFA Cup Final. The latter featuring another elimination of Barcelona, despite losing to IFK Gothenburg in the final, the club won a FIFA Fair Play Award. McLean retired as manager in 1993, but remained as club chairman, United won the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1994 under McLeans successor Ivan Golac, but were relegated in 1995, returning a year later. Shortly after Leveins departure, the won the Scottish Cup for a second time in 2010 under the management of Peter Houston. After several relatively successful seasons, a slump in form led to United being relegated in 2016, for a complete pictorial history of playing kit, see the Historical Football Kits site. After persuasion by the wife of manager Jerry Kerr, the colour would soon be adopted as the own in 1969 to give the club a brighter. The new colour was paraded for the first time in a friendly against Everton in August. When founded as Dundee Hibernian, they had followed the example of clubs of similar heritage by adopting the traditionally Irish colours of green shirts
Dundee Football Club is a professional football club based in the city of Dundee, Scotland. Founded in 1893, they are nicknamed The Dark Blues or The Dees, the club plays its home matches at Dens Park. Dundee have also won the Scottish Cup once in 1910 and the Scottish League Cup three times. Dundee F. C. was formed in 1893 by the merger of two clubs, East End and Our Boys, with the intention of gaining election to the Scottish Football League. Their application was successful and they played their first League game on 12 August 1893 at West Craigie Park, Dundee struggled during the first 10 years of their existence. Their best league position was fifth which they achieved in seasons 1895–96 and they also reached the semi-finals of the Scottish Cup in 1894–95 and 1897–98, losing to Renton and Kilmarnock respectively. On 26 October 1895 Dundee lost a game by a record score of 0–11 to Celtic in Glasgow. On 1 January 1894 Dundee defeated Newton Heath 2–1 at their then Carolina Port ground in Dundee, Carolina Port also hosted the first international football match held in Dundee on 21 March 1896 when Scotland defeated Wales 4–0. Dundees goalkeeper Frank Barrett, midfielder Sandy Keillor and inside-forward Bill Thomson were all capped for Scotland during this period of the clubs history. Things began to improve for Dundee with the beginning of the new century, in 1899 they moved from Carolina Port to their present ground of Dens Park. In season 1902–03 they finished runners-up in the championship to Hibernian. Dundee were also league runners-up in 1906–07 and 1908–09 finishing behind Celtic on both occasions, in 1908–09 by just 1 point, in the 10 seasons from 1902–03 Dundee lost just 16 league games at Dens Park out of 154 played and were unbeaten at home during season 1909–10. Although ultimate success eluded Dundee in the league the club achieved success in the Scottish Cup, in season 1909–10 Dundee won their first trophy by defeating Clyde in the Scottish Cup Final. The winning goal in the replay was scored by John Sailor Hunter. In season 1910–11 Dundee defeated Rangers 2–1 at Dens Park in the Scottish Cup quarter-final, in 1919 league football recommenced and good home form once again propelled Dundee up the league. They finished 4th in seasons 1919–20, 1920–21 and 1921–22, and were unbeaten at home during season 1921–22, however, they could not make the breakthrough to win the league championship. Dave Halliday had played on the left for his previous clubs, his hometown side Queen of the South, Halliday went then to Dundee in 1921 with the celebrated Alec Troup already playing on the left wing. With Halliday Dundee reached the 1924–25 Scottish Cup final eliminating the holders en route, Halliday scored 103 goals in 147 league and cup appearances for the Dees
Celtic F.C. Under-20s and Academy
As well as the Celtic first team, competing in the Scottish Premiership, the club also has a U20 and U17 sides. Celtics first known involvement in football, was their participation in the Scottish Combination league in 1896. Several Scottish League clubs fielded 2nd XIs, as well as Queens Park Strollers, in 1909, a new Scottish Reserve League was set up, again often including at least one non-reserve side of a non-league club in each of its seasons. It was disbanded during World War 1, but effectively re-established in 1919 as the Scottish Alliance League, as with previous incarnations, this reserve league also contained the first XI of several non-league sides. However following an AGM in 1938, these sides were removed. The advent of World War 2, however, once saw the suspension of reserve football in Scotland. The national Reserve League restarted at the end of the war and this set-up, with minor variations, continued up until 1975. From 1958 up to 1966, Celtic also fielded a side in the Combined Reserve League. The 1960s saw the emergence of one of Celtics most notable reserve sides, several became regulars in the first-team side, winning major honours and going on to represent Scotland at full international level, most notably Kenny Dalglish and Danny McGrain. In 1975, the Scottish League was reorganized into Premier-First-Second, the Premier clubs were assigned to the Premier Reserve League and the lower league clubs used varying regionalised sections and midweek competitions. When the Scottish Premier League was founded in 1998, the league was replaced by an under 21 league with some overage players permitted. There were numerous cup competitions for reserve sides since the earliest days, e. g. the Edinburgh 2nd XI Cup first played in the 1870s and the Scottish 2nd XI Cup which existed from 1882 to 1988. A plethora of cups were introduced during the 1880s but the advent of professionalism a decade later put pressure on club finances, the Scottish Reserve League Cup was introduced in 1945 and was last held in season 2013-14. In June 2016, it was announced that the Challenge Cup would be expanded to include Under-20 sides from each Scottish Premiership club, a Youth Division was set by the Scottish League in 1993 and ran until 2012. This was an Under-18 league initially, but changed to Under-19s from 2003 onwards, Celtic Youths won the league for four consecutive seasons from 2002-03 to 2005-06. The Scottish Youth Cup was set up in 1984 and open to all clubs in Scotland. It was initially an U19 tournament, but is now for U20 sides, Celtic are historically the most successful club in the competition, winning 14 finals. The Glasgow Cup was for years considered an important trophy for first-team sides in Glasgow
Aberdeen Football Club are a Scottish professional football club based in Aberdeen, Scotland. They compete in the Scottish Premiership and have never relegated from the top division of the Scottish football league system since they were promoted in 1905. Aberdeen have won four Scottish league titles, seven Scottish Cups and they are also the only Scottish team to have won two European trophies, having won the European Cup Winners Cup and the European Super Cup in 1983. Aberdeen were the last club outside of the Old Firm to win a title, in 1984–85. The team has enjoyed success since this golden era, though a 19-year wait for a major trophy was ended by winning the 2013–14 Scottish League Cup. Aberdeen have played at Pittodrie Stadium since their inception, the ground currently has a capacity of 20,866 and was the first all-seated and all-covered stadium in the United Kingdom. Pittodrie was also the first football stadium to feature a dug-out, the clubs colours have been primarily red and white since 1939, before this, they played in black and gold vertical stripes. Aberdeen attract support from the city and surrounding areas, as they are the senior team within a wide area. Aberdeen have no close rivals, their nearest neighbours at the same level are in the city of Dundee. The current Aberdeen F. C. was formed following the merger of three based in the city—Aberdeen, Victoria United and Orion—in 1903. The new club played its first match on 15 August 1903 and that first season produced a win in the Aberdeenshire Cup, but only a third-place finish in the Northern League. The club applied for membership of the Scottish League for the following season, in 1904, the club were managed by Jimmy Philip. At the end of its first season, despite having finished seventh out of teams, Aberdeen were elected to the new. They have remained in the top tier of Scottish football ever since, from 1906, the club made steady progress, with a Scottish Cup semi-final appearance in 1908 and another in 1911. In that season of 1910–11, Aberdeen recorded their first victories over the Old Firm of Celtic and Rangers, and led the league for a time, wartime affected the club as much as any other, despite spending cuts and other economies, by 1917 the situation became untenable. Aberdeen dropped out of football, along with Dundee and Raith Rovers. Senior football returned on 16 August 1919, and Aberdeen resumed with a fixture against Albion Rovers, Philip was still in charge, and continued to oversee a team capable of isolated good results, but never quite able to sustain a challenge long enough to win a trophy. In 1923, Aberdeen were drawn against Peterhead in the Scottish Cup, Philip retired a year later, and was replaced as manager by Paddy Travers
