Nicolas Vouilloz is a French former professional mountain biker and rally driver. He won the Downhill Mountain Bike World Championships ten times, starting as a junior in 1992 and finishing his career with his 10th victory in 2002, only placing lower in 2000 finishing 8th, he won sixteen World cup Downhill races. In 2000, Vouilloz started rallying in local and national rally series, he debuted in the World Rally Championship at the 2001 Monte Carlo Rally. His best result in the WRC is ninth place at the 2004 Wales Rally GB, driving a Peugeot 206 WRC for the Bozian Racing team. Being a Peugeot protégé and development driver, Peugeot Sport paired Vouilloz with experienced codriver Denis Giraudet. Following Peugeot's decision to pull out of the WRC, Vouilloz competed on a full-time basis in the Intercontinental Rally Challenge from 2007 to 2009, he was runner-up in 2007 with three wins. In 2008, he won the championship in a Peugeot 207 S2000, ahead of Belgian teammate Freddy Loix, with one win, six second-place finishes and top 5 finishes in each race.
In 2009 he finished fourth with the same car. After several years absence from the mountain biking scene, Vouilloz returned to race professionally in 2007 at the fourth round of the World Cup in Champery, Switzerland, he races for Lapierre Ultimate Cycles and is involved in the Enduro World Series. World Cup Downhill Champion: 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000 Downhill World Champion: 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002 Downhill Junior World Champion: 1992, 1993, 1994 Official site
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
The Rallye Açores, known as the Volta à Ilha de São Miguel is an international rally racing event based on the Portuguese island of São Miguel Island in the Azores. The event has been a long running round of the European Rally Championship and the Portuguese Rally Championship as well as spawning its own championship in the Azores, it has in the recent past been a round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge and the ERC derivative series, the European Rally Cup West. Unlike other international events held on Atlantic Ocean islands that it is paired with, the Rali Vinho da Madeira and the Rally Islas Canarias it is a gravel event; the rally was first run in 1965 as locals gathered for a race called Volta à Ilha de São Miguel, which translated means Round the Island of São Miguel. This was six years after the establishment of the Rali Vinho da Madeira on the Portuguese island of Madeira, much closer to Africa. Despite its isolated location, over 1500 kilometres from the coast of Portugal, it has since the early 1970s been a part of Portugal's national championship and has been an international event since 1992 when it was first included in the European Rally Championship.
The rally was demoted to the European Rally Cup West in 2004 and dropped in 2006. In 2008 the rally regained international standing with the European Rally Cup South series and the Intercontinental Rally Challenge the following year. After the death of the IRC in 2012 the European Championship returned in 2013. Portuguese drivers have dominated the event. A non-Portuguese driver did not win the event until the first international event in 1992 was won by Yves Loubert. Portuguese drivers though would continue to dominate though with Fernando Peres winning the rally seven times in the international era. Carlos Bica has won the event four times. Sourced in part from: Official website European Rally Championship
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Rally Japan is a rally competition held in Hokkaidō, Japan. The event was part of the FIA World Rally Championship since its introduction during the 2004 season. From 2004 to 2007, the event was held on the twisty and narrow gravel roads of the Tokachi region near Obihiro. For the 2008 season, the event was moved to the region close to Hokkaidō's main city. Rally Japan returned in 2010 for one year. Rally Hokkaido was first organised as part of the 2002 Asia-Pacific Rally Championship on the northern island of Hokkaidō. After two successful rallies the event was renamed Rally Japan and promoted to the 2004 World Rally Championship schedule; the rally was won by the 2003 world champion Petter Solberg of the Subaru World Rally Team. For 2005 the World and Asia-Pacific Rally events were split into two separate event with the APRC round returning to the Rally Hokkaido name; the 2005 Rally Japan was held on September 30 through October 2. Headquarters and the service park were located in and near Obihiro, Hokkaidō.
