The Aprilia RSV4 is a super bike manufactured by Aprilia. The RSV4 is Aprilia’s flagship model. Aprilia offers two models of the bike: the RSV4 Factory and RSV4 R. For 2016 it is offered in two models the RSV4 RR and the limited-edition RSV4 RF; the 2016 updated bike was made to take advantage of and comply with this year’s Superbike rules which state that fewer modifications are allowed for production bikes. It has more power, is lighter, has improved handling and electronics. Production of the motorcycle began in 2008; the motorcycle was unveiled on 22 February 2008, at the International Piaggio Group Convention in Milan, Italy. It is powered by a 65-degree 999.6 cc V-4 engine, the company's first production four-cylinder engine. Aprilia claims that the new engine was designed for superbike racing and that the engine will produce over 200 horsepower in race configuration. Aprilia launched the bike to race in the 2009 Superbike World Championship season; the RSV-4 has long been considered the "blendiest" of the 1000cc class of superbike.
In 2009, its first full season of World Superbike racing, Max Biaggi aboard the RSV4 reached the podium nine times, won one race at the Brno Circuit. Aprilia factory teammate Shinya Nakano ended the season in 14th place. Biaggi won the championship in 2010, was contracted to race the bike for another two seasons, citing his positive experience with the team and development of the bike into a successful racer and, despite his age, wanting to continue with the momentum they had built up. Max Biaggi ended his career winning the 2012 title with the RSV4; the Aprilia RSV4 is available as a customer-specified race bike from the factory as a Max Biaggi replica. Sylvain Guintoli won the 2014 Superbike World Championship season riding an RSV4 for the factory Aprilia racing team. Lorenzo Savadori won the 2015 FIM Superstock 1000 Cup season. A bike based on the RSV4 was used by Aspar Racing and Paul Bird Motorsports, coming 4th in both the 2012 and 2013 Grand Prix motorcycle racing seasons. Media related to Aprilia RSV4 at Wikimedia Commons RSV4 website Aprilia RSV at the Open Directory Project
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Jakub'Kuba' Smrž is a professional motorcycle road racer. He competes in the Superbike World Championship, aboard a Yamaha YZF-R1. For 2017 and 2018 he rode a BMW S1000RR in the British Superbike Championship, but in June 2018 he suffered a serious shoulder injury when guest-riding for Czech BMW team Mercury Racing in the Oschersleben eight-hour event in Germany. Luke Hedger rode Smrž' machine in his absence. For 2015 Smrž was contracted to ride a Ducati Panigale in the British Superbike Championship for Moto Rapido Racing, but after a crash and injury in the fourth round at Snetterton, was replaced mid-season by John Hopkins. For the last three races of 2015, Smrž was drafted-in by Shaun Muir Racing to compete aboard a Yamaha YZF-R1, he first entered the 125cc World Championship in 2000. He was 17th overall in 2001 divided his time between 125cc and the 250cc championships in 2002, he remained in the 250cc World Championship until 2006, finishing 12th overall with a best of 7th that year. For 2007 he was the surprise choice to replace Roberto Rolfo at the race-winning SC Caracchi Ducati team in the Superbike World Championship.