The Celtic Football Club is a professional football club based in Glasgow, Scotland, which plays in the Scottish Premiership. The club was founded in 1887 with the purpose of alleviating poverty in the immigrant Irish population in the East End of Glasgow and they played their first match in May 1888, a friendly match against Rangers which Celtic won 5–2. Celtic established itself within Scottish football, winning six league titles during the first decade of the 20th century. The club enjoyed their greatest successes during the 1960s and 70s under Jock Stein when they won nine league titles. Celtic have won the Scottish League Championship on 48 occasions, most recently in the 2016–17 season, the Scottish Cup 36 times, Celtic also reached the 1970 European Cup Final, and the 2003 UEFA Cup Final. Celtic have a fierce rivalry with Rangers, and the clubs have become known as the Old Firm. The two clubs have dominated Scottish football, winning 102 league titles between them since the inception of the Scottish League in 1890. The clubs fanbase was estimated in 2003 as being around nine million worldwide, an estimated 80,000 fans travelled to Seville for the 2003 UEFA Cup Final. The club has the nickname, The Bhoys. However, according to the Celtic press office, the established club was known to many as the bold boys. A postcard from the early 20th century that pictured the team, the extra h imitates the spelling system of Gaelic, wherein the letter b is often accompanied by the letter h. On 28 May 1888, Celtic played their first official match against Rangers, Neil McCallum scored Celtics first ever goal. Celtics first kit consisted of a shirt with a green collar, black shorts. The original club crest was a green cross on a red oval background. In 1889 Celtic reached the final of the Scottish Cup, this was their first season in the competition, Celtic again reached the final of the Scottish Cup in 1892, but this time were victorious after defeating Queens Park 5–1 in the final, the clubs first major honour. Several months later the moved to its new ground, Celtic Park. In 1895, Celtic set the League record for the highest home score when they beat Dundee 11–0, in 1897, the club became a Private limited company and Willie Maley was appointed as the first secretary-manager. Between 1905 and 1910, Celtic won the Scottish League Championship six times in a row, in both 1907 and 1908 Celtic also won the Scottish Cup, this was the first time a Scottish club had ever won the Double
Falkirk Football Club are a Scottish professional association football club based in the town of Falkirk. The club was founded in 1876 and competes in the Scottish Championship as a member of the Scottish Professional Football League, the football club was registered as a Limited Liability Company in April 1905 – Falkirk Football & Athletic Club Ltd. Falkirk won the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1913, after 1945, Falkirk were promoted and demoted between the Premier and First Divisions seven times until 1995–96, and during the 1970s spent three seasons in the Second Division. In 2005, Falkirk were promoted to the Scottish Premier League, Falkirk won the Scottish Cup again in 1957 and were runners-up in the competition in 1997,2009 and 2015. As a result of its performance in the 2009 Scottish Cup, Falkirk have won the second tier of Scottish football a record seven times, an honour shared with St Johnstone. They have also won the Scottish Challenge Cup more than any other club, in their early years, Falkirk played at three venues, Hope Street, Randyford Park and Blinkbonny Park. Between 1885 and 2003, the club was based at Brockville Park, after the creation of the SPL in 1998, its strict stadium criteria – to which Brockville Park did not conform – was enforced, and the club was denied promotion on three occasions. The clubs present home ground since 2003 is the Falkirk Stadium, the clubs date of formation is uncertain. Although some accounts point to the year 1876, others claim it was formed in 1877, however, the former is the date used by the club and its fans. The club reached the round in the first year that it competed. In the first few years after it was formed, Falkirk played mostly friendly games and they played their home matches at three different grounds during this period, Hope Street, Randyford Park and Blinkbonny Park. It left the latter in 1884 and moved to Brockville Park, the Stirlingshire Football Association was founded in 1883, which invited clubs from the Stirlingshire region to join. It resulted in the establishment of a new tournament, the Stirlingshire Cup, a competition open exclusively to the teams from the region, the clubs nickname is The Bairns, a Scots word meaning sons or daughters, which is given to natives of the town of Falkirk. This is reflected in the Falkirk Burgh motto, Better meddle wi the deil than the Bairns o Fakirk, at the time, the league consisted of two tiers, the First and Second Divisions. Falkirk was promoted to the top division with a second-place finish behind Clyde after two seasons, despite the clubs success, several months beforehand a proposal to merge with local rivals East Stirlingshire was raised, which was narrowly rejected in a vote. In 1907–08, Falkirks third season in the top flight, the finished the season in second place, its highest league position to date. On both occasions it finished behind champions Celtic despite being the top scorers in the league. In 1913, the won the Scottish Cup for the first time
Heart of Midlothian F.C.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club, commonly known as Hearts, is a Scottish professional football club based in Gorgie in the west of Edinburgh. It is currently the only Scottish Premiership club in the city, with Edinburgh derby rivals Hibernian playing in the Scottish Championship and Edinburgh City playing in Scottish League Two. Hearts is the oldest football club in the Scottish capital, having formed in 1874 by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The modern club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the citys Royal Mile, Hearts play at Tynecastle Stadium, where home matches have been played since 1886. Their current training facilities are at the nearby Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh, the clubs most successful period was under Tommy Walker from the mid 1950s to mid 1960s. They won seven trophies in this period and were runners up for five others, Jimmy Wardhaugh, Willie Bauld and Alfie Conn, Sr. known affectionately as the Terrible Trio were famed forwards at the start of this period with wing half lynch pins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side, along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young they set the record for the number of goals scored in that league winning campaign. In doing so became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100. Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times, most recently in 2012 after a 5–1 win over city-rivals Hibernian, Hearts four Scottish League Cup triumphs were all under Walker, most recently a 1–01962 Scottish League Cup Final victory against Kilmarnock. The most recent Scottish League Cup Final appearance was in 2013 when they lost to St Mirren 3–2, in 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition at the time. The club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate, the club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of rugby and football as we know it, in December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington. This was the first time that Association rules had seen in Edinburgh. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules, the new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the club who went on to form the football club. The club took its name from the Heart of Midlothian jail, by becoming members of the Scottish Association Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time
Motherwell Football Club are a Scottish professional football club based in Motherwell, North Lanarkshire. The club compete in the Scottish Premiership, Motherwell have not dropped out of the top-flight of Scottish football since 1985, but have only lifted one trophy in that time – the Scottish Cup in 1991. Clad in their traditional claret and amber, Motherwell play their matches at Fir Park Stadium and have done since 1896. The clubs main rivals over the years have been Hamilton Academical and Airdrieonians and these matches are known as the Lanarkshire derby. Motherwells debut fixture proved to be a one as they overcame Hamilton Academical 3–2. On 5 August 1893 the decision was made to professional. Up until 1895 the club had played at a few different venues, including a site at Roman Road, the small pitch and muddy conditions at Dalziel Park were deemed unsuitable and fortunately Lord Hamilton granted a lease on a plot of land on his Dalzell estate. This new ground was named Fir Park and has remained the home for over one hundred years. The following years saw the club grow, appointing their first and longest serving manager to date, John Sailor Hunter, in 1913 the decision was made to change the clubs colours from blue to the now signature claret and amber. Motherwell enjoyed a period in the aftermath of World War I. The club placed third in the 1919–20 season and, although narrowly avoiding relegation in 1924–25, they climbed the table. In the summer of 1927, the made a very successful tour of Spain, winning six out of the eight games they played. These results included an emphatic 3–1 victory over Real Madrid and a 2–2 draw with Barcelona, following their success in Spain, the club went on another summer tour, this time of South America. After losing only three of their previous ten games, the tour culminated in a 5–0 defeat by a Brazilian League Select side, the championship was sealed on 23 April 1932, when Rangers could only draw at home against Clyde, handing Motherwell the title without kicking a ball. This was also the only League title won by a club outside the Old Firm between 1904 and 1947, in the two seasons following the league title win, Well finished runners up. Motherwell also contested three Scottish Cup finals in this period – in 1931,1933 and 1939, following the break-up of the squad after World War II, the club were not instantly successful. It then captured two trophies in as many years with victories in the 1950 Scottish League Cup Final. The club was relegated for the first time ever at the end of the 1952–53 season
2010 FIFA World Cup qualification
The 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification competition was a series of tournaments organised by the six FIFA confederations. Each confederation — the AFC, CAF, CONCACAF, CONMEBOL, OFC, a total of 205 teams entered the qualification competition, with South Africa, as the host, qualifying for the World Cup automatically. The first qualification matches were played on 25 August 2007 and qualification concluded on 18 November 2009, overall,2341 goals were scored over 852 matches, scoring on average 2.74 per match. The final number of teams entered breaks the record of 199 entrants set during the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Four FIFA members failed to register for the tournament by 15 March 2007, Bhutan, Brunei, Laos, after the close of entries, Bhutan were allowed to enter and were included in the Asian preliminary draw, while Brunei and the Philippines had their late entries rejected. However, five teams withdrew during qualifying without playing a match, Bhutan, Central African Republic, Eritrea, Guam, in addition, Papua New Guinea failed to meet the registration deadline for the South Pacific Games and took no part in qualification. The following 32 teams qualified for the 2010 FIFA World Cup,1. ^ The rankings are shown as of 16 October 2009 and these were the rankings used for the final draw. 2. ^ Germany between 1951 and 1990 is often referred to as West Germany, as a separate East German state and team existed then. 3. ^ Competed as Yugoslavia from 1930 to 1938, SFR Yugoslavia from 1950 to 1990, FR Yugoslavia from 1992 –1998 and Serbia and Montenegro for 2006,4. ^ Competed as Czechoslovakia from 1934 to 1990, 1st appearance as Slovakia. 5. ^ No official third place took place in 1930 and no official third place was awarded at the time. However, FIFA lists the teams as third and fourth respectively, the qualification process commenced in August 2007 and was completed in November 2009. An initial draw for preliminary qualification had been announced for Zurich on 28 May 2007, initial groups for the Oceania qualification were eventually held in Auckland, New Zealand in early June, with preliminary draws for the Asian and African qualification announced in August. The draw for the main 2010 World Cup qualifying groups was held in Durban,34 teams had been eliminated before the actual draw —6 from OFC,5 from CAF and 23 from AFC — and CONMEBOL qualification also had started. The 4 remaining teams from OFC had also started playing the stage as a single group. The distribution by confederation for the 2010 World Cup was, Europe,13 places Africa,5 places Asia,4.5 places South America 4.5 places North, as the host nation, South Africa qualified automatically. As in 2006, the current cup holders – Italy – did not qualify automatically, for FIFA World Cup qualifying stages the method used for separating teams level on points is the same for all Confederations, as decided by FIFA itself. The 12 groups winners and 8 best runners-up advanced to the next stage, the procedure was complicated due to two of the groups being reduced to just 3 teams due to the withdrawal of Eritrea and the exclusion of Ethiopia. As a result, the comparison of the 12 runners-up did not include results against teams finishing fourth in 4-team groups, the remaining 20 teams were placed in 5 groups of 4 teams at a draw held in Zürich on 22 October 2008
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
St Johnstone F.C.
St Johnstone Football Club is a professional football club based in Perth, Scotland. Although it is recorded as being formed in 1884, the club did not play its first game until February 1885. The clubs home since 1989 has been McDiarmid Park, the clubs first Scottish Cup appearance was in 1886–87 and they joined the Scottish Football League in 1911–12. St Johnstone won the Scottish Football League First Division, the tier of league football in Scotland. This gained them promotion to the Scottish Premier League, bringing a return of SPL football to McDiarmid Park for the 2009–10 campaign, the club have historically floated between the top two divisions of Scottish football, obtaining the reputation of being a yo-yo club. Their traditional rivals are the two Dundee clubs, Dundee and Dundee United, with matches between St Johnstone and either Dundee club being called Tayside derbies, the club has had limited success in cup competitions. After losing at the stage on numerous occasions, the club won their first Scottish Cup in 2014 with a 2–0 win against Dundee United. It has reached two Scottish League Cup Finals, losing them to each of the Old Firm clubs. They have also won the Scottish Second Tier seven times, the Scottish Challenge Cup in 2007, the B Division Supplementary Cup in 1949 and they have qualified for European competitions on six occasions. Their highest league position in the top division was third place on three occasions,1971,1999 and 2013, the club was formed by members of the local cricket team seeking to occupy their time once the cricket season had finished. The cricketers were kicking a football around the South Inch, a public park beside the River Tay during the autumn of 1884. Club members leased a piece of land adjacent to the South Inch, known as the Recreation Grounds, in the 1910–11 Scottish Division Two season, Port Glasgow Athletic F. C. finished next to bottom and declined to apply for re-election. They were replaced for the 1911–12 Scottish Division Two season by St Johnstone, St Johnstone were promoted to the old First Division in 1924–25, by winning the Second Division title, and appointed David Taylor as team manager. They remained in the top flight until 1929–30 when they finished bottom of Division One, Two years later, under new manager Tommy Muirhead, the Saints were runners-up in Division Two to gain their second promotion. They performed well in Division One through the 1930s, reaching the semi-finals of the Scottish Cup in 1933–34, in the final season before World War II, St Johnstone played well under manager David Rutherford to finish eighth. The Scottish Football League suspended competition for the duration of the war, St Johnstone were closed for most of the war and lost their top flight status as a result. The Southern Football League continued through the post-war 1945–46 season but with two divisions to incorporate clubs that were restarting, including St Johnstone, the Saints played in the 1945–46 B Division and finished sixth of fourteen clubs. St Johnstone had lost all the ground gained in the 1930s, jimmy Crapnell became the team manager for the 1947–48 season and was succeeded by Johnny Pattillo for 1953–54
Scottish Premier League
The Scottish Premier League was the top level league competition for professional football clubs in Scotland. The league was founded in 1998, when it broke away from the Scottish Football League and it was abolished in 2013, when the SPL and SFL merged to form the new Scottish Professional Football League, with its top division being known as the Scottish Premiership. A total of 19 clubs competed in the SPL, but only the Old Firm clubs, Celtic, for most of its history, the Scottish Football League had a two divisional structure between which clubs were promoted and relegated at the end of each season. This system came into force for the 1975–76 season and this setup continued until the 1994–95 season, when a four divisional structure was introduced. This involved the creation of a Third Division, with all four divisions consisting of ten clubs, on 8 September 1997, the clubs in the Premier Division decided to split from the Scottish Football League and form a Scottish Premier League. This followed an example in England, which came into force during the 1992–93 season. This decision was fuelled by a desire by the top clubs in Scotland to retain more of the revenue generated by the game, originally, league sponsorship money was divided proportionally between clubs in all four divisions. After the SPL was formed, its clubs retained all of its commercial revenues except for a payment to the SFL. Teams received three points for a win and one point for a draw, no points were awarded for a loss. Teams were ranked by points, then goal difference. At the end of season, the club with the most points was crowned league champion. If points were equal, the difference and then goals scored determine the winner. Originally the SPL contained 10 clubs, but it subsequently enlarged to 12 for the 2000–01 season, the increase from 10 clubs to 12 was part of the deal offered to obtain approval from SFL member clubs. After the expansion to 12 clubs the SPL operated a split format and this was done to prevent the need for a 44-game schedule, based on playing each other four times. That format had used in the Scottish Premier Division, but was considered to be too high a number of games in a league season. A season, which runs from July until May, was divided into two phases, during the first phase, each club played three games against every other team, either once at home and twice away or vice versa. After this first phase of matches, by which all clubs had played 33 games, the league split into a top six. Each club then played a further five matches against the five teams in their own section
Raith Rovers F.C.