The rally was won by Marcus Grönholm in a Peugeot 307 WRC 1:22.1 ahead of Sébastien Loeb in a Citroën Xsara WRC. This was the last of the three world rally wins for the 307 WRC, the last win for the Peugeot factory team; the 2006 event was won by Loeb 5.6 seconds ahead of Grönholm. Rally Japan was the fourteenth rally on the World Rally Championship schedule for the 2007 season, it featured 27 special stages, was won by Mikko Hirvonen of BP Ford World Rally Team. This win was third in Hirvonen's career as a top level rally driver; the 2007 edition of the event was remarkable for the retirements of both 2007 title contenders on the same rally. Sébastien Loeb retired on the next leg of the rally after his co-driver Daniel Elena called out the wrong pace note instruction for the first time in ten years. In December 2007, Rally Japan organisers announced that for the 2008 WRC season the event will move from Obihiro to Sapporo, the biggest city in Hokkaidō; the 2008 Rally Japan featured 29 stages, including five super specials at the Sapporo Dome.
The event saw Hirvonen take his second win in Japan in a row, ahead of his teammate Jari-Matti Latvala and Citroën Total's Sébastien Loeb, who secured a record fifth title with his third-place finish. The rally featured a bad crash by François Duval, which injured his co-driver Patrick Pivato. Official site WRC.com – Official site of the World Rally Championship
Rally Príncipe de Asturias
The Rally Príncipe de Asturias is a rally motorsport competition held in September in Asturias, organized by the Automóvil Club Principado de Asturias. In the early years, the championship was called Rally de la Ciudad de Oviedo; the rally started in 1964. In its first year, the entree fee had a purse of 30000 pesetas; this competition is part of the Spanish Rally Championship, the Asturias Rally Championship and the European Rally Championship with a maximum coefficient. On July 19, 2007, it was included in the 2008 calendar of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge and was repeated for two additional seasons; the championship is split into the following segments: Tuesday and Wednesday: Registration and other administrative tasks Thursday: Shakedown, technical checks, official ceremony. Friday and Saturday: The race, split into three stages; the two first are on the last on Saturday morning. Although in April 2013 the Rally fell from the calendar due to a lack of institutional support and was announced to be canceled, the organization managed to get the support of the board of the Cangas del Narcea and was able to re-establish the competition for the year.
On June 29, 2013 the first "Rally Fórmula Príncipe de Asturias" was held with the intention to raise funds for the rally. The event was held in the "Toño Fernández" circuit in the town of Cibuyo, in Cangas del Narcea, on the 14th, 15th, 16 September 50th anniversary was celebrated; the winner of the race was Luis Monzón, followed by Óscar Palacio. Official site of the Rally Príncipe de Asturias Information page
The Safari Rally is a rally race held in East Africa. It was first held from 27 May to 1 June 1953 as the East African Coronation Safari in Kenya and Tanganyika, as a celebration of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. In 1960 it was renamed the East African Safari Rally and kept that name until 1974, when it became the Safari Rally, it was one of the most prestigious and celebrated rallies of its time, as well as one of the toughest. The Safari Rally was notorious for being by far the most difficult rally in the WRC championship to win- some had said that winning this particular rally was the equivalent of winning three other rallies; the arduous conditions such as the changing weather and the rough roads- rife with sharp rocks made life difficult for team personnel- repairs were having to be made to the cars and a lot of time would be lost- and all this work had to be done in sometimes intense heat and humidity. The event adopted the special stage format in 1996. From that edition until 2002, it featured over 1000 km of timed stages, with stages well over 60 km long, unlike most rallies which had under 500 km of total timed distance.
This meant that the winner's total time was above 12 hours in 1996 and decreased to two seconds shy of 8 hours in 2002. The event was part of the World Rally Championship calendar for many years until being excluded after 2002 due to the lack of finance and organisation in 2003; the Kenyan government is trying to get the rally's WRC status restored. Since 2003 the event has been part of the African Rally Championship organised by the FIA, it is known as the KCB Safari Rally after its sponsor, Kenya Commercial Bank. Local driver Shekhar Mehta is the most successful in the event with five outright victories. Notes: IMC = International Championship for Manufacturers, WRC = World Rally Championship, 2LWC = 2-Litre World Cup, ARC = African Rally Championship, IRC = Intercontinental Rally Challenge, KRC = Kenya National Rally Championship The East African Safari Rally is a Classic rally event first held in 2003 to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the first running of the event; the event has since been held biennially.
Safari Rally Safari 3000 KMSF official website African Rally Championship official website Race results since 1970 at Rallybase.nl website World Rally Archive – Safari Rally East African Safari Rally official website