On a customer Ducati 999 F05 he troubled the top sixteen in qualifying. He finished the season 14th with a best race result of 8th. For 2008 he rode a customer Ducati 1098 RS 08 for the Guandalini Racing by Grifo's team, he finished the 2008 season in 13th place in the championship. For 2009 Smrž continued with the Guandalini Racing Team, gaining his first podium finish in the fourth round of the season at Assen and first pole position in the eighth round at Misano Adriatico; this time he finished 10th overall. Smrž remained with the team in 2010, running under the B&G moniker after a partnership deal with the former Sterilgarda Ducati team. After a string of mechanical failures midseason, the team switched to an Aprilia bike, marking the first time Smrž had ridden anything other than a Ducati in the class, he was the fastest Aprilia in qualifying at Silverstone. Smrž lives in Zlín. fansofsmrz.cz Official website Profile on MotoGP.com Profile on WorldSBK.com
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The Ducati 1098 is a sport bike made by Ducati from 2007 to 2009, in three versions, the 1098, 1098S, 1098R. The 1098 was succeeded by the 1198 in 2009; the 1098 shares more design elements with the older 998 than with its predecessor the 999, such as horizontally placed headlights and a non-integrated exhaust system. Another carryover from its 916/998 heritage is the single-sided swingarm; this return to a more traditional Ducati design has been welcomed by many Ducati fans who criticized the design of the 999. The Ducati 1098/1098 S/1098 R were available in black, yellow and a special edition 1098s in the Italian national flag colours of red and green called Tricolore; the 1098 was designed by Giandrea Fabbro. The 1098/1098 S makes a manufacturer claimed 160 hp,138 hp rear wheel, 90.4 lb⋅ft torque, 77.9 lb⋅ft rear wheel, weighs 173 kg. The 0-60 mph time is less than 3.0 seconds and 1/4 mile at 10.015 seconds at 143.94 mph and top speed of 173.3 mph. The 1098 R, with its larger displacement 1198 cc engine, makes a manufacturer claimed 180 hp, 99.1 lb⋅ft torque.
At the time of its release, these figures gave the 1098 the highest torque-to-weight ratio of any production sport bike made. With the release of the 1098, Ducati created a stir not only with road riders, but in the racing world the Superbike World Championship. In an attempt to level the playing field, WSBK regulations provide for concessions to motorcycles depending on the number of cylinders in their engine design; the fewer the cylinders, the more concessions, with its two-cylinder V-twin design Ducati was able to capitalize on many of these concessions. Ducati argued that the current engine was at the end of its design life and that it would be too expensive to keep the 999 competitive; the 2007 WSBK rules limited V-twin engines to 1000 cc, so Ducati did not have a guarantee that the 1098 was eligible for entry in the premier class. Before releasing the 1098, Ducati lobbied the FIM to update the WSBK rules to accommodate its new bike, threatening to withdraw from WSBK competition if the rules weren't changed.
Other manufacturers were not happy about racing a bike with a larger engine when that bike belonged to Ducati, which has dominated WSBK competition, Suzuki threatened to withdraw if the rules were changed. Ducati prevailed when, in June 2007, the FIM announced that the engine capacity limit would increase to 1200 cc for 2008. However, this increase in displacement was not afforded without concessions on the part of Ducati. With the new 1200 cc maximum displacement for two-cylinders granted, the extra engine modifications allowed two-cylinder machines were surrendered. Engine modification rules for two-cylinder and four-cylinder machines are now parallel. Rules for three-cylinder machines remain as before. Ducati won the 2008 and 2011 Superbike World Championship with its 1098 R, along with the 2008 British Superbike Championship. Ducati have won 17 World Championships since the Superbike World Championship was established in 1988. Xavier Siméon won the 2009 FIM Superstock 1000 Cup season. Michael Rutter won the Macau Grand Prix in 2011.
For 2009, Ducati took the past success of the 1098 and modified it to honour a racing legend and to improve the performance of the Superbike. Key changes include an upgrade into a 180 hp 90° V-twin "Testastretta Evoluzione" engine, the inclusion of the Ducati Traction Control for better handling; the more common version of the bike is called "1098-09 R", which comes with the traditional Ducati red fairing, black chassis, white sub-frame. The wheel rims are gold colored; the main reason for Ducati to re-model this bike was to celebrate Troy Bayliss' victory in the 2008 Superbike World Championship season riding for Ducati, after which he retired. Ducati built the remodelled 1098 to salute the career of his three World Championships, it allowed for Ducati to sell a few models of the 1098 in a colour scheme similar to the one that Bayliss' bike used during his successful races in the 2008 Grand Prix, as well as his number "21" on the side. This model is suitably named "Ducati 1098 R Bayliss Limited Edition".