Raith Rovers Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in the town of Kirkcaldy, Fife. The clubs highest ever league position came in 1922, when it finished third behind champions Celtic, the club also came runners-up in 1949 as well as being losing finalists in the 1913 Scottish Cup Final. As a result of winning the League Cup in 1994, Raith Rovers qualified for the UEFA Cup the following season, the club managed to reach the second round, only to be defeated 4–1 on aggregate to eventual champions FC Bayern Munich. Raiths home ground is Starks Park, an 8,867 all-seater stadium in the south of Kirkcaldy, the club has been based at the ground since 1891. The modern Raith Rovers were founded in 1883 in the Scottish town of Kirkcaldy, there had been a much earlier Raith Rovers which merged with what is now Cowdenbeath in 1882. Although it lends its name to many entities in the region, a Raith Rovers victory in the 1960s led to a famous BBC commentators blunder that the fans would be dancing in the streets of Raith tonight. Although commonly attributed to Englishman David Coleman, this was said by Scotsman Sam Leitch. Raith as an area once stretched from south of Loch Gelly as far as Kirkcaldy, a mixture of local success and ambition took the club into the senior leagues where they established themselves and thereby became the pre-eminent team in the town. The team subsequently moved to their current home of Starks Park named after, after two consecutive successful seasons in 2nd Division, the club elected to join the 1st Division in 1909–10. Three years later, the made their first appearance in the Scottish Cup Final losing 2–0 to Falkirk. In 1921 an innovation in training, previously unknown to the Scottish game, was introduced by directors following a visit to England, the use of a ball in training. As noted in the Fife Free Press, Hitherto, ball practice has been an absentee from the curriculum on the grounds that being away from the ball for a week imparted eagerness on the Saturday. This heralded an era of success, the club had its highest ever league finish in the Scottish top division, when they came third to the Old Firm in 1921–22. This was followed by the incident where the players were shipwrecked in 1923. The team had been en route to play matches on the Canary Islands when the boat ran aground. Fortunately, the players were able to disembark and continue on their way a few days later. The forward line of Glen, Gilmour, Norrie Haywood, Whitelaw, around this time, a then record crowd of 25,500 filled Starks Park on a Wednesday afternoon for a Scottish Cup quarter-final replay against East Fife. East Fife won 3–2 and went on to become the only 2nd Division club to win the Scottish Cup until Hibs matched the feat in 2016
As a legal concept, administration is a procedure under the insolvency laws of a number of common law jurisdictions. It functions as a mechanism for insolvent entities and allows them to carry on running their business. The process – in the United Kingdom colloquially called under administration – is an alternative to liquidation, Administration is commenced by an administration order. A company in administrative receivership is operated by an administrator on behalf of its creditors, the administrator may recapitalize the business, sell the business to new owners, or demerge it into elements that can be sold and close the remainder. Most countries distinguish between voluntary and involuntary receivership, in voluntary administrative receivership, the administrator is appointed by the company directors. In involuntary administrative receivership, the administrator is appointed by a judicial court, the legal terms for these processes vary from country to country, and the processes may overlap. In Australia, an administrator, also called an insolvency practitioner, is an independent person that is formally appointed to control an insolvent companys affairs. Administrators are required to be registered liquidators since they have powers to deal with company property. The appointment of an administrator freezes any legal proceedings against the company, the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act provides mechanisms for consumer and general proposals in order to give time for an insolvent person to be able to reorganize his affairs. For insolvent companies owing more than $5 million, a more flexible regime is available under the Companies Creditors Arrangements Act, in UK law, the administration regime is governed by the Insolvency Act 1986, as amended by the Enterprise Act 2002. An administrator can be appointed without petitioning the court by the holder of a floating charge, other creditors must petition the court to appoint an administrator. The administrator must act in the interests of all the creditors, if this proves impossible he or she must work to maximise the recovery of the creditors as a whole. Only then may the administrator attempt to realise property in favour of one or more secured creditor, a firm is usually in Administration for no more than 12 months, after which an extension from the court can be produced at the courts discretion. The administrator is an officer of the court and an agent of the company and he has the power to do anything necessary or expedient for the management of the affairs, business and property of the company. This regime allowed the holder of a charge to appoint an administrative receiver to realise assets in his favour. This was felt to be too favourable to the charge holder at the expense of other creditors. A court order is issued that any form of legal or insolvency action without the courts permission. An application to the court for an order may be made by the company, the directors
In United Kingdom and United States law and business, liquidation is the process by which a company is brought to an end, and the assets and property of the company are redistributed. Liquidation is also referred to as winding-up or dissolution, although dissolution technically refers to the last stage of liquidation. Liquidation may either be compulsory or voluntary, an order will not generally be made if the purpose of the application is to enforce payment of a debt which is bona fide disputed. A just and equitable winding-up enables the grounds to subject the strict legal rights of the shareholders to equitable considerations, an order might be made where the majority shareholders deprive the minority of their right to appoint and remove their own director. Once liquidation commences, dispositions of the property are generally void. Upon hearing the application, the court may dismiss the petition. The court may dismiss the application if the petitioner unreasonably refrains from a course of action. The court may appoint a receiver, and one or more liquidators. Separate meetings of creditors and contributories may decide to nominate a person for the appointment of liquidator, voluntary liquidation occurs when the members of a company resolve to voluntarily wind up its affairs and dissolve. Voluntary liquidation begins when the company passes the resolution, and the company will cease to carry on business at that time. A creditors’ voluntary liquidation is a designed to allow an insolvent company to close voluntarily. The decision to liquidate is made by a resolution. If a limited company’s liabilities outweigh its assets, or the company cannot pay its bills when they fall due, if the company is solvent, and the members have made a statutory declaration of solvency, the liquidation will proceed as a members voluntary winding-up. In that case the general meeting will appoint the liquidator, if not, the liquidation will proceed as a creditors voluntary winding-up, and a meeting of creditors will be called, to which the directors must report on the companys affairs. Where a voluntary liquidation proceeds as a voluntary liquidation, a liquidation committee may be appointed. In addition, the term liquidation is sometimes used when a company wants to divest itself of some of its assets and this is used, for instance, when a retail establishment wants to close stores. They will sell to a company specializes in store liquidation instead of attempting to run a store closure sale themselves. The liquidator will normally have a duty to ascertain whether any misconduct has been conducted by those in control of the company which has caused prejudice to the body of creditors
Airdrieonians Football Club are a Scottish professional football team based in Airdrie who are members of the Scottish Professional Football League and play in the SPFL Scottish League One. They were formed in 2002 as Airdrie United Football Club following the liquidation of the original club, the clubs official name was changed in 2013 with the approval of the SFA to the traditional name of Airdrieonians. As with the team of the same name, this is often colloquially shortened to simply Airdrie. The club have won two trophies in their short history – the Scottish Second Division in 2003–04 and the Challenge Cup in 2008–09, once described as the luckiest team in the Scottish League, the club have benefited in league division placements on three occasions. The club was formed in 2002 as Airdrie United, following the bankruptcy of the original Airdrieonians, Airdrieonians had finished runners-up in the Scottish First Division in the 2001–02 season but went out of business with debts approaching £3 million. The collapse of The Diamonds, as they were due to their distinctive kits. Accountant and Airdrieonians fan Jim Ballantyne attempted, with the help of others and their application however was rejected as the then English Northern Premier League side Gretna were preferred by league members over the new Airdrie United. Their debut season saw the club only narrowly fail to achieve promotion by one point due to a late goal from Brechin City which saw them promoted instead. During the rest of Stewarts tenure the club reached the final of the Challenge Cup in 2003, in November 2006, Stewart was sacked and replaced by former Airdrieonians player and Airdrie United coach Kenny Black, his first management post. Under Kenny Black the club suffered four successive defeats, In the 2006–07 season as relegation play-off finalists. In the 2007–08 season as promotion play-off finalists, in the 2008–09 season as relegation play-off finalists. Unlike the previous two seasons there was no reprieve, the club won the Challenge Cup in 2008, defeating Ross County 3–2 on penalties after a 2–2 draw, and after this success manager Kenny Black signed a long term contract. After big financial cutbacks saw all players released in May 2010, in June manager Kenny Black was relieved of his duties, with Jimmy Boyle appointed interim manager. Boyle was appointed manager on a permanent basis in September 2010, with the running until the end of season 2011–2012. The clubs decision to focus on developing youth was vindicated in January 2011, the first league game between Airdrie United and local rivals Albion Rovers took place at New Broomfield on 10 September 2011, with Airdrie winning 4–0. As Airdrie were runners up in the previous seasons Second Division promotion play-offs, a season in the First Division came to an end in May 2013, with the club finishing bottom of the league and relegated to Division Two. In June 2013, the officially changed its name from Airdrie United Football Club to Airdrieonians Football Club. The name change revived the name of the club it was formed to replace in 2002, the Airdrieonians all red club crest was also revived, with an alternate black and red version used for the away kits
Cowdenbeath Football Club are a Scottish semi-professional football team based in Cowdenbeath, Fife. They are members of the Scottish Professional Football League and compete in League Two, formed in 1881, the club has played at Central Park since 1917. They first joined the Scottish Football League in 1905, the club has never won any of the major honours in Scottish football, but have won lower tier divisional titles on five occasions. They competed in the top division of the SFL from 1924 to 1934, Cowdenbeath traditionally date their origin to the merger of two local clubs, Cowdenbeath Rangers and Cowdenbeath Thistle, which occurred in 1881. The establishment of one club to represent the town coincided with the establishment of the Fifeshire Football Association that year. Cowdenbeath, who are the oldest surviving club in Fife, lost in the inaugural Fife Cup final in 1883. In 1888 the club moved to North End Park, and in 1905 were admitted to Division Two of the Scottish Football League and they won Division Two in 1913–14 and 1914–15, but were not promoted to Division One on either occasion. The SFL was suspended due to World War I in 1915, and they were placed in Division Two when it was reformed in 1921, and after finishing as runners-up in 1923–24, the club were promoted to Division One for the first time. The club remained in Division One until being relegated at the end of the 1933–34 season and this feat was in no small part aided by Rab Walls 54 League goals – the second highest seasonal total in Scottish League history. However, the outbreak of World War II cut short Cowdens return to Division One, when peacetime football resumed in 1946, the club were controversially placed in the new B Division. While a 1949 League Cup success over Rangers at Ibrox was a highlight of the early post-war period, Cowden struggled to return to the elite level of Scottish football. This was finally achieved under popular manager Andy Matthew in the 1969–70 season, a more professional approach was ushered in with the appointment of former Scotland defender Craig Levein, who had begun his playing career with Cowdenbeath, as manager in 1997. Promotion from the Third Division was achieved in the 2000–01 season, after a third-place finish in the 2004–05 season. The 2005–06 campaign saw the team achieve their first divisional title win for 67 years with player-manager Mixu Paatelainen when they won the Third Division, season 2008–09 saw Danny Lennons side miss out on promotion in a penalty shoot-out after a scoreless two-legged match and extra time against Stenhousemuir. However, they were promoted to the division for the 2009–10 season as Livingston were demoted to the Scottish Third Division after breaching the leagues rules on insolvency. After a tough start to life in the Scottish Second Division, Cowden soon found their feet, amazingly they went on to defeat Alloa and Brechin in the play-offs to secure promotion. Prior to the 2010–11 season Jimmy Nicholl was appointed new manager and it was a massive blow to the club especially after being 2–0 up at half time in the first leg in Brechin. Under new manager Colin Cameron, Cowdenbeath immediately regained promotion the following season, the season after, they ensured survival on the final matchday with a 3–1 away win over Hamilton Academical
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Greenock Morton F.C.
Greenock Morton Football Club is a Scottish professional football club, which will play in the Scottish Championship in 2016–17. The club was founded as Morton Football Club in 1874, making it one of the oldest senior Scottish clubs, Morton was renamed Greenock Morton in 1994 to celebrate the links with its home town of Greenock. Morton won the Scottish Cup in 1922, and achieved its highest league finish in 1916–17, Morton holds the record for the most promotions to and relegations from the top flight, but has not competed in the top flight of the Scottish football league system since 1988. In 2014–15, Morton won its league title in all divisions by winning the Scottish League One championship on the final day. Morton Football Club was established in 1874, in the early 1870s the popularity of football was growing, with many clubs being established around Scotland. At the clubs inaugural meeting, the first recorded words were that this club be called Morton Football Club. The name would be altered in 1994 to read Greenock Morton Football Club, to celebrate the links with its hometown. Morton was one of the members of the old Second Division, formed in 1893. Morton first gained promotion to the old First Division in 1899–1900, Mortons greatest success came in its 1–0 defeat of Rangers in the 1922 Scottish Cup Final. Jimmy Gourlay scored the goal directly from a free kick in the 11th minute. Right after the match Morton boarded a train for Hartlepool to play the local side in a friendly match. The celebrations were delayed until the following Wednesday when 10,000 locals turned out at Cappielow Park to celebrate, Morton has made two other major cup final appearances. On Saturday 17 April 1948, Morton drew 1–1 with Rangers in the Scottish Cup Final, Mortons goal was a free kick scored by Jimmy White. The match was replayed on Wednesday 21 April and this time Rangers won 1–0 after extra time. The goal was said to be controversial because it was claimed that Morton goalkeeper Jimmy Cowan was blinded by the flash of a camera. These matches were significant because of the crowds they attracted. The first match was played in front of 132,629, the replay, in front of 133,750, was at the time a British record attendance for a midweek match. Mortons third and final major cup final to date was in the League Cup, as in its previous two final appearances, Mortons opponent was once again Glasgow Rangers
David John Davie Irons is a Scottish football player and manager. His playing career spanned 26 years as a defender or midfielder. Irons has managed Annan Athletic, Gretna, Greenock Morton and Stenhousemuir and he was assistant manager at Carlisle United until July 2014. Born in Glasgow in 1961, Davie Irons was raised in Dumfries after moving there with his parents in 1964, Irons began his career with local team Queen of the South in 1979. After only one year of the Willie Harkness regime at Palmerston Park, Irons joined Kello Rovers, with whom he remained for four years. He returned to the game in 1984 with Ayr United. He went on to make 75 league appearances for The Honest Men, in 1987 he joined Clydebank, making 54 appearances and scoring seven goals, and a year later signed for Dunfermline Athletic. Irons scored the goal for Dunfermline in the game that confirmed Queens relegation in 1989. After 106 appearances and nine goals for the Pars, he was signed by Partick Thistle and he remained at Firhill for two years before joining the sixth professional club of his career, St Johnstone, in 1993. In three years at McDiarmid Park he made 52 appearances and scored twice, Irons returned to Palmerston Park under the new regime of Norman Blount to play for a Queen of the South select on 23 April 1995. The opposition in the 2–2 draw was Rangers in a game to mark Queens 75th anniversary, other ex players to guest beside Irons that day included Andy Thomson and Ted McMinn. Irons then spent a season with Clydebank in 1996, Irons spent five years with Annan Athletic between 1997 and 2002. He finished his career in 2005 after a three-year spell at Gretna. He became caretaker-manager of the club between March 2007 and the end of the 2006–07 season during Alexanders absence, Gretna won promotion to the Premier League on 28 April 2007, with a 3–2 win at Ross County. The result clinched the First Division championship for Gretna, a point ahead of Irons former club St Johnstone and it was announced on 18 July 2007 that Irons would be Gretnas manager on a permanent basis, with Mick Wadsworth as his assistant. On 19 February 2008, Irons resigned as Gretna manager with immediate effect, soon afterwards the club entered administration and went out of business at the end of the 2007–08 season. Irons was hired as manager of Greenock Morton, after resigning from the Gretna job in February 2008. In his first full season as manager of Morton, Irons guided them to sixth in the table despite a poor start taking only four points from the first quarter of the season
Clyde Football Club are a Scottish professional football club based in Cumbernauld, who play in Scottish League Two. Formed in 1877 at the River Clyde, the play their home games at Broadwood Stadium. The Clyde Football Club was founded and played on the banks of the River Clyde at Barrowfield, documentary evidence from the SFA and indeed match reports in the Glasgow press clearly show it all began in 1877, and the thread continues unbroken to this day. Heres how the SFA recorded Clydes origins, Sitting on the edge of Bridgeton, Barrowfield Park lay in a triangle of land enclosed by Carstairs Street, Colvend Street and the river Clyde. The area was a mix of chemical, engineering and textile works with a high population density to provide the labour. Today this area is dotted with industrial units, but also contains a grassed area. So it may be possible to stand upon a corner of the original Barrowfield pitch, Barrowfield was originally shared with a short-lived team called Albatross. The club founded then has no resemblance to a professional football club. Clyde F. C. were a members club more akin to a present-day golf or bowling club. Clydes Secretary, John Graham, was also a rower and it seems the club had other sporting. Although most fixtures were informal, the Scottish Cup had existed since 1873, soon there would also be the Glasgow Merchants & Charity Cup and the Glasgow Cup that in their time were hotly contested major competitions. Clyde entered the 1st Round of the Scottish Cup on 29 September 1877 along with one hundred, Third Lanark were the visitors once again and they triumphed 1–0. Clyde joined the Scottish Football League in 1891, following acceptance, Vale of Leven provided the opposition for Clydes first League fixture on Saturday,15 August 1891. In a dream introduction to League football Clyde triumphed 10–3, a mid-table finish saw Clyde complete a confident season in League football, with League football an undoubted success, Barrowfield revealed its limitations and simply could not cope with the crowds as many gained illegal entry. Opposition teams complained about the facilities and it was clear that Clyde would have to do something to appease the League, the solution lay directly across the Clyde on some open ground known as Shawfield. Clyde endured a final season at Barrowfield finishing bottom of Division 1. The final action at Barrowfield was a friendly against crack opposition in the form of Sunderland on 30 April 1898 ending in a 3–3 draw, at a stroke Clyde transformed from Brigtonians to Shawfielders. Clyde said farewell to Barrowfield in the spring of 1898, across the river lay an area of undeveloped land known as Shawfield
John Brown (footballer, born 1962)
John Brown is a Scottish professional football player and manager. Brown played for Hamilton Academical, Dundee and Rangers as a defender, Brown was a first-team regular for Rangers as they won nine consecutive Scottish league championships between 1988 and 1997. After retiring as a player, Brown has become a coach and has managed Clyde and he is known by his nickname Bomber. Brown started his career at Hamilton before moving on to Dundee and he was signed by Rangers in January 1988 and went on to be eventually included in 278 games for the club. Along the way, as a player he managed to collect nine league titles. There was some controversy, with Brown once calling the fans of rival Aberdeen morons in response to their behaviour, Browns final competitive match for Rangers was the 1996 Scottish Cup Final which Rangers won. He retired from playing in May 1997 after Rangers and Brown won their ninth consecutive title, Brown took over as coach of Rangers Under-18s in 1997 before moving on to coach the reserve team in 2003, replacing former teammate John McGregor. He left the Rangers coaching setup on 27 June 2006, weeks after the appointment of new manager Paul Le Guen, Brown was linked with the vacant Clyde job in June 2007, but lost out after the job was given to former Scotland captain Colin Hendry. On 21 November 2007, Brown was announced as the new manager of Dumbarton, Brown was appointed Clyde manager on 26 January 2008, succeeding Colin Hendry. Browns first game in charge came in a disappointing 3–1 defeat by Stirling Albion on 2 February 2008 and he just about achieved his aim of keeping Clyde in the Scottish First Division via the playoffs and was given a contract until 2011 in December 2008. After leading the club to three wins in 15 games at the start of the 2009–10 season, Brown was sacked on 21 November 2009. Brown made an attempt to take control of Rangers from the Sevco consortium, led by Charles Green. Brown was appointed manager of Dundee on a basis in February 2013. His appointment was not well received by the fans, despite being fan favorite during his playing days for the club, Brown, himself, said he has no criticism over his appointment and that, he expected to earn the job permanently. In Browns first game in charge, a 2–2 draw against St Johnstone, Brown praised his players, describing them as having great spirit and also saying the draw gave the club a good platform to build on. The next game, in which he experienced his first Dundee derby as manager, in the quarter-final of the Scottish Cup, after the match, Brown was critical with the officials, claiming they are not doing their jobs. Having so far won four games despite remain last place, Brown was awarded Manager of the Month in April, despite this upturn in results, Dundee were relegated to the new Scottish Championship. On 3 February 2014 it was announced that Brown had left his role as manager of Dundee after agreeing a severance package with the club
Craig William Levein is a Scottish professional football player and manager. He is currently the Director of Football at Heart of Midlothian, during his playing career he played for Cowdenbeath and Heart of Midlothian. He won 16 caps for Scotland and was part of his countrys 1990 World Cup squad, Levein was forced to retire early from playing football due to injury, but then became a manager. At club level he has managed Cowdenbeath, Heart of Midlothian, Leicester City, Raith Rovers, Levein was appointed Scotland manager in 2009, but he left this position after the team failed to win any of its first four matches in 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification. Levein was born in Dunfermline and attended Inverkeithing High School, where he was in the team alongside another future Scottish international footballer. He was a supporter of Raith Rovers and his early football career saw him turn out for Dalgety Bay, Leven Royals and Inverkeithing under-16s. At the age of 15, however, he gave up football for a year, only resuming when his brother, Levein subsequently signed for Lochore and after trials with several senior clubs he finally joined Cowdenbeath in 1981. He quickly established himself in the first team and soon became a target for larger clubs, in 1983 he moved to Heart of Midlothian for a fee of £40,000 and soon found himself a regular place in the Hearts first team. Levein won the SPFA Young Player of the Year award in 1985,1986 was the season when Hearts chased a league and cup double. In the league they were away from lifting the title before goals in the last 10 minutes of the season by Albert Kidd gave Hearts their first league defeat in 31 games. It was enough to knock Hearts off the top of the table, Levein and his team mates lost 3-0 the week after in the Scottish Cup final against Alex Ferguson managed Aberdeen. 1986 brought further woe for the young Levein when he picked up a knee injury in a reserve game against Hibernian. The injury was to change his life and he had a recurrence of the injury in 1988 when he collapsed unchallenged in a game against Rangers and spent a second year out of the game. In 1997 he was forced to retire from the game through injury after making 401 appearances for Hearts. He made his Scotland debut in March 1990, a 1–0 win against reigning champions, Argentina, at Hampden Park. Levein won 16 caps for the Scotland national team, after being forced into retirement as a player, Levein had coaching positions at Hearts and at Livingston. In November 1997 he was appointed as manager of Cowdenbeath and turned a team into one that could challenge for promotion. Cowdenbeath were promoted in 2001, but Levein had left in December 2000 to take over as manager at Hearts and his time in charge of Hearts was successful, where he guided them to third place in the SPL in two successive seasons and thus into European competition
Peter Houston is a Scottish former football player and current manager of Falkirk FC in the Scottish Championship, having been appointed on 12 June 2014. He played as a striker for Airdrieonians, Livingston United, Albion Rovers, Falkirk, Dumbarton, Houston entered coaching, working for Jim Jefferies at Falkirk and Hearts. He then assisted Craig Levein at Hearts, Leicester City and Dundee United, after Levein was appointed Scotland manager in December 2009, Houston was appointed Dundee United manager and assisted Levein with the national team. He guided United to their 2009–10 Scottish Cup victory, but left the club by mutual consent in January 2013, after working for Celtic as a scout, Houston was appointed manager of Falkirk in June 2014. Peter Houston was born on 19 July 1958 in Baillieston, Lanarkshire, Houston began his career in 1977 with Airdrieonians but made just one senior league appearance and dropped into junior football with Livingston United. In 1979, Houston moved back into football with Albion Rovers and played over 100 league matches over four years. A similar length of spell at Falkirk also yielded 33 goals, after two years with Dumbarton, Houston returned to Falkirk for a further three years before a final playing spell with East Stirlingshire. Houston was worshipped by the Falkirk supporters and even had his own club called The Houstie Hardcore. Upon retiring in 1993, Houston returned to Falkirk for his spell with the club. Houston was involved in setting up Falkirks youth academy and went on to work as an SFA Development Officer at Brockville. When manager Jim Jefferies moved to Hearts in 1995, Houston joined him as reserve and youth team manager, despite being backed by the players for the manager role, Houston had to settle for an assistant manager role when Craig Levein was appointed instead. Houston followed Levein to Leicester City in 2004, where he stayed until Levein, Houston was out of football until his appointment as assistant manager to Levein at Dundee United in October 2006. During the summer of 2007, he suffered an injury by falling off his bike over the handlebars. Levein left the club in December 2009 to become manager of the Scottish national team, despite initially being considered favourite to take over on a permanent basis, Houston announced he would not be applying for the job following a 7–1 defeat against Rangers under his tenure. After an improved run of form under his management, Houston was appointed Uniteds manager until the end of the 2009–10 season, Houston will also assist Levein with his Scotland duties on a part-time basis. He guided Dundee United to 3rd place in the SPL and the final of the Scottish Cup, on 25 May 2010, Houston accepted a three-year deal to become manager of Dundee United. Im absolutely privileged and honoured to be the manager of Dundee United, for me, the hard works starts now, he told BBC Scotland. In his first full season as manager United in 4th place in the SPL, thereby qualifying for Europe again, in the summer of 2011 several key players left the club or were sold including David Goodwillie, Craig Conway and Morgaro Gomis
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it also performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland. The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, and, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is also referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
James Paul Gannon is a former footballer who is now manager of National League North side Stockport County. Gannon began his career at Dundalk, but moved to English club Sheffield United in 1989. The next year he transferred to Stockport County, following a loan spell with Halifax Town. After leaving the club in 2000, he spent a season with Crewe Alexandra, before returning to Ireland with Shelbourne, starting a career in management, he took charge of his first club Dundalk in 2004. After a season in Ireland he returned to Stockport County as manager, there he led the club to promotion from League Two via the play-offs in 2008. Leading County to safety in League One despite a ten-point deduction for entering administration, heading to Scottish Premier League side Motherwell, he managed the club in the Europa League, but left after just 25 games in charge. He took charge of Championship side Peterborough United in 2010, in January 2011 he was appointed manager of Port Vale, but lasted just ten weeks in the job. He returned to Stockport in November 2011, as the director of football and manager. He took charge at Northwich Victoria in December 2013 and he spent just over two years with Northwich before returning to manage Stockport County for the third time in January 2016. Gannon was born in Southwark, South London and moved with his family to Ireland at a young age and he considers himself to be a working class Irish Catholic. In 1987 he received his start in higher level football with Irish club Turlough OConnors Dundalk, whilst with the club he played in both the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup Winners Cup, in a highly successful period in the clubs history. During his spell at the club they did the Irish double and his performances for Dundalk earned him a £70,000 move to Sheffield United in April 1989. However he was unable to break into the first team at Bramall Lane and he spent a brief time in 1989–90 on loan at struggling Halifax Town, making two appearances for the Shaymen. In 1990 he moved to Stockport County, who paid United between £40,000 and £75,000 for his services and he remained at the club for ten years, during which the club would win promotion on two occasions, and make four Wembley appearances. On 10 March 1993, Gannon verbally abused Stoke City player Mark Stein, Gannon made a formal complaint to the police and as a result Stein was later required to appear in court for the attack. The two players continued the following month after Gannons then-girlfriend spat at Stein in a post-match interview. Stein was given a discharge after the court accepted he was under extreme provocation from what he claimed was racial abuse. During his early days at the club Gannon was criticised by supporters for his performances, Stockport fans named him The Ghost, due to his knack of ghosting in at the back of the box to score from crosses
Kilmarnock Football Club, commonly known as Killie, is a Scottish football team based in the town of Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire. Lee McCulloch is the manager of the side, after Lee Clark left in February 2017. The club has won many honours since its formation in 1869, the club is also one of only a few Scottish clubs to have played in all three European competitions. Killie is the oldest football club in the Scottish Premiership, and are also the oldest professional club in the country, home matches are played at Rugby Park, an 17,889 capacity all seater stadium situated in the town itself. Kilmarnock took part in the first ever match in the Scottish Cup against the now defunct Renton in 1873. On 5 January 1869 the club was founded during a meeting at Robertsons Temperance Hotel on Portland Street. Originally they played a more similar to rugby and these origins are reflected to this day by the name of the clubs home ground – Rugby Park. The difficulty in organising fixtures under this code and the influence of Queens Park soon persuaded them to adopt the association code instead. At this time, the club played games in a number locations including Holm Quarry, the Grange on Irvine Road, furthermore, Kilmarnock sent a letter stating their willingness to form the Scottish Football Association. Kilmarnock also competed in the inaugural Scottish Cup tournament in 1873–74 and their 2–0 defeat against Renton in the First Round on 18 October 1873 is thought to have been the first match ever played in the competition. Kilmarnock joined the Scottish League in 1895 and after winning consecutive Second Division titles were elected to the top flight for the first time in 1899, in 1920 Kilmarnock won the Scottish Cup for the first time beating Albion Rovers at Hampden. This was followed soon by their success in 1929 where the beat massive favourites Rangers 2–0 at the national stadium in front of a crowd of 114,708 people. The clubs greatest success was in 1965 under the management of Willie Waddell, on the final day of the season, they travelled to face Hearts at Tynecastle requiring a victory by two goals to nil to win the league at their opponents expense. A memorable 2–0 win saw Kilmarnock crowned Scottish League champions for the first and this capped a period of tremendous consistency which had seen them occupy runners-up spot in four of the previous five seasons. The club is one of only a few Scottish clubs to have played in all three European competitions. Kilmarnock reached the 2007 Scottish League Cup Final, but suffered a 5–1 defeat in the final by Hibernian, after selling Steven Naismith to Rangers for a club-record fee in August 2007, Killie struggled in the 2007–08 Scottish Premier League, finishing in 11th place with 40 points. In January 2010, Kilmarnock were second bottom of the 2009–10 Scottish Premier League, on 11 January 2010, Jim Jefferies left the club by mutual consent and Jimmy Calderwood was appointed manager. Kilmarnock then achieved a first win in nine years against Celtic, continued poor form, however, meant a final day showdown at Rugby Park with Falkirk for SPL survival
Jim Jefferies (footballer)
James Jefferies is a Scottish football manager and former player. Jefferies played for Heart of Midlothian for almost his whole playing career and enjoyed a successful first managerial spell with the club, Jefferies has also managed Gala Fairydean, Berwick Rangers, Falkirk, Bradford City, Kilmarnock and Dunfermline Athletic. Jefferies made more than 300 competitive appearances for Heart of Midlothian, the main highlight of his playing career was playing in the 1976 Scottish Cup Final, which Hearts lost 3–1 to Rangers. He also played in the famous 0-7 New Year Edinburgh Derby defeat against Hibernian, Jefferies eventually left Hearts in 1981, and spent the last two seasons of his career with Berwick Rangers. Jefferies left Berwick in 1983 to become a manager at East of Scotland Football League club Gala Fairydean, Jefferies returned to the Wee Gers to begin his senior managerial career in September 1988. Despite a great deal of turmoil during that time, he turned the struggling team around to the extent that they set a club record of 21 games unbeaten in the league during season 1988–89. In the 1990 close season Jefferies took over at Falkirk, guiding them to the Scottish First Division title in 1991 and 1994, Falkirk also won the Scottish Challenge Cup in 1993. In August 1995, Jefferies returned to Hearts and he was manager of the Hearts team that won the Scottish Cup in 1998, his greatest success in the game to date. Jefferies moved south of the border on 20 November 2000 to replace Chris Hutchings as manager of then Premier League side Bradford City and he was given the task of selling players by chairman Geoffrey Richmond and was unable to prevent them from going down. He resigned in December 2001 after a start to the season left them with no hope of a promotion challenge. Former England striker Stan Collymore later described Jefferies as One of the most useless managers he worked under on Talksport in January 2013 and he criticised Jefferies training regime as being from 1975. On 28 February 2002, he returned to management back in his native Scotland with Kilmarnock and he kept Kilmarnock in a respectable position despite the necessity of drastically reducing the clubs wage bill, reaching the 2007 Scottish League Cup Final. Following Alex McLeishs departure from Rangers at the end of the 2005–06 season and he left Kilmarnock by mutual consent on 11 January 2010. Jefferies was appointed manager of Hearts for a time on 29 January 2010. Hearts finished third in the SPL in the 2010–11 season, having threatened the dominance of the Old Firm until falling away after February, Jefferies and right-hand man Billy Brown were sacked by Hearts on 1 August 2011, after just two games of the 2011–12 Scottish Premier League season. Jefferies held talks with Dunfermline Athletic about succeeding Jim McIntyre as their manager and was appointed on 20 March and he was unable to keep the Pars in the top flight and were relegated at the end of the season. The following season in the Scottish First Division the club ran into difficulties and were placed in administration in March 2013. This led to a 15-point deduction penalty by the Scottish Football League as well as many players leaving
Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, music, literature, sports and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri
Steven John Pressley is a Scottish football player and manager. Pressley had a playing career, playing for both halves of the Old Firm and making over 100 league appearances for both Dundee United and Hearts. Pressley captained the Hearts side that won the 2006 Scottish Cup Final, as a player, Pressley was described as hard-working and exhibiting leadership. After retiring as a player, Pressley was assistant manager of Falkirk, Pressley also served as an assistant manager to George Burley while Burley was manager of Scotland. He moved to League One side Coventry City in March 2013, Pressley was appointed manager of Fleetwood Town in October 2015, Pressley resigned from his position at Fleetwood Town in July 2016 Pressley started his career at Rangers. During his time at Ibrox, he won a Scottish Cup winners medal in 1993, Pressley was transferred to English side Coventry City in October 1994 for £600,000. His one goal for Coventry came against Manchester United, Pressley returned to Scotland in July 1995 with Dundee United, who paid a transfer fee of £750,000. He helped Dundee United to get promotion to the Premier Division in his first season and this was followed by a third-place finish in the 1996-97 Scottish Premier Division. His influential style of play and his skills were noticed by Hearts manager Jim Jefferies. Pressley was appointed captain by Craig Levein in 2001–02. Only Bobby Parker has held the Hearts captaincy for a longer period, Pressley was captain when the team beat VfB Stuttgart, Bordeaux and Basel in European matches. He helped Hearts finish second in the league in 2005/06, third on three occasions, as well as reaching the Scottish Cup and League Cup semi-finals. Pressley led Hearts to success in the 2006 Scottish Cup Final, Pressley scored the first penalty for Hearts, who eventually won 4–2. His enrolment into the Hearts Hall of Fame highlights the status that he enjoyed at Tynecastle and he acted as a spokesman for the playing squad in response to the various controversies affecting the club under the ownership of Vladimir Romanov. Romanov stated that he would sell players if Hearts failed to beat Dunfermline Athletic, however, this game was played out in front of a sell-out crowd who showed their vocal backing for Pressley, Gordon and Hartley. Pressley was then absent from the Hearts squad to face Falkirk on 13 November 2006, a month later, on 9 December 2006, it was confirmed that Pressley and Hearts had parted company and was reported to be attracting the interest of several clubs. Despite reported interest from Championship Derby County and Premier League Charlton, having previously played for Rangers, he joined players such as Maurice Johnston, Alfie Conn and Kenny Miller in crossing the Old Firm divide. He made his Celtic debut on 2 January 2007 against Kilmarnock and he scored his first competitive goal for Celtic against Inverness Caledonian Thistle in the fifth round of the Scottish Cup, later scoring his only league goal against Hearts on 29 April 2007
John Alexander Jocky Scott is a Scottish football coach and former player. During his playing career he played for Dundee, Aberdeen and Seattle Sounders, an extensive management career followed with spells at Aberdeen, Dundee, Arbroath, Dunfermline Athletic, Notts County, Raith Rovers and Stirling Albion. He also had coaching jobs at various clubs in both Scotland and England. Scott played for Scotland, Dundee and Aberdeen and he memorably scored a hat-trick when Aberdeen beat Rangers 5–1 in a Scottish League Cup semi final. He was capped twice for the Scotland national team in 1971 and he was Soccer Bowl 1977 finalist with the Seattle Sounders in the North American Soccer League. After his playing career Scott moved into management and he managed Aberdeen, Dundee, Arbroath, Dunfermline Athletic, Notts County, Raith Rovers and Stirling Albion. He also had coaching roles at Sunderland, Plymouth Argyle and Hibernian, the latter two he also had spells as manager on a caretaker basis. Aberdeen appointed Scott to their team in September 2012. As of 24 February 2013 Caretaker spells not included, Jocky Scott co-managed with Alex Smith at Aberdeen. No statistics currently available for Arbroath
Gordon William Chisholm is a Scottish professional football former player and manager. Chisholm played as a defender for Sunderland, Hibernian, Dundee. After retiring as a player, Chisholm became a coach, working in some of his roles as assistant to Ian McCall, Chisholm succeeded McCall as manager of Dundee United in 2005, and guided the club to the 2005 Scottish Cup Final, which they lost 1–0 to Celtic. He was sacked the season, however, and was subsequently appointed manager of Scottish First Division club Queen of the South. Chisholm guided the club to the 2008 Scottish Cup Final, which they lost 3–2 to Rangers, Chisholm left Queens in 2010 to manage Dundee, but was made redundant when the club went into administration in October 2010. Chisholm started his career at Sunderland where he spent seven years and was a member of the side reached the final of the Football League Cup in March 1985. Unfortunately for Chisholm, he deflected Asa Hartfords shot into the net for Norwichs winning goal, Chisholm moved back to Scotland later that year, when he joined Hibernian for a £60,000 fee. He scored a goal on his Hibs debut, a Scottish League Cup semi-final win against Rangers and this meant that Chisholm achieved the unusual feat of playing in League Cup Finals in the same calendar year in both England and Scotland. Unfortunately for Chisholm, both finals were lost, as Hibs lost 3–0 to Aberdeen and he later had spells at Dundee and Partick Thistle before retiring in 1992. Chisholm was a tall, commanding central defender who could play in the holding midfield role. Chisholm had assistant manager roles at Partick Thistle, Clydebank, Ross County, Airdrie, Falkirk and Dundee United, Chisholm was appointed as caretaker manager of Dundee United on 14 March 2005, following the sacking of Ian McCall. Chisholm suffered 3–2 defeats against both Celtic and Hibernian in his first two matches in charge, the following week, however, Chisholms team triumphed over Hibernian, Rangers and Hearts. United then went on to end a run of eight games over three years without a win against neighbours Dundee, with goals by Mark Wilson and Jim McIntyre sealing a 2–1 win. These results meant that Chisholm won the SPL manager of the award in his first full month in charge of the team. Chisholms team then retained SPL status in dramatic style with a late Barry Robson penalty at Inverness on the day of the season. Uniteds victory against Hibs meant that they reached the 2005 Scottish Cup Final, as Celtic had already qualified for the UEFA Champions League, however, United qualified for the UEFA Cup. Chisholm was given the position of manager on a permanent basis on 24 May 2005, despite spending considerable money on players such as Lee Miller, Dundee United were eliminated in the qualifying stage of the UEFA Cup by Finnish team MyPa. Chisholm again became Ian McCalls assistant, this time at Dumfries club Queen of the South, Chisholm then accepted the role as manager, appointing Kenny Brannigan as his assistant manager