According to Ducati, only 500 units of this new bike were manufactured. Other additions to the 1098 R Bayliss LE include carbon fibre heat shield on the exhaust and 5-spoke wheels, it went on to win a second world title with Carlos Checa in 2011. The SWA awarded the 1098 the "Best Bike of the Year" award for 2008 "International Bike of the Year 2007 and 2008" by the choices of the world's moto-journal communities as well as journalists "Best of Show" reward in Italy and abroad "Best Design" and "Best Sportbike" awarded by the Motorcycle Design Association "Bike of the Year" 2007 award given by magazines Moto, Australian Motorcycle News and Motorrad "Sportbike of the Year" 2008, Cycle World All specifications are manufacturer claimed unless noted otherwise: The 1098 and 1098S were replaced in the Ducati lineup by the Ducati 1198 in 2009; the 1198 has more power and torque, redesigned wheels, speedometer, the addition of traction control and a few other minor changes. The 1098R no longer remains in production.
List of fastest production motorcycles by acceleration Ducati 1098 Official Ducati site Ducati Unveils Stunning 1098 Superbike article from Motorcycle Daily Ducati Releases 1098 article from Motorcycle USA 2008 Ducati 1098R Review 2008 Ducati 1098R Review from Motorcycle.com Ducati 1098 review
Michel Fabrizio is a professional motorcycle road racer. From 2006 to 2015, he raced in the Superbike World Championship, he competes in the CIV Supersport 600 Championship, aboard a MV Agusta F3 675. Born in Frascati, near Rome, Fabrizio first raced in Minimoto at the age of 6, winning several titles before reaching his teens, he won the Aprilia Challenge in 2001, raced in the 125 cc World Championship for Gilera in 2002, with little success. In 2004 he made his first appearance in MotoGP, with the WCM team, failing to complete the season and finishing the season 22nd cc-gp.htm. In 2005 he raced on a factory Honda, he was 5th overall, with 9 top 5 results in the 12 races. For 2006 Fabrizio was teamed with the veteran Pierfrancesco Chili on privateer Honda machinery, he started his career with eighth at Qatar. He stood in for Toni Elías on MotoGP Fortuna Honda at Donington Park, but crashed in practice and broke his collarbone, he replaced the injured Elías again for the same team in the 2007 German Grand Prix at Sachsenring on July 15, 2007.
At Brno in the 2006 Superbike World Championship, he started tenth, but chose hard-compound tyres, which remained on the pace as other riders faded. In the first race he passed a fading Andrew Pitt as well as Fonsi Nieto, Troy Corser and Noriyuki Haga in the closing laps to score his first Superbike World Championship podium finish. In race two he fared better - after passing James Toseland for fourth towards the end, he caught the battle for second between Haga and Corser; as Corser attempted a move, Fabrizio dived down the inside of both and nearly hitting Haga, before edging ahead of them both to the line improving on his career-best result with a second. His best results of 2007 were two third places, at Brno. In both seasons he was eleventh overall. In 2008 he raced alongside Troy Bayliss for Ducati Xerox Team on the new Ducati 1098, he came third in race one at Philip Island, despite a huge crash at the original start. At Miller Motorsports Park, he qualified on the front row and took a pair of third places, despite dropping to eleventh on lap one of the first race.
He had a double-DNF at Assen, shortly before an arm operation, finished a career-best 8th overall. For 2009, he stays on at Ducati Xerox, his first WSBK win came at Monza. Seven successive podiums followed, cementing his third place in the standings behind Spies; this run ended at Brno. He finished the season third overall. Fabrizio and Haga both continue with the team for 2010; the bike dominated pre-season testing at Phillip Island. After Ducati announced that they would be ending support for their World Superbike operations at the end of the 2010 season, Fabrizio agreed a contract with Team Suzuki Alstare to race in the 2011 Superbike World Championship season. In August 2009, after Casey Stoner announced his intention to withdraw from the next three Grand Prix, it was announced that his place in the Ducati Marlboro team would be taken by Mika Kallio whilst the Finn's place at Pramac Racing would be taken by Fabrizio, his race was marred by physical difficulties, which caused him to retire from the first race in Brno.
Fabrizio being unavailable for the next race in Indianapolis the ride was given to Aleix Espargaró for the remaining two races. Profile on motogp.com Profile on worldsbk.com
